Michigan State University
  • East Lansing, MI, United States
Recent publications
Ferromagnetic Josephson junctions exhibit fascinating physics and the potential for applications in superconducting logic and memory. The junctions in a demonstrated superconducting memory prototype contain a magnetic spin-valve structure with Ni as the fixed layer and NiFe (Permalloy) as the free layer. However, NiFe exhibits poor supercurrent transmission, which limits the efficiency of the Josephson junction. We have previously shown that the supercurrent transmission through a Cu/NiFe/Cu trilayer can be improved by adding thin layers of Ni between the Cu and NiFe – possibly due to the advantageous spin-dependent transport properties of the Cu/Ni interfaces. In this work we explore this idea further by replacing the Cu/NiFe interfaces with Pd/NiFe, which also have more desirable transport properties. Compared to the reference junctions containing Cu/NiFe interfaces, the new junctions exhibit an increase in the $\pi$ -state supercurrent by a factor of 2 along with a change in the position of the first $0-\pi$ transition.
The integration of intramuscular fat-or marbling-into cultured meat will be critical for meat texture, mouthfeel, flavor, and thus consumer appeal. However, culturing muscle tissue with marbling is challenging since myocytes and adipocytes have different media and scaffold requirements for optimal growth and differentiation. Here, we present an approach to engineer multicomponent tissue using myogenic and adipogenic microtissues. The key innovation in our approach is the engineering of myogenic and adipogenic microtissues using scaffolds with customized physical properties; we use these microtissues as building blocks that spontaneously adhere to produce multicomponent tissue, or marbled cultured meat. Myocytes are grown and differentiated on gelatin nanofiber scaffolds with aligned topology that mimic the aligned structure of skeletal muscle and promotes the formation of myotubes in both primary rabbit skeletal muscle and murine C2C12 cells. Pre-adipocytes are cultured and differentiated on edible gelatin microbead scaffolds, which are customized to have a physiologically-relevant stiffness, and promote lipid accumulation in both primary rabbit and murine 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. After harvesting and stacking the individual myogenic and adipogenic microtissues, we find that the resultant multicomponent tissues adhere into intact structures within 6-12 h in culture. The resultant multicomponent 3D tissue constructs show behavior of a solid material with a Young's modulus of ~ 2 ± 0.4 kPa and an ultimate tensile strength of ~ 23 ± 7 kPa without the use of additional crosslinkers. Using this approach, we generate marbled cultured meat with ~ mm to ~ cm thickness, which has a protein content of ~ 4 ± 2 g/100 g that is comparable to a conventionally produced Wagyu steak with a protein content of ~ 9 ± 4 g/ 100 g. We show the translatability of this layer-by-layer assembly approach for microtissues across primary rabbit cells, murine cell lines, as well as for gelatin and plant-based scaffolds, which demonstrates a strategy to generate edible marbled meats derived from different species and scaffold materials.
In this case narrative, Bhaskar and Stefanie share a discussion among teachers during a school staff meeting. Mrs. Ali, Ms. Blue, and Mr. Vue each belong to underrepresented racial/ethnic groups. Teachers of marginalized communities often recognize the white-normed ways teaching, instructional coaching, and that these ways often also inform decisions in their schools. The teachers share some of the consequences the new state science standards may yield for students, and teachers, specifically concerning curriculum and assessment decisions. They share their concerns and the potential benefits of new state standards for students from immigrant families in learning content and the cultural relevancy of science in their communities.
This is a commentary to the case narrative, “When State Standards Change: Dilemmas of Teachers of Color” written by Bhaskar Upadhyay and Stefanie L. Marshall.
Forested landscapes containing eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) are under threat by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) in eastern North America. Although several studies have shown the negative effects of adelgid invasion in local bird communities, its regional impacts have not yet been quantified. Using broad-scale spatial (eastern US hemlock range) and temporal (> 40 years of bird data) databases, we built spatial auto-regressive generalized mixed linear models to estimate the effects of adelgid infestation on fourteen bird species’ demographic trends. We also evaluated how winter temperature mediates the relationship between infestation and bird trends. We selected the best models using WAIC and validated model performance and power using Monte Carlo simulation, permutation tests, and sensitivity analysis. The best model for all but one species included the effects of adelgid infestation on abundance trends. We observed a > 30% decline for two hemlock-associate species after infestation: the Blackburnian warbler, and the Hermit thrush. In contrast, no control species showed similar declines. When evaluated at a broad spatiotemporal scale, hemlock associates also decline in abundance following infestation. At the same time, declines are not as universal compared to local studies, suggesting that spatial heterogeneity might buffer them. Declines were greater in the warmest part of species ranges. Rising temperatures due to climate change will likely affect bird persistence even further by lowering adelgid overwinter mortality. Despite the difficulties of understanding and connecting landscape-scale processes with those at finer scales, it is critical to evaluate biodiversity distribution from a regional perspective.
Purpose Although there is growing interest in telehealth to deliver parent-mediated intervention for autistic children, empirical evaluations are limited, and little is known regarding the relative benefits of self-directed and therapist-assisted telehealth interventions. This study examined the effect of self-directed and therapist-assisted ImPACT Online on parent learning and well-being, moderators of treatment, and predictors of program engagement. Method Sixty-four young autistic children and their primary caregiver participated. Children were matched on age and developmental quotient and randomly assigned to a therapist-assisted, self-directed, or resource support control group. Participants were assessed at intake, after 6 months (post), and at a 3-month follow-up. Results There was a significant treatment effect for parent learning for the therapist-assisted but not self-directed program; when analysis was limited to parents who completed the program, treatment effects were observed for both groups. There were no treatment effects for parent self-efficacy or parenting stress; however, there was an effect on parents’ perception of their child’s positive impact. Parenting stress did not moderate the effect of group on parent outcomes. Parent age, program satisfaction, and therapist assistance were all significant predictors of parent program engagement. Conclusion This study supports the efficacy of therapist-assisted telehealth parent-mediated intervention for teaching parents intervention strategies to support their child’s social communication and improving their perceptions of their child’s positive impact, and suggests that self-directed programs may be beneficial for parents who fully engage with the program.
Background To evaluate the feasibility of creating flanges using an optic piercing technique with a 6 − 0 polypropylene monofilament for scleral fixation of dislocated one-piece diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Study Design Experimental study and case series. Subjects Optical bench test and eyes with IOL dislocation. Methods Two separate 6 − 0 polypropylenes were penetrated twice at the opposite peripheral optic of the TECNIS Synergy IOL (Johnson & Johnson Vision). The root mean square of the modulation transfer function (MTFRMS), at between + 1.00 and − 4.00 D of defocus, was measured in the TECNIS Synergy IOL both with and without optic piercing in the optical bench study. This case series included three eyes from two patients who underwent scleral-fixation of multifocal IOLs using the four-flanged polypropylene optic piercing technique. The postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) at 4 m, the uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) at 40 cm, and IOL centration were evaluated. Results The optical bench test showed no differences in MTFRMS values measured in the TECNIS Synergy IOL, either with or without optic piercing at all defocuses. In all three case series, the postoperative CDVA at 4 m was 20/20 and UNVA at 40 cm was J1. Postoperative anterior segment photographs showed good centration of IOLs in all cases. Conclusion The four-flanged polypropylene optic piercing technique for multifocal IOL scleral fixation can provide excellent clinical outcomes and IOL stability after surgery without diminishing the performance of the multifocal IOLs.
All biology happens in space, and spatial structuring plays an important role in mediating biological processes at all scales from cells to ecosystems. However, the metabolomic structuring of the coral holobiont has yet to be fully explored. Here, we present a method to detect high-quality metabolomic data from individual coral polyps and apply this method to study the patterning of biochemicals across multiple spatial (~1 mm - ~100 m) and organizational scales (polyp to population). The data show a strong signature for individual coral colonies, a weaker signature of branches within colonies, and variation at the polyp level related to the polyps’ location along a branch. Mapping metabolites to either the coral or algal components of the holobiont reveals that polyp-level variation along the length of a branch was largely driven by molecules associated with the cnidarian host as opposed to the algal symbiont, predominantly putative sulfur-containing metabolites. This work yields insights on the spatial structuring of biochemicals in the coral holobiont, which is critical for design, analysis, and interpretation of studies on coral reef biochemistry.
Granular temporal and spatial scale observations of conservation practices are essential for identifying changes in the production systems that improve soil health and water quality and inform long-term agricultural research and adaptive policy development. In this study, we demonstrate an innovative use of farmer practice survey data and what can be uniquely known from a detailed survey that targets specific farm groups with a regional focus over multiple consecutive years. Using three years of survey data ( n = 3914 respondents), we describe prevailing crop rotation, tillage, and cover crop practice use in four Midwestern US states. Like national metrics, the results confirm dominant practices across the landscape, including corn-soybean rotation, little use of continuous no-till, and the limited use of cover crops. Our detailed regional survey further reveals differences by state for no-till and cover crop adoption rates that were not captured in federal datasets. For example, 66% of sampled acreage in the Midwest has corn and soybean rotation, with Illinois having the highest rate (72%) and Michigan the lowest (41%). In 2018, 20% of the corn acreage and 38% of the soybean acreage were in no-till, and 13% of the corn acres and 9% of the soybean acres were planted with a cover crop. Cover crop adoption rates fluctuate from year to year. Results demonstrate the value of a farmer survey at state scales over multiple years in complementing federal statistics and monitoring state and yearly differences in practice adoption. Agricultural policies and industry heavily depend on accurate and timely information that reflects spatial and temporal dynamics. We recommend building an agricultural information exchange and workforce that integrates diverse data sources with complementary strengths to provide a greater understanding of agricultural management practices that provide baseline data for prevailing practices.
In this study we explore homicides and fatal violence against transgender individuals using the framework of the trifecta of violence—violent ideology, violent policies and laws, and violent actions. In recent years, researchers, activists, and the media, particularly the news media, have been warning that the increase in anti-LGBTQ+ rhetoric, especially but not exclusively online, coupled with a surge in anti-transgender legislation, has resulted in increased instances of violence against the LGBTQ+ community, especially transgender people. In this article we examine patterns of transphobic ideology and rhetoric, anti-trans legislation, and fatal violence against transgender people in the United States from 2015 to 2022. We find that increases in all three occurred over this time period, with all three aspects of the “trifecta” correlated.
Considering that limited research has been conducted to explore corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives in the local brand context, compared to the global brand context, this study is to bridge the gap by comparing CSR initiatives in local independent restaurants with those of international chain restaurants. Two studies were performed to examine the impact of CSR type and construal level in CSR messages using experimental designs. In addition, the mediating effects of perceived warmth and competence were examined as potential psychological mechanisms explaining consumers’ reactions. Findings show that consumers are more likely to donate to CSR initiatives of chain restaurants and revisit them when the initiatives lean toward local community CSR rather than global environmental CSR. Also, consumers prefer local community CSR initiatives that are presented in detail in local independent restaurants. This study also reveals different mediating effects of perceived warmth and competence in relation to CSR type, restaurant type, and consumer behaviors.
The observation of a weak proton-emission branch in the decay of the 3174-keV 53mCo isomeric state marked the discovery of proton radioactivity in atomic nuclei in 1970. Here we show, based on the partial half-lives and the decay energies of the possible proton-emission branches, that the exceptionally high angular momentum barriers, lp=9\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${{{{{{\mathcal{l}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{p}}}}}}}=9$$\end{document} and lp=7\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${{{{{{\mathcal{l}}}}}}}_{{{{{{\rm{p}}}}}}}=7$$\end{document}, play a key role in hindering the proton radioactivity from 53mCo, making them very challenging to observe and calculate. Indeed, experiments had to wait decades for significant advances in accelerator facilities and multi-faceted state-of-the-art decay stations to gain full access to all observables. Combining data taken with the TASISpec decay station at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and the ACTAR TPC device on LISE3 at GANIL, France, we measured their branching ratios as bp1 = 1.3(1)% and bp2 = 0.025(4)%. These results were compared to cutting-edge shell-model and barrier penetration calculations. This description reproduces the order of magnitude of the branching ratios and partial half-lives, despite their very small spectroscopic factors.
All eukaryotic cells require a minimal iron threshold to sustain anabolic metabolism. However, the mechanisms by which cells sense iron to regulate anabolic processes are unclear. Here we report a previously undescribed eukaryotic pathway for iron sensing in which molecular iron is required to sustain active histone demethylation and maintain the expression of critical components of the pro-anabolic mTORC1 pathway. Specifically, we identify the iron-binding histone-demethylase KDM3B as an intrinsic iron sensor that regulates mTORC1 activity by demethylating H3K9me² at enhancers of a high-affinity leucine transporter, LAT3, and RPTOR. By directly suppressing leucine availability and RAPTOR levels, iron deficiency supersedes other nutrient inputs into mTORC1. This process occurs in vivo and is not an indirect effect by canonical iron-utilizing pathways. Because ancestral eukaryotes share homologues of KDMs and mTORC1 core components, this pathway probably pre-dated the emergence of the other kingdom-specific nutrient sensors for mTORC1.
Accurately reflecting expected prices in stated preference designs can be challenging for foods like ribeye steak, which exhibit stark fluctuations in prices across time and space. To address this issue, we introduce a novel price vector design, the reference‐price‐informed (RP‐informed) design, which directly incorporates individual's reference prices into discrete choice experiments. By presenting consumers with posted prices that align with their expected prices, this design reflects real‐world food markets. We test this design in a discrete choice experiment evaluating consumer preferences for “low carbon” beef. Our results project a very small market share of low‐carbon ribeye (3%–5%) with conventional meat taking up most of the market. Our results also show that a reference‐price‐informed design reduces reference price uncertainty and leads to more conservative market share estimates than traditional designs, thus preventing the potential overestimation of product's market potential.
Background Our objectives were to determine whether there is an association between ischemic stroke patient insurance and likelihood of transfer overall and to a stroke center and whether hospital cluster modified the association between insurance and likelihood of stroke center transfer. Methods This retrospective network analysis of California data included every nonfederal hospital ischemic stroke admission from 2010 to 2017. Transfers from an emergency department to another hospital were categorized based on whether the patient was discharged from a stroke center (primary or comprehensive). We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between insurance (private, Medicare, Medicaid, uninsured) and odds of (1) any transfer among patients initially presenting to nonstroke center hospital emergency departments and (2) transfer to a stroke center among transferred patients. We used a network clustering method to identify clusters of hospitals closely connected through transfers. Within each cluster, we quantified the difference between insurance groups with the highest and lowest proportion of transfers discharged from a stroke center. Results Of 332 995 total ischemic stroke encounters, 51% were female, 70% were ≥65 years, and 3.5% were transferred from the initial emergency department. Of 52 316 presenting to a nonstroke center, 3466 (7.1%) were transferred. Relative to privately insured patients, there were lower odds of transfer and of transfer to a stroke center among all groups (Medicare odds ratio, 0.24 [95% CI, 0.22–0.26] and 0.59 [95% CI, 0.50–0.71], Medicaid odds ratio, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.23–0.29] and odds ratio, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.38–0.62], uninsured odds ratio, 0.75 [95% CI, 0.63–0.89], and 0.72 [95% CI, 0.6–0.8], respectively). Among the 14 identified hospital clusters, insurance-based disparities in transfer varied and the lowest performing cluster (also the largest; n=2364 transfers) fully explained the insurance-based disparity in odds of stroke center transfer. Conclusions Uninsured patients had less stroke center access through transfer than patients with insurance. This difference was largely explained by patterns in 1 particular hospital cluster.
Management agencies are tasked with difficult decisions for conservation and management of natural resources. These decisions are difficult because of ecological and social uncertainties, the potential for multiple decision makers from multiple jurisdictions, and the need to account for the diverse values of stakeholders. Decision analysis provides a framework for accounting for these difficulties when making conservation and management decisions. We discuss the benefits of the application of decision analysis for these types of issues and provide insights from three case studies from the Laurentian Great Lakes. These case studies describe applications of decision analysis for decisions within an agency (management of double-crested cormorant), among agencies (response to invasive grass carp), and among agencies and stakeholders (sustainable fisheries harvest management). These case studies provide insight into the ways that decision analysis can be useful for conservation and management of natural resources, but we also highlight future needs for decision making for these resources. In particular, applications of decision analysis for conservation and management would benefit from enhanced integration of both ecological and social science, inclusion of a broader base of stakeholders and rightsholders, and better educational opportunities surrounding decision analysis for undergraduates and graduate students of natural resources management programs. Specific lessons from our experiences include the importance of establishing trust and transparency early through the formation of a working group, collaboratively defining objectives and evaluating uncertainties, risks, and tradeoffs, and implementing participatory modeling processes with an independent facilitator with appropriate quantitative skills. History: This paper has been accepted for the Decision Analysis Special Issue on Further Environmental Sustainability. Funding: This study was supported by Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding provided to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources [Grant F16AP01094] from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and sub-awarded to Michigan State University.
This study examined distinct conceptualizations of space during a cohort of world languages preservice teachers' (PSTs) clinical experience online. The aim of this study was to shed light on the affordances and limitations of the online space as PSTs reworked the meaning of pedagogical spaces during the onset of the COVID‐19 pandemic. Preservice teachers' autoethnographic writings, journals, and teaching videos were analyzed to better understand the emotional, pedagogical, and conceptual meaning‐making processes that language teaching in and through the online space entailed. Through a phenomenographic analysis of the data, this study probed into the distinct perceptions of pedagogical space that emerged from the participants' online teaching experience. Findings suggest that while PSTs felt distant from their students, emotionally exhausted, and limited in what they could do instructionally, they also developed pedagogical problem‐solving and decision‐making skills that showcased the agency of the online space shaping novice teacher's beliefs and practices. Implications for world language teacher education curriculum are discussed, including the potential effects of cocurricular online teaching experiences facilitating PST's attunement to the agency of space both online and in physical classrooms.
Youth have an important role in current and future Great Lakes stewardship. Educating youth and empowering them to be Great Lakes stewards requires educators to be knowledgeable and confident, and therefore more likely to engage in teaching Great Lakes literacy activities in their classroom, thus contributing to a Great Lakes‐literate public. The Shipboard Science Workshop (SSW) for educators is a vessel‐based professional learning opportunity aboard the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's research vessel (R/V) Lake Guardian . During the week‐long SSW, educators learn from professional scientists, Sea Grant staff, and each other about Great Lakes research through the lenses of place‐based education (PBE) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). The goals of the SSW are to (1) enhance understanding of scientific concepts, processes, or techniques; (2) influence changes in teaching practices, curriculum, or personal behaviors; (3) influence communication and promotion of pro‐environmental behaviors with others; and (4) establish communities of practice, including educators, scientists, and SSW coordinators. Herein, we present the findings of a 10‐month follow‐up survey to evaluate the SSW efficacy from 2016‐2019. Overall, the SSW appears to have achieved its goals. We discuss the implications of these results within the PBE framework for shifting educators’ classroom approaches and empowering youth inquiry and leadership on complex Great Lakes issues.
Problem definition: Revenue management in railways distinguishes itself from that in traditional sectors, such as airline, hotel, and fashion retail, in several important ways. (i) Capacity is substantially more flexible in the sense that changes to the capacity of a train can often be made throughout the sales horizon. Consequently, the joint optimization of prices and capacity assumes genuine importance. (ii) Capacity can only be added in discrete “chunks” (i.e., coaches). (iii) Passengers with unreserved tickets can travel in any of the multiple trains available during the day. Further, passengers in unreserved coaches are allowed to travel by standing, thus giving rise to the need to manage congestion. Motivated by our work with a major railway company in Japan, we analyze the problem of jointly optimizing pricing and capacity; this problem is more-general version of the canonical multiproduct dynamic-pricing problem. Methodology/results: Our analysis yields four asymptotically optimal policies. From the viewpoint of the pricing decisions, our policies can be classified into two types—static and dynamic. With respect to the timing of the capacity decisions, our policies are again of two types—fixed capacity and flexible capacity. We establish the convergence rates of these policies; when demand and supply are scaled by a factor [Formula: see text], the optimality gaps of the static policies scale proportional to [Formula: see text], and those of the dynamic policies scale proportional to [Formula: see text]. We illustrate the attractive performance of our policies on a test suite of instances based on real-world operations of the high-speed “Shinkansen” trains in Japan and develop associated insights. Managerial implications: Our work provides railway administrators with simple and effective policies for pricing, capacity, and congestion management. Our policies cater to different contingencies that decision makers may face in practice: the need for static or dynamic prices and for fixed or flexible capacity. Supplemental Material: The online appendix is available at https://doi.org/10.1287/msom.2022.0246 .
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17,293 members
Ewen Cameron David Todd
  • Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences
Stephanie Watts
  • Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Charles Ofria
  • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Wajid Waheed Bhat
  • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
48824, East Lansing, MI, United States
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