Middlesex University, UK
  • London, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Grounded on the resource-based view, this study aims to examine the mediating role of product launch quality as a deployment mechanism in the association between market orientation and new product performance. Conducting an on-site survey of Iranian manufacturing industries, this study applies covariance-based structural equation modeling to test research hypotheses and verify the proposed theoretical model. The empirical findings indicate market orientation is a critical knowledge-based resource enhancing firms’ product launch quality, and right decisions concerning the product launch elevate new product performance. The results also reveal while market orientation significantly impacts new product performance, product launch quality is a crucial deployment mechanism for leveraging market orientation as it fully mediates impacts of market orientation on new product performance. The current static characterization of the resource-based view signifies strategic resources have potential value, but unleashing this potential requires incorporation of deployment mechanisms in the resource-performance link. Besides, considering this insufficient view, prior studies have revealed mixed and inconsistent results. Accordingly, through examining product launch quality as a deployment mechanism for leveraging market orientation on new product performance, not only does this study address inconsistent findings, but it noticeably contributes to the resource-based view by casting light on the mechanism through which market orientation as a strategic knowledge-based resource leads to superior new product performance.
Multinational mobile network operators (MNOs) rapidly emerged in the early 1990s and for a decade and a half were the dominant actors in their industry. We analyze the development and competitiveness of a typical MNO, Telenor. With the introduction of 4G in 2010, we show that Telenor, like other MNOs largely failed to respond to the opportunity that connectivity provided to develop digital services. Instead, these were developed by technology platform companies such as Amazon, Google and Microsoft. Telenor became a marginalized supplier of standardized internet connectivity. We argue that the ‘decade of lost opportunity’ (2010–2020) for Telenor was a product of a lack of ‘recombinant firm-specific advantages’ (FSARs). With the launch of 5G, an emerging global digital infrastructure, this sidelining is set to intensify unless Telenor responds to this new opportunity by developing B2B digital services. We analyze the FSARs that are necessary for a successful transition of capturing the value that 5G provides and the degree to which they are present, or potentially present, in Telenor.
Background Regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) is recommended for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, filter life varies and premature filter clotting can occur. The aims of this explorative prospective study were to investigate the effects of RCA on thrombin generation, fibrinolysis and platelet function in critically ill patients receiving CRRT, to compare clotting parameters between systemic and intra-circuit blood samples, and to screen participants for coagulation disorders. We recruited critically ill adult patients admitted to a 30-bedded Intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital who required CRRT with RCA for acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with pre-existing thrombotic, bleeding tendencies or a CRRT duration less than 48 h were excluded. We measured coagulation and thrombophilia parameters at baseline. Thrombin generation, D-dimer and platelet function were measured pre-CRRT and at 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h after commencing CRRT using blood samples taken from the arterial line and the circuit. Results At baseline, all eleven patients (mean age 62.4 years, 82% male) had Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor concentrations above reference range and significantly increased peak thrombin generation. During CRRT, there were no significant changes in systemic maximum peak thrombin generation, time to peak thrombin generation, fibrinogen, D-dimer and platelet function analysis. We observed no significant difference between paired samples taken from the patient's arterial line and the circuit. Conclusions Critically ill patients with AKI requiring CRRT are hypercoagulable. Citrate used for anticoagulation during CRRT does not affect thrombin generation, D-dimer or platelet function. Systemic clotting parameters reflect intra-circuit results. Trial registration : ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02486614. Registered 01 July 2015—Registered after recruitment of first patient. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02486614
Negative online reviews can drastically influence consumer behavior and business strategies. Recent attention on the subject demonstrates its importance in the consumer and marketing literature. Even so, no study quantitatively investigates the corpus of the literature. This study quantitatively and systematically investigates the foundational research streams of negative online reviews to identify influential sources and main areas of knowledge in the domain. The study employs an integration of text mining and co-citation analysis, recognizing that firms’ responses to negative online reviews cannot be analyzed without understanding the role of customers. Accordingly, this study generates insight into customers and firms in each negative online review stage, furnishing a conceptual framework that synthesizes the previous literature and highlights the most important research gaps requiring attention. Ultimately, the conceptual framework can guide future researchers in unfolding new and novel directions to expand the boundaries of the negative online review literature.
We report on an ongoing collaboration between epidemiological modellers and visualization researchers by documenting and reflecting upon knowledge constructs—a series of ideas, approaches and methods taken from existing visualization research and practice—deployed and developed to support modelling of the COVID-19 pandemic. Structured independent commentary on these efforts is synthesized through iterative reflection to develop: evidence of the effectiveness and value of visualization in this context; open problems upon which the research communities may focus; guidance for future activity of this type and recommendations to safeguard the achievements and promote, advance, secure and prepare for future collaborations of this kind. In describing and comparing a series of related projects that were undertaken in unprecedented conditions, our hope is that this unique report, and its rich interactive supplementary materials, will guide the scientific community in embracing visualization in its observation, analysis and modelling of data as well as in disseminating findings. Equally we hope to encourage the visualization community to engage with impactful science in addressing its emerging data challenges. If we are successful, this showcase of activity may stimulate mutually beneficial engagement between communities with complementary expertise to address problems of significance in epidemiology and beyond. See https://ramp-vis.github.io/RAMPVIS-PhilTransA-Supplement/ . This article is part of the theme issue ‘Technical challenges of modelling real-life epidemics and examples of overcoming these’.
Because e-WOM is one of the useful digital marketing elements for any organization, a better understanding of its process will help individuals take more advantage of this concept. e-WOM enables individuals to form relationships with firms, brands, and other customers, which leads to benefits for both consumers and companies. It plays a significant role in a firm’s performance. The present study implements a different approach to reviewing by combining two bibliometric methods, multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), via Bibexcel software to have a deeper investigation of the process. Considering the 468 journal papers on e-WOM allowed us to study the intellectual streams and significant perceptions underpinning e-WOM. By dividing the study timeframe into three periods, we realized that there have always been three main concepts in this field: consumer behavior, sales, and the tourism and hotel industry. Further, by proposing a framework, we have expanded these concepts accompanied by the role of artificial intelligence and robots in the process of e-WOM. Consequently, new concepts “r-WOM”, “automated user engagement”, and “smart selling” are introduced and demonstrated as a consequence of using technology-based tools in the process of e-WOM. Finally, the future scope of this field has been designed. We contribute to the literature by offering theoretical and managerial implications.
Background Many patients with asthma use their inhalers incorrectly, which can lead to sub-optimal asthma control and an increased risk of exacerbations. The Accuhaler/Diskus and Turbuhaler are arguably two of the most commonly used dry powder inhalers worldwide. Methods A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to assess the impact of inhalation errors with these dry powder inhalers on clinical outcomes in asthma. Database searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and proceedings from scientific conferences. Observational studies in adults and adolescents with asthma, reporting data for Accuhaler/Diskus and Turbuhaler devices and at least one outcome of interest, were included. Dual-independent screening and validation of studies was performed. Results The search identified 35 studies. A range of inhaler errors was observed across studies and devices. In 8 out of the 9 studies that involved the two devices, the percentage of overall inhaler error rates was numerically (7 studies) or significantly (1 study) higher for Turbuhaler than Diskus, ranging from 3.7% to 71.9% for Diskus and 1.2%–83% for Turbuhaler. Critical errors, reported in three studies using similar definitions, ranged from 20% to 43% for Diskus and 32%–100% for Turbuhaler. Five studies reported a significant association between inhaler errors and worse asthma control, while one showed no difference. Conclusions This SLR identified a large range of inhaler errors with both devices. Across devices, a better inhalation technique was associated with better asthma outcomes. This systematic review confirms the importance of patients using their inhalers correctly as an integral part of achieving optimal asthma outcomes.
Objective Viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) are the leading cause for acute admission to the intensive care unit in infants and young children. Nebulized bronchodilators are often used when treating the most severe cases. Aim of this study was to investigate the bronchodilator effect on respiratory mechanics during intensive care with electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and to assess the feasibility of EIT in this context.ApproachWe continuously monitored the children with chest EIT for up to 72h in an observational study design. The treatment decisions were done by clinical assessment, as the clinicians were blinded to the EIT information during data collection. In a retrospective analysis, clinical parameters and regional expiratory time constants determined by EIT were used to assess the effects of bronchodilator administration, especially regarding airway resistance.Main resultsWe included six children from 11 to 27 months of age requiring intensive care due to viral LRTI and receiving bronchodilator agents. Altogether 131 bronchodilator administrations were identified during EIT monitoring. After validation of the exact timing of events and EIT data quality, 77 administrations were included in the final analysis. Fifty-five bronchodilator events occurred during invasive ventilation and 22 during high-flow nasal cannulae treatment. Only 17% of the bronchodilator administrations resulted in a relevant decrease in calculated expiratory time constants.SignificanceContinuous monitoring with EIT might help to optimize the treatment of LRTI in pediatric intensive care units. Especially EIT-based regional expiratory time constants would allow objective assessment of the effects of bronchodilators and other respiratory therapies.
Genomic data for wild species of the genus Bubalus (Asian buffaloes) are still lacking while several whole genomes are currently available for domestic water buffaloes. To address this, we sequenced the genome of a wild endangered dwarf buffalo, the lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), produced a draft genome assembly, and made comparison to published buffalo genomes. The lowland anoa genome assembly was 2.56 Gbp long and contained 103,135 contigs, the longest contig being 337.39 kbp long. N50 and L50 values were 38.73 kbp and 19.83 kbp, respectively, mean coverage was 44x and GC content was 41.74%. Two strategies were adopted to evaluate genome completeness: (i) determination of genomic features with de novo and homology-based predictions using annotations of chromosome-level genome assembly of the river buffalo, and (ii) employment of benchmarking against universal single-copy orthologs (BUSCO). Homology-based predictions identified 94.51% complete and 3.65% partial genomic features. De novo gene predictions identified 32,393 genes, representing 97.14% of the reference’s annotated genes, whilst BUSCO search against the mammalian orthologues database identified 71.1% complete, 11.7% fragmented and 17.2% missing orthologues, indicating a good level of completeness for downstream analyses. Repeat analyses indicated that the lowland anoa genome contains 42.12% of repetitive regions. The genome assembly of the lowland anoa is expected to contribute to comparative genome analyses among bovid species.
A key part of interpreting, visualizing, and monitoring the surface conditions of remote-sensing images is enhancing the quality of low-light images. It aims to produce higher contrast, noise-suppressed, and better quality images from the low-light version. Recently, Retinex theory-based enhancement methods have gained a lot of attention because of their robustness. In this study, Retinex-based low-light enhancement methods are compared to other state-of-the-art low-light enhancement methods to determine their generalization ability and computational costs. Different commonly used test datasets covering different content and lighting conditions are used to compare the robustness of Retinex-based methods and other low-light enhancement techniques. Different evaluation metrics are used to compare the results, and an average ranking system is suggested to rank the enhancement methods.
Uchiyama et al. rightly consider how cultural variation may influence estimates of heritability by contributing to environmental sources of variation. We disagree, however, with the idea that generalisable estimates of heritability are ever a plausible aim. Heritability estimates are always context-specific, and to suggest otherwise is to misunderstand what heritability can and cannot tell us.
The Ethics of Care (EoC) theory has been widely applied in the field of management, and there is a growing consensus that it is important to recognise the value and practice of care in the workplace. In this paper, we consider the implications of the EoC at work, and in particular the risks unboundaried care demands may pose to employees who encounter unmanageable ‘calls to care’. We present findings from interviews with 27 nurses in Malaysia, which suggest that the demand to care at work, in addition to demands made in the non-work sphere, may be unmanageable. We argue for a more boundaried approach to the EoC at work with a view to ensuring that in valuing care we do not over-burden the carer.
Greater income inequality is associated with lower average wellbeing. There are multiple possible explanations for this pattern. We use data from the European Quality of Life Survey 2012 (27,571 respondents from 28 countries) to evaluate the contributions of different causal pathways to associations between national income inequality and wellbeing. In unadjusted analyses, greater income inequality was associated with lower life satisfaction and poorer self-rated health. For life satisfaction, 43% of the association was attributable to individual income effects, and 41% to worse public services (especially access to healthcare). The association between income inequality and self-rated health was mainly (68%) due to individual income effects. For life satisfaction but not self-rated health, we found some evidence of costs of inequality that fall on those with high incomes. We conclude that the negative associations between income inequality and wellbeing across European countries are substantially, but not entirely, due to individual income effects.
Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) communication and non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) are two promising technologies for wireless 5G networks and beyond. The UAVs can be used as flying base stations to form line-of-sight communication links to the Internet of things devices (IDs) and to enhance the performance of usual terrestrial cellular networks. Moreover, the UAVs can also be deployed as flying relay nodes for forwarding data from a base station (BS) to the IDs. On the other hand, non-orthogonal resource sharing for many concurrent users is exploited in NOMA, thus improving spectrum efficiency (SE) and supporting massive connections. The NOMA combined with energy harvesting (EH) in an amplify-and-forward (AF) with cooperative UAV systems is researched. Specifically, the UAVs act as rotary-wing relays to forward data from the BSs to two IDs. This paper focuses on the analysis of outage probabilities (OPs), system throughput, and energy efficiency (EE) for two IDs. Besides, we also do the asymptotic analysis of OPs at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Furthermore, this paper also inspects the impacts of the UAV-based relaying on the OP, system throughput, and EE of the proposed NOMA scheme. The derived asymptotic expansions show that the suggested model can enhance user fairness and the analytical results match the simulation results.
The aim of this article is to reflect on how a specific approach to teaching and learning – role-play and in particular the ‘radio play’ format – can overcome some of the alienation and barriers to student engagement that the necessity for online teaching can engender. The example used is a post-registration module in perioperative nursing delivered in a London University. Authors reflect on experiences of developing and implementing an activity designed to increase student engagement in an online session focussing on Human Factors in the perioperative setting. The aim of the session was to highlight the factors that potentially lead to clinical error in a way that engaged students and enabled them to relate learning to their own experiences. The challenge was how best to do this in an online setting. This article describes the use of an approach devised by AdvanceHE. Two student participants contribute their reflections to this article and focus on the extent to which the session facilitated a new understanding of the impact of human factors in a perioperative setting. These reflections suggest that the approach to the teaching employed was useful to participants and that it has promise as an online approach. The authors recommend evaluation of this approach.
This chapter proposes a model for a machine learning based computer aided learning system for spirituality in the urban context. It examines the nature of the city and some of the challenges experienced by religious believers as they seek the common good of the city and understand the need to live in community with those of all faiths and none. It reviews the nature of spirituality, particularly in the urban content, before examining relevant implementations of machine learning. Following this, the chapter lays out how the imagined computer augmented spirituality system for urban living might work, noting that the user can set various parameters, including the choice of normative faith tradition and other religious resources. Finally, the proposed operation of the system is described with regard to integration of spiritual resources relevant to a concept or single search term as well as the facility to produce theological reflections based on news reports of existing situations in the user’s environment.KeywordsConvivialitySpiritualityMachine learningUrbanismInterfaithComputer aided learning
Mixing studies have long been in the clinical laboratory armamentarium for investigating unexpected, prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or prothrombin time (PT). The purpose of the mixing study is to identify whether the aPTT/PT prolongation is secondary to a factor deficiency versus an inhibitor, which would present as a “corrected” and “noncorrected” mixing study, respectively. The differentiation between a factor deficiency and inhibitor may likely further direct clinical decisions, including additional diagnostic testing or factor replacement therapy. While aPTT/PT mixing studies are simple tests to perform, there is a lack of standardization for both the testing protocol and the interpretation of what is considered to be a corrected or noncorrected mixing study result. This review will describe the common indications for the mixing test, preanalytic variables that may affect mixing study performance, and describe several methods for interpreting the results of aPTT and PT mixing tests.
Climate emergency is fast becoming the overriding problem of our times and rapid reductions in carbon emissions a primary policy focus that is liable to affect all aspects of society and economy. A key component in climate science is the “climate sensitivity” measure and there has been a recent attempt using Bayesian updating to narrow this measure in the interests of “firming up the science”. We explore a two stage argument in this regard. First, despite good intentions, use of Bayes sits awkwardly with uncertainty in the form of known unknowns and surprise. Second, narrowing the range may have counterproductive consequences, since the problem is anthropogenic climate change, and there are asymmetric effects from under-response in the face of irreversible and ampliative effects. As such, narrowing the range using Bayes may inadvertently violate the precautionary principle. We take from this that there is a case to be made for scenario focused decision frameworks.
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Ramona Trestian
  • Department of Design Engineering and Mathematics
Irena Papadopoulos
  • Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education Dpt Mental Health and Social Work
Vânia Almeida
  • Department of Natural Sciences
Sheila Cunningham
  • Faculty of Health Social Care & Education
Patrick Tobi
  • Faculty of Science and Technology
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