Miami University
  • Oxford, Ohio, United States
Recent publications
Authentication plays a critical role in the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols. We propose using Polynomial Hash and its variants for authentication of variable length messages in QKD protocols. Since universal hashing is used not only for authentication in QKD but also in other steps in QKD like error correction and privacy amplification, and also in several other areas of quantum cryptography, Polynomial Hash and its variants as the most efficient universal hash function families can be used in these important steps and areas, as well. We introduce and analyze several efficient variants of Polynomial Hash and, using deep results from number theory, prove that each variant gives an ε-almost-Δ-universal family of hash functions. We also give a general method for transforming any such family to an ε-almost-strongly universal family of hash functions. The latter families can then, among other applications, be used in the Wegman–Carter MAC construction which has been shown to provide a universally composable authentication method in QKD protocols. As Polynomial Hash has found many applications, our constructions and results are potentially of interest in various areas.
Abstract Background Polyphenolic compounds like tannins can increase nitrogen (N) excreted in feces when consumed by ruminants but less often noted is increased N in fecal acid detergent fiber (ADF-N). Some simple phenolics are thought to facilitate binding interactions between nitrogenous compounds and soil. We hypothesized that contact with common phenolic acids, such as found in crops, could increase ADF-N, in excreted manure. Methods We performed two separate experiments to test our hypothesis. In the first experiment, we applied three solutions (i.e., 0.001, 0.01, 0.1 M) of sodium benzoate (B0), sodium 4-hydroxybenzoate (B1), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (B2), gallic acid (B3), ammonium benzoate (AB), and ammonium chloride (AC) to dried pulverized manure and measured ADF-N. In the second experiment we modified the methodology, by applying more compounds at a single concentration (0.001 M) and including an added nitrogen (NH4Cl) treatment. Results We found a statistically significant interaction between treatment and concentration in the first experiment (P
This study highlighted how particular intersections of personal characteristics were related to Motivation to Learn (MtL) among adults. MtL is a prerequisite for adult education and training participation. However, little is known about MtL across subpopulations due to several methodological limitations. This study developed a national profile of MtL by key subpopulations that are defined by combinations of age, gender, education level, and literacy proficiency in the United States. Data were obtained from 2012/2014/2017 Program for International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) restricted use file ( N = 8400). The alignment optimization (AO) method was employed to estimate subpopulation means of a PIAAC-based latent MtL construct. Subpopulations with younger age, greater educational attainment, and higher literacy proficiency showed significantly greater MtL.
Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth ages 10–19 in the USA. While suicide has long been recognized as a multifactorial issue, there is limited understanding regarding the complexities linking adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to suicide ideation, attempt, and fatality among youth. In this paper, we develop a map of these complex linkages to provide a decision support tool regarding key issues in policymaking and intervention design, such as identifying multiple feedback loops (e.g., involving intergenerational effects) or comprehensively examining the rippling effects of an intervention. We use the methodology of systems mapping to structure the complex interrelationships of suicide and ACEs based on the perceptions of fifteen subject matter experts. Specifically, systems mapping allows us to gain insight into the feedback loops and potential emergent properties of ACEs and youth suicide. We describe our methodology and the results of fifteen one-on-one interviews, which are transformed into individual maps that are then aggregated and simplified to produce our final causal map. Our map is the largest to date on ACEs and suicide among youth, totaling 361 concepts and 946 interrelationships. Using a previously developed open-source software to navigate the map, we are able to explore how trauma may be perpetuated through familial, social, and historical concepts. In particular, we identify connections and pathways between ACEs and youth suicide that have not been identified in prior research, and which are of particular interest for youth suicide prevention efforts.
This meta-analysis synthesizes 30 years of empirical work examining the impact of product crises on consumer evaluations. Prior research suggests that a product crisis will negatively affect consumer responses to that product. Extending this stream of research, we show that the magnitude of negative information effects is dependent on characteristics of the crisis, the product, and target consumers. Specifically, the deleterious effects of product crises are more pronounced when threat severity is high, the product failure is performance-related, consumer health is at issue, the product is directly involved in the incident, and the crisis occurs in a high power distance or high uncertainty avoidance cultures. We discuss theoretical contributions and practical implications of these findings for both marketing scholars and brand managers.
A logo reflects a brand's face and is an indicator of the brand’s personality and identity. Therefore, its importance has been long established among marketers. This article develops marketers' understanding on how logo size preference can be affected by consumers' psychological power and self-construal. Through six studies, we show that larger brand logos are preferred by low-power (vs. high-power) consumers when an independent self-construal is salient because of a greater tendency to engage in self-deceptive enhancement—the tendency to see oneself in exaggerated and glorified terms. In contrast, a smaller brand logo is preferred by low-power (vs. high-power) consumers when an interdependent self-construal is salient because of a greater tendency to engage in impression management—the tendency to be modest and normatively appropriate. These findings provide meaningful insights for managers in terms of logo size decisions and marketing communications.
This article examines how qualitative approaches to human-centered inquiry benefit public diplomacy (PD) scholarship. It argues that rigorous qualitative methods improve the frameworks guiding PD research. Tendencies for miscommunication permeate the encoding and decoding communication processes in international/intercultural contexts, with PD often transcending cultural boundaries and national borders. This article cautions against assuming conceptual, measurement, and semiotic equivalence of constructs and variables, based on influences from culture and language. Furthermore, the article advocates mixed methods, explicating how rigorous qualitative methods can better contextualize the statistics of quantitative methods, leading to more comprehensive understandings of PD.
Keratins are a class of intermediate filament proteins that can be obtained from numerous sources including human hair. Materials fabricated from keratins offer desirable characteristics as scaffolds for tissue engineering, including intrinsic cell adhesion sequences and tunable degradation kinetics. The capacity to create 3D printed constructs from keratin-based bio-inks generates unique opportunities for spatial control of scaffold physicochemical properties to direct scaffold functions in ways not readily achieved through other means. The aim of this study was to leverage the controllable rheological properties of keratin hydrogels to create a strategy for extrusion 3D printing of keratin bio-inks without the use of exogenous rheological modifiers, crosslinking agents, or photocurable resins. The rheological properties of keratin hydrogels were tuned by varying two parameters: (1) the ratio of keratose (obtained by oxidative extraction of keratin) to kerateine (obtained by reductive extraction of keratin); and (2) the weight percentage of total keratin protein in the gel. A computational model of the dispensing nozzle for a commercially available extrusion 3D printer was developed to calculate the needed pneumatic printing pressures based on the known rheological properties of the gels. Keratin hydrogel constructs, of varying keratose/kerateine ratios and total keratin weight percentages, were 3D printed in cylindrical geometries via extrusion 3D printing. Rheology and degradation studies showed that gels with greater relative kerateine content exhibited greater flow resistance and slower degradation kinetics when submerged in PBS solution at 37 °C, owing to the presence of cysteine residues in kerateine and the capability of forming disulfide bonds. Total keratin weight percentage was found to influence gel yield stress, with possible implications for tuning filament fidelity. Findings from this work support the use of keratose/kerateine ratio and total keratin weight percentage as handles for modulating rheological characteristics of keratin hydrogels to enhance printability and control scaffold properties.
Alcohol use and high‐risk alcohol drinking behaviours among women are rapidly rising. In rodent models, females typically consume more ethanol (EtOH) than males. Here, we used the four core genotypes (FCG) mouse model to investigate the influence of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on EtOH drinking behaviours. FCG mice were given access to escalating concentrations of EtOH in a two‐bottle, 24‐h continuous access drinking paradigm to assess consumption and preference. Relapse‐like behaviour was measured by assessing escalated intake following repeated cycles of deprivation and re‐exposure. Twenty‐four‐hour EtOH consumption was greater in mice with ovaries (Sry−), relative to those with testes, and in mice with the XX chromosome complement, relative to those with XY sex chromosomes. EtOH preference was higher in XX versus XY mice. For both consumption and preference, the influences of the Sry gene and sex chromosomes were concentration dependent. Escalated intake following repeated cycles of deprivation and re‐exposure emerged only in XX mice (vs. XY). Mice with ovaries (Sry− FCG mice and C57BL/6J females) were also found to consume more water than mice with testes. These results demonstrate that aspects of EtOH drinking behaviour may be independently regulated by sex hormones and chromosomes and inform our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms which contribute to EtOH dependence in male and female mice. Future investigation of the contribution of sex chromosomes to EtOH drinking behaviours is warranted. We used the FCG mouse model to investigate the influence of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on EtOH drinking behaviours, including the alcohol deprivation effect. Escalated intake following repeated cycles of deprivation and re‐exposure emerged only in XX mice (vs. XY). These results demonstrate that aspects of EtOH drinking behaviour may be independently regulated by sex hormones and chromosomes. We used the four core genotypes (FCG) mouse model to investigate the influence of gonadal hormones and sex chromosome complement on EtOH drinking behaviours, including the alcohol deprivation effect. Escalated intake following repeated cycles of deprivation and re‐exposure emerged only in XX mice (vs. XY). These results demonstrate that aspects of EtOH drinking behaviour may be independently regulated by sex hormones and chromosomes.
Torpor is characterized by an extreme reduction in metabolism and a common energy-saving strategy of heterothermic animals. Torpor is often associated with cold temperatures, but in the last decades, more diverse and flexible forms of torpor have been described. For example, tropical bat species maintain a low metabolism and heart rate at high ambient and body temperatures. We investigated whether bats (Nyctalus noctula) from the cooler temperate European regions also show this form of torpor with metabolic inhibition at high body temperatures, and whether this would be as pronounced in reproductive as in non-reproductive bats. We simultaneously measured metabolic rate, heart rate, and skin temperature in non-reproductive and pregnant females at a range of ambient temperatures. We found that they can decouple metabolic rate and heart rate from body temperature: they maintained an extremely low metabolism and heart rate when exposed to ambient temperatures changing from 0 to 32.5 °C, irrespective of reproductive status. When we simulated natural temperature conditions, all non-reproductive bats used torpor throughout the experiment. Pregnant bats used variable strategies from torpor, to maintaining normothermy, or a combination of both. Even a short torpor bout during the day saved up to 33% of the bats' total energy expenditure. Especially at higher temperatures, heart rate was a much better predictor of metabolic rate than skin temperature. We suggest that the capability to flexibly save energy across a range of ambient temperatures within and between reproductive states may be an important ability of these bats and possibly other temperate-zone heterotherms.
In this communication, we investigate the performance of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) in many-objective optimization scenarios pertaining to joint radar and communication functionality. We introduce five objectives relevant to sensing and secure communications and develop a cost function where these objectives can be individually prioritized by a user. We consider three scenarios: Radar Priority, Communication Priority, and All (Objectives) Equal; we then demonstrate the optimization results using an orthogonal frequency-division mul-tiplexing (OFDM) radarcom signal. The objectives with selected weights are shown to improve system performance and thereby validate the viability of our approach. The Radar Priority scenario showed the best improvement in probability of detection, PSLR, and PAPR. Compared to the base-line performance values, the improvements were: from 94.05% to 96%, from 11.7 to 13.6 dB, and from 9.46 to 7.09 dB, respectively. The communication scenario saw the best improvement in BER and clutter similarity (measured by NRMSE) from 3.52% to 0.39% and 0.87 to 0.59, respectively.
Background and Objectives This study examined the relationship between nursing home (NH) quality using consumer complaints and certified nursing assistant (CNA) annual retention rates among Ohio freestanding NHs (n = 691). Research Design and Methods Core variables came from the 2017 Ohio Biennial Survey of Long-term Care Facilities and CMS Automated Survey Processing Environment Complaints/Incidents Tracking System. To compare NHs, four quartiles of CNA retention rates were created: low (0-48%), medium (49-60%), high (61-72%), and very high retention (73-100%). Negative binomial regressions were estimated on total, substantiated, and unsubstantiated allegations and complaints. All regressions controlled for facility and county-level factors and clustered facilities by county. Results NHs in the top 50% (high and very high) of retention received 1.92 fewer allegations than those in the bottom 50%, representing a 19% difference; this trend was significant and negative across all outcomes. Using quartiles revealed a non-linear pattern: high retention NHs received the fewest number of allegations and complaints. The differences between high and low retention on allegations, substantiated, and unsubstantied allegations were 33% (3.73 fewer), 34% (0.51 fewer), and 32% (3.12 fewer) respectively. Unexpectedly, very high retention NHs received more unsubstantiated allegations than high retention NHs. Discussion and Implications While higher retention should result in fewer complaints, our results indicate that some turnover may be desirable because the very high retention NHs performed slightly worse than those with high retention. Among the remaining facilities, fewer complaints may be achieved by improving CNA retention through higher wages, career advancement, and better training.
Background Nursing homes (NHs) are required to provide person-centered care, efforts often folded into broader culture change initiatives. Despite the known benefits of culture change, it is difficult to measure. This study aims to assess the criterion validity of the Preferences for Everyday Living Inventory (PELI) Implementation Indicator with other culture change measures. Methods Using data from Ohio-based NHs ( n = 771), logistic regression techniques demonstrated the relationship between the PELI Implementation Indicator and two validated culture change measures, the Resident Preferences for Care (RPC) and Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) Empowerment scales. Results There was a significant relationship between the two scales and complete PELI implementation holding all other variables constant. The RPC and CNA Empowerment scales were significantly associated with complete PELI implementation. Discussion Findings suggest that the PELI Implementation Indicator can be used as a pragmatic indicator of a community’s adoption of person-centered care and culture change.
2022): Mineralogy and PGE geochemistry of chromitites and peridotites of the sapat complex in the indus suture zone, northern Pakistan: implications for magmatic processes in the supra-subduction zone, International Geology Review, ABSTRACT The Sapat Complex in Northern Pakistan contains remnants of the northern Neo-Tethys Ocean, presently exposed along the Indus Suture Zone. The mantle peridotites of the Sapat Complex include harzburgites, dunites, and subordinate lherzolites. Harzburgites are the dominant perido-tite variety over dunites. The dunites are hosted by harzburgites and occur exclusively as 'envel-opes' surrounding chromitite pods. The podiform chromitites show disseminated, banded, and massive textures. Chromitites exhibit variable Cr# [Cr/(Cr + Al)] and Mg# [Mg/(Mg + Fe 2+)], which range from 0.76 to 0.77, and from 0.64 to 0.66, respectively, while TiO 2 contents are <0.2 wt.%. These features perhaps reflect crystallization of the chromian spinel from a boninitic magma. Similarly, chromian spinel in peridotites manifest a wide range of Cr# and Mg#, from 0.49 to 0.83 and 0.41 to 0.57, respectively, and are characterized by very low TiO 2 values, averaging at 0.1 wt.%. Chromian spinel of chromitites and peridotites of the Sapat Complex have also very low Fe 3+ # (<0.01), which indicate their crystallization under low oxygen fugacities. The platinum group elements (PGE) distributions show high (Os + Ir + Ru)/(Rh + Pt + Pd), very low Pd/Ir values, and are defined by a prominently fractionated chondritic normalized PGE pattern, hence, this deposit is a typical example of an ophiolitic chromitite. The studied peridotites are highly depleted in PGE compared to chondritic values. The Pd N /Ir N values, averaging to 1.5 in dunites are unfractionated, while PGE spidergrams of harzburgites and lherzolites depict minor positive slopes, a minor positive Ru anomaly, and have average Pd N /Ir N values of 2.3 and 2.4, respectively. Furthermore, the harzburgites, dunites, and lherzolites display generally flat chondritic and primitive mantle normalized PGE patterns, and therefore, are nearly identical to highly depleted mantle peridotites. The mineralogical and PGE geochemical imprints of Sapat Complex chromitites and peridotites establish a strong affinity to supra-subduction zone ophiolites. Moreover, calculated parental melts of the chromitites and various geochemical discrimination diagrams elucidate that the chromitites were derived from boninitic magma produced by melting of depleted mantle peridotites in an oceanic arc, characterized by low oxygen fugacity, similar to a supra-subduction zone tectonic setting. This research highlights the use of mineralogy and geochemical compositions of chromi-tites and peridotites to reveal deep magmatic processes in a supra-subduction zone environment.
Purpose: Thousands of technological applications (apps) have emerged in the past decade, yet few studies have examined how apps are used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs), their effectiveness, and SLPs' feelings regarding their use. This study explored how SLPs use apps and their feelings regarding their use in schools, as well as considerations made by SLPs prior to implementing apps in therapy sessions. Method: A survey was distributed electronically to school-based SLPs in Ohio, yielding 69 valid responses. The study probed SLP demographics, patterns of app use in schools, and feelings toward their use in a school setting. Results: Results showed 77% of SLPs reported using apps in their treatment sessions and reported generally positive feelings regarding app use. SLPs considered factors such as age, cognitive ability, and treatment targets when using apps in treatment. SLPs who reported not using apps cited personal preference and price as the most common factors influencing their decision. SLPs also noted concerns about excessive screen time. Conclusions: Results of this study carry clinical implications for future development and assessment of technology to be used for service delivery in schools. Given that the majority of school-based SLPs report using apps with their students, research on the role of apps in supporting learning for speech-language services is urgently needed.
The Constitution’s division of powers from which E. Corwin famously asserted an “invitation to struggle” in the making of US foreign policy (1957, 171) has become overshadowed by partisan conflict in the contemporary era. Although much of the extant literature points to Congress’s subsidiary role in foreign policy relative to the presidency-centered model, the appeal of partisanship has worked to further deepen congressional abrogation and extend presidential unilateralism (Lindsay in Congress and the politics of U.S. Foreign Policy. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1994; Kriner in After the rubicon: congress, presidents, and the politics of waging war. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2010; Potter in Pres Stud Quart 46(4):849–867, 2016). Our analysis illustrates a puzzle. On one hand, there are growing levels of majority support in the USA for political leadership on the world stage. But on the other hand, our analysis of congressional behavior such as voting, lawmaking, and oversight shows relatively clear patterns of congressional decline—Congress no longer exercises much of its power in foreign affairs, neither in form or substance. Partisan incentives for congressional abdication to the presidency carry at least one additional risk we point to: Congressional capitulation from its constitutional duty places democracy in the jeopardy that the Framers’ design was intended to prevent.
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William Berg
  • Department of Kinesiology and Health
Gary Peterson
  • Family Studies and Social work
Saruna Ghimire
  • Department of Sociology and Gerontology
William B. Stiles
  • Department of Psychology
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