The generation of surface plasmon resonances (SPR) in laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) allows their application in the field of optical sensing, such as the detection of refractive index variations in gases and liquids. We have fabricated gold-coated LIPSS nanostructures on stainless steel substrates by using femtosecond laser nano-ablation. This technique is a low-cost and high-throughput fabrication method applicable to fast and large-scale manufacturing. The depth profile of the fabricated LIPSS shows a central dip at the top of each ripple that split the geometry. The actual topography is modeled and included in a computational electromagnetism package to obtain the expected optical response under the experimental conditions. The measured and simulated spectral reflectances are compared, and the differences are explained by the departure of the fabricated LIPSS from the ideal topography. The experiments and simulations showed excellent agreement for the main spectral characteristics, like the Fano-like lineshapes of the spectral reflectance. This fitting provides the values used to determine the refractometric performance of the fabricated device, that shows a sensitivity of 518 nm/RIU and a figure of merit of 32 RIU⁻¹ for an aqueous analyte. Our experimental results show that the fabricated devices are competitive in terms of cost and simplicity when compared to existing devices with similar performance.
Purpose: Thermosensitive in situ gels have been around for decades but only a few have been translated into ophthalmic pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to combine the thermo-gelling polymer poloxamer 407 and mucoadhesive polymers chitosan (CS) and methyl cellulose (MC) for developing effective and long-acting ophthalmic delivery systems for L-carnosine (a natural dipeptide drug) for corneal wound healing. Methods: The effect of different polymer combinations on parameters like gelation time and temperature, rheological properties, texture, spreading coefficients, mucoadhesion, conjunctival irritation potential, in vitro release, and ex vivo permeation were studied. Healing of corneal epithelium ulcers was investigated in a rabbit’s eye model. Results: Both gelation time and temperature were significantly dependent on the concentrations of poloxamer 407 and additive polymers (chitosan and methyl cellulose), where it ranged from <10 s to several minutes. Mechanical properties investigated through texture analysis (hardness, adhesiveness, and cohesiveness) were dependent on composition. Promising spreading-ability, mucoadhesion, transcorneal permeation of L-carnosine, high ocular tolerability, and enhanced corneal epithelium wound healing were recorded for poloxamer 407/chitosan systems. Conclusion: In situ gelling systems comprising combinations of poloxamer-chitosan exhibited superior gelation time and temperature, mucoadhesion, and rheological characteristics suitable for effective long-acting drug delivery systems for corneal wounds. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background: Intracarpal injection of steroids has produced favorable effects in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS); however, it still carries some drawbacks. Perineural midazolam injection has some promising effects in chronic neuralgia. This study focused upon pain visual analog scale (VAS) improvement, and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire (BCTQ) improvements when comparing intracarpal injection of midazolam versus dexamethasone. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients with mild to moderate CTS were randomized (1:1 ratio) to receive intracarpal 3 ml bupivacaine 0.5% with either 8 mg dexamethasone in 2 ml saline (group DX) or 2 mg midazolam in 2 ml saline (group MZ). VAS and BCTQ were assessed preintervention and postintervention (1st week, 1st, 3rd, and 6th months) Results: The VAS showed a significantly lower value in MZ than the DX group with median value of 2 (maximum-minimum = 1–3) in MZ and 4 (2–5) in DX by the 6th month p = 0.049. Intragroup comparison of follow-up VAS to the baseline value showed significant decreases in the MZ group during the whole study period, whereas in DX the decrease was noticed by the 1st week and 1st month only. In postinterventional BCTQ, both symptom severity (SSS) and functional severity (FSS) scores were significantly lower in MZ rather than DX group after the 1st, 3rd, and 6thmonths where SSS (p = 0.029, 0.048, 0.04) and FSS (p = 0.04, 0.019, 0.003) in consequence. Conclusions: Intracarpal injection of midazolam offers a longer duration of pain relief and higher hand functional improvement scores in comparison to dexamethasone. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
A series of novel 1,2,3-triazole-linked ciprofloxacin-chalcones 4a-j were synthesised as potential anticancer agents. Hybrids 4a-j exhibited remarkable anti-proliferative activity against colon cancer cells. Compounds 4a-j displayed IC50s ranged from 2.53-8.67 µM, 8.67–62.47 µM, and 4.19–24.37 µM for HCT116, HT29, and Caco-2 cells; respectively, whereas the doxorubicin, showed IC50 values of 1.22, 0.88, and 4.15 µM. Compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, 4i, and 4j were the most potent against HCT116 with IC50 values of 3.57, 4.81, 4.32, 4.87, and 2.53 µM, respectively, compared to doxorubicin (IC50 = 1.22 µM). Also, hybrids 4a, 4b, 4e, 4i, and 4j exhibited remarkable inhibitory activities against topoisomerase I, II, and tubulin polymerisation. They increased the protein expression level of γH2AX, indicating DNA damage, and arrested HCT116 in G2/M phase, possibly through the ATR/CHK1/Cdc25C pathway. Thus, the novel ciprofloxacin hybrids could be exploited as potential leads for further investigation as novel anticancer medicines to fight colorectal carcinoma.
This research aims to beneficiate the clay deposits abundant in the Al Baha district to produce ceramic filters for “point-of-use” household water treatment technology to remove dissolved solids from water that is no longer valid for drinking purposes to meet the needs of the community through a safe household and industrial water supply after further treatment purposes. In addition, it helps to reduce the expenses of citizens earmarked to buy drinking water. A sample of laterite, clay, and kaolin from Al Baha district was thermally treated at 800 °C, acid treated with HCl, analyzed by XRD, FTIR, and SEM, and tested for treatment of household water. The temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and total dissolved solids (TDS) were measured. In the application step for point-of-use water treatment of household water, the treated materials were introduced in calcined kaolin filters and commercial polypropylene filters. Based on the results of household water treatment with raw and treated clay materials, the raw clay materials, has poor adsorption capacity. The thermal treatment of clay samples dehydrates the clay minerals into sintered aluminosilicates and enhances the conversion of poorly crystallized iron oxide to α-Fe2O3 without improving the adsorption capacity of clay materials. However, the acid treatment of the clay samples removes iron-bearing minerals leaving behind amorphous aluminosilicate matter characterized with improved adsorption capacity. It was concluded that the acid treatment of clay material by concentrated HCl acid completely leaches iron oxide phases and broke down and disintegrated the clay minerals into the amorphous matter with enhanced the adsorption capacity. The combination of selected acid-treated laterite, clay, and charcoal for the household water treatment filter at the point of use in the calcined kaolin filter and the polypropylene filter reduced the TDS content by 40–42%.
Certain anticancer agents selectively target the nucleus of cancer cells. One such drug is 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME), which is used for treating lung cancer. To improve the therapeutic effectiveness of these agents, many new methods have been devised. 2ME was entrapped into the core of hydrophobic invasomes (INVA) covered with Phospholipon 90G and apamin (APA). The Box–Behnken statistical design was implemented to enhance the composition. Using Design-Expert software (Stat-Ease Inc., Minneapolis, MN), the INVA component quantities were optimized to obtain spherical particles with the smallest size, that is, a diameter of 167.8 nm. 2ME-INVA-APA significantly inhibited A549 cells and exhibited IC50 of 1.15 ± 0.04 µg/mL, which is lower than raw 2ME (IC50 5.6 ± 0.2 µg/mL). Post 2ME-INVA-APA administration, a significant rise in cell death and necrosis was seen among the A549 cells compared to those treated with plain formula or 2ME alone. This effect was indicated by increased Bax expression and reduced Bcl-2 expression, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss. Moreover, the cell cycle analysis showed that 2ME-INVA-APA arrests the G2-M phase of the A549 cells. Additionally, it was observed that the micellar formulation of the drug increased the cell count in pre-G1, thereby exhibiting phenomenal apoptotic potential. Furthermore, it up-regulates caspase-9 and p53 and downregulates TNF-α and NF-κβ. Collectively, these findings showed that our optimized 2ME-INVA-APA could easily seep through the cell membrane and induce apoptosis in relatively low doses. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Salsola is an important genus in the plant kingdom with diverse traditional, industrial, and environmental applications. Salsola species are widely distributed in temperate regions and represent about 45% of desert plants. They are a rich source of diverse phytochemical classes, such as alkaloids, cardenolides, triterpenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, and phenolic acids. Salsola spp. were traditionally used as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulants. They attracted great interest from researchers as several pharmacological activities were reported, including analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, cytotoxic, hepatoprotective, contraceptive, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial activities. Genus Salsola is one of the most notorious plant genera from the taxonomical point of view. Our study represents a comprehensive review of the previous phytochemical and biological research on the old world Salsola secies. It is designed to be a guide for future research on different plant species that still belong to this genus or have been transferred to other genera. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Background and Aims Although progesterone role on TBI patients and its antitumor activity have been proved, its perioperative use in surgical brain tumors remains unclear. Primary outcome is to investigate any neuroprotective effects of perioperative intramuscular progesterone on the brain’s cellular inflammatory and neuro-excitotoxic response to tumor resection evidenced by neuronal cells immunohistochemistry and CT scanning. Secondary outcome is to explore the postoperative clinical course, any related complications, and post craniotomy short-term (3 months) outcome. Methods Two hundred fifty-two (252) adult patients, ASA class І-ІІ undergoing elective craniotomy were randomly allocated into two groups: progesterone (PR) and control (C) groups to receive either 1.0 mg/kg progesterone (diluted to a total volume of 2 ml) or 2 ml of isotonic saline daily intramuscular for five days before and after craniotomy. Results Histopathological biopsies revealed significant increase the expression of active nuclear PR receptors on oligodendrocytes and astrocytes (P-value = 0.0001), cytoplasmic and nuclear neuro-quiescence endorsed by keeping blood vessel integrity and preventing neutrophilic infiltration and cytoplasmic oedema (P-value = 0.005) in PR group. Follow up CT2 (on the morning of surgery) and CT3 (on the 3rd postoperative day) recorded a significant reduction of brain oedema (P = 0.0001&0.001). Also, significant earlier weaning with shorter ICU stay (P = 0.0001) and better postoperative 3 months outcome (P = 0.001) were demonstrated in progesterone group without any detectable complications. Conclusion Perioperative progesterone offered anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective effect and reduced cytoplasmic brain oedema evidenced by histopathological biopsies and CT scanning. Also, it improved postoperative course and 3 months neurological outcome in surgical brain tumors.
New series of thiazolyl-pyrazoline derivatives (7a–7d, 10a–10d and 13a–13f) have been synthesised and assessed for their potential EGFR and VEGFR-2 inhibitory activities. Compounds 10b and 10d exerted potent and selective inhibitory activity towards the two receptor tyrosine kinases; EGFR (IC50 = 40.7 ± 1.0 and 32.5 ± 2.2 nM, respectively) and VEGFR-2 (IC50 = 78.4 ± 1.5 and 43.0 ± 2.4 nM, respectively). The best anti-proliferative activity for the examined thiazolyl-pyrazolines was observed against the non-small lung cancer cells (NSCLC). Compounds 10b and 10d displayed pronounced efficacy against A549 (IC50 = 4.2 and 2.9 µM, respectively) and H441 cell lines (IC50 = 4.8 and 3.8 µM, respectively). Moreover, our results indicated that 10b and 10d were much more effective towards EGFR-mutated NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H1650 and NCI-H1975 cells) than gefitinib. Finally, compounds 10b and 10d induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and inhibit migration in A549 cancerous cells.
Accurate and fast recognition of power quality disturbances (PQDs) is very significant for power pollution control. A novel method based on visualization trajectory circle (TC) and machine vision is proposed to ameliorate the recognition accuracy of complex PQDs. To obtain the anti-interference stationary analytic signal sequence, an improved Hilbert transform (IHT) is performed on single and complex power quality disturbance (PQD) signals. The instantaneous amplitude and phase are taken as polar radius and angle to obtain the TC image in polar coordinates. The images are input in ResNet50 for training to achieve the optimal network model, to realize the type recognition. Finally, the proposed method is tested by the synthetic database, which is built from mathematical models and compared with other advanced methods. In addition, time interval detection can be realized by the Hilbert spectrum based on IHT. Simulation results demonstrate that the method has strong robustness and high accuracy. Furthermore, a 13-node microgrid test system with distributed generations is built on the RT-Lab platform, to generate PQDs for further validating the method. The single or complex PQDs caused by test events are successfully recognized.
Background Conventional imaging techniques have a low sensitivity for detection of cortical and deep grey matter lesions in MS which hinder accurate assessment of the total lesion burden. Aim of this work was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of double inversion recovery (DIR) sequence in the detection of cortical grey matter lesions in MS patients. Results Forty MS patients were prospectively included in this study. Imaging was performed using Philips Ingenia 1.5 T device. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of DIR sequence in detection of cortical grey matter lesions were 60%, 100%, 100%, 55.6% and 73.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values as well as accuracy of Flair sequence were 50%, 100%, 100%, 50% and 66.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values as well as accuracy of T2 sequence in the detection of cortical grey matter lesions were 22.5%, 100%, 100%, 39.2% and 48.3%, respectively. Conclusions Detection rate of cortical gray matter lesions was significantly higher on DIR sequence than on T2 and Flair sequences.
Highlights • Postmenopausal state (PMS) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are independent factors of high hepcidin. • Estrogen and progesterone are correlated with hepcidin but not explain its higher level in PMS. • Ferritin, insulin resistance, and MetS are main contributors of high hepcidin in PMS. • High hepcidin in luteal phase is attributed to ferritin and abdominal subcutaneous fat • Hepcidin levels linearly increase with number of Mets feature and it had high sensitivity for diagnosis of MetS
Background Forensic entomology (FE) is widely considered as an important field of forensic science, particularly in the field of estimating postmortem intervals, which has advanced considerably across the world. Main body Researchers used necrophagous insects in twelve Egyptian governorates to look into the variables that impact insect succession and the growth of juvenile stages from infesting animal models and humans, draw toxicological conclusions, and identify insect species using morphological and molecular-based approaches. The study includes analyses of insect abundance and dispersion, along with biochemical and electrophysiological experiments. Comparable data from other Egyptian governorates, on the other side, is currently unavailable. Aspects of FE are also missing, which might be addressed in a future research project. Conclusion This review aims to provide an outline of FE in Egypt, other than to assist existing researchers in identifying research needs and recruiting new researchers into the field by highlighting significant forensic insects that might be employed in criminal prosecutions.
Introduction Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is microangiopathy causing ischemia leading to proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) reverses the ischemia leading to regression of neovessels. Most previous studies showed the large vessel effects of PRP, while optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) allowed noninvasive quantification of microvascular retinal changes. Aim To study the effect of PRP on microvascular retinal vessels in a detailed manner at different retinal and choroidal levels using OCTA. Patients and methods This study was a prospective interventional study. 30 eyes of 18 diabetic patients with PDR were included. All patients were evaluated clinically and with OCTA (Avanti RTVue-XR system, Optovue) to evaluate superficial and deep vessels density (VDs), choroidal flow, and FAZ area before PRP (base line) and 1 month and 6 months after PRP. Results PRP improved vessels density at superficial (SCP), deep (DCP), and choriocapillaris levels. Foveal vessel density at SCP and DCP were statistically significantly increased. SCP was 28.76 ± 2.56 at base line and was increased to 29.84 ± 2.47 and 30.89 ± 2.20 after 1 month and after 6 months, respectively. DCP was 34.08 ± 5.59 at base line and was increased to 34.93 ± 5.66 and 36.09 ± 5.62 after 1 month and after 6 months, respectively. Foveal choriocapillaris was statistically significantly increased from 63.04 ± 2.66 at base line to 63.48 ± 2.65 and 63.98 ± 2.78 after 1 month and 6 months, respectively. Choroidal flow was increased from 1.74 ± 0.07 at base line to 1.75 ± 0.09 at 1 month which was nonsignificant (P = 0.72), but it was significantly increased to 1.87 ± 0.27 6 months after PRP (P = 0.009). FAZ area was significantly improved after PRP. FAZ area was decreased from 0.56 ± 0.27 at base line to 0.50 ± 0.21 after 1 month and to 0.46 ± 0.21 after 6 months. Conclusion OCTA parameters were significantly improved by PRP in PDR patients, possibly due to redistribution of blood in occluded capillary plexuses. Trials registry : NCT04976361.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative autoimmune disease attacks the myelin sheath of the central nervous system (CNS) neurons causing different disabilities. According to recent evidence, the main bioactive component in Enicostema axillare , the Swrtiamarin (SM) has been found to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities against several diseases. However, SM activities in treatment of autoimmune diseases remain to be explored. Herein, we used a murine model of MS, to show that SM treatment ameliorates the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This occurs through reducing the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of CD4+CD45+ cells into CNS. That was associated with a reduction in the expression of STAT3 and NFkB in CD4+ T cells under Th17 and LPS-stimulated macrophages. Furthermore, in silico studies revealed that SM interacts with NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and therefore, suppressed oxidative stress by inducing formation NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) complex. We found that SM is an agonist of NRF2 complex regulating the total CD4 population and antioxidant markers in EAE mice. Molecular docking analysis showed a stable and higher binding affinity between SM and NRF2. Results revealed that SM treatment increased the complex formation between ARE and NRF2 where immunoprecipitation methods showed a higher binding affinity of ARE to NRF2 in SM treated animals. Complex formation triggered ARE cascade of antioxidant gene clusters and reduces the MS pathological alterations in EAE mice model. Current data proposed SM as an effective biomolecule in treatment of MS and controlling neuronal damage through inhibiting oxidative stress markers and targeting NRF2.
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