The review of A. Zeller reflects perfectly the status of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and its inhibitors as of 1983. He reviews especially the role of MAO and MAO-I with regard to schizophrenia and depression syndrome. Since that time, both clinical and experimental studies have led to the development of new compounds, which are more selective and safer in their clinical applications for the treatment of depression syndrome. However, the use of MAO-I for schizophrenia has not been further developed. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia nowadays are treated with antipsychotic drugs, which inhibit a variety of receptors. As such, the status reviewed by A. Zeller has been a starting point for more detailed basic research leading to development of new drugs, which are more specific, safer and more tolerable for the patients.
SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the ACE2 receptor, along with the multifaceted inflammatory reaction, is likely to drive the generalized hypercoagulable and thrombotic state seen in patients with COVID-19. Using the original bioinformatic workflow and network medicine approaches we reanalysed four coronavirus-related expression datasets and performed co-expression analysis focused on thrombosis and ACE2 related genes. We identified microRNAs (miRNAs) which play role in ACE2-related thrombosis in coronavirus infection and further, we validated the expressions of precisely selected miRNAs-related to thrombosis (miR-16-5p, miR-27a-3p, let-7b-5p and miR-155-5p) in 79 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and 32 healthy volunteers by qRT-PCR. Consequently, we aimed to unravel whether bioinformatic prioritization could guide selection of miRNAs with a potential of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers associated with disease severity in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. In bioinformatic analysis, we identified EGFR, HSP90AA1, APP, TP53, PTEN, UBC, FN1, ELAVL1 and CALM1 as regulatory genes which could play a pivotal role in COVID-19 related thrombosis. We also found miR-16-5p, miR-27a-3p, let-7b-5p and miR-155-5p as regulators in the coagulation and thrombosis process. In silico predictions were further confirmed in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The expression levels of miR-16-5p and let-7b in COVID-19 patients were lower at baseline, 7-days and 21-day after admission compared to the healthy controls (p < 0.0001 for all time points for both miRNAs). The expression levels of miR-27a-3p and miR-155-5p in COVID-19 patients were higher at day 21 compared to the healthy controls (p = 0.007 and p < 0.001, respectively). A low baseline miR-16-5p expression presents predictive utility in assessment of the hospital length of stay or death in follow-up as a composite endpoint (AUC:0.810, 95% CI, 0.71-0.91, p < 0.0001) and low baseline expression of miR-16-5p and diabetes mellitus are independent predictors of increased length of stay or death according to a multivariate analysis (OR: 9.417; 95% CI, 2.647-33.506; p = 0.0005 and OR: 6.257; 95% CI, 1.049-37.316; p = 0.044, respectively). This study enabled us to better characterize changes in gene expression and signalling pathways related to hypercoagulable and thrombotic conditions in COVID-19. In this study we identified and validated miRNAs which could serve as novel, thrombosis-related predictive biomarkers of the COVID-19 complications, and can be used for early stratification of patients and prediction of severity of infection development in an individual.Abbreviations: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2AF, atrial fibrillationAPP, Amyloid Beta Precursor ProteinaPTT, activated partial thromboplastin timeAUC, Area under the curveAβ, amyloid betaBMI, body mass indexCAD, coronary artery diseaseCALM1, Calmodulin 1 geneCaM, calmodulinCCND1, Cyclin D1CI, confidence intervalCOPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseCOVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019CRP, C-reactive proteinCV, CardiovascularCVDs, cardiovascular diseasesDE, differentially expressedDM, diabetes mellitusEGFR, Epithelial growth factor receptorELAVL1, ELAV Like RNA Binding Protein 1FLNA, Filamin AFN1, Fibronectin 1GEO, Gene Expression OmnibushiPSC-CMs, Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytesHSP90AA1, Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha Family Class A Member 1Hsp90α, heat shock protein 90αICU, intensive care unitIL, interleukinIQR, interquartile rangelncRNAs, long non-coding RNAsMI, myocardial infarctionMiRNA, MiR, microRNAmRNA, messenger RNAncRNA, non-coding RNANERI, network-medicine based integrative approachNF-kB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cellsNPV, negative predictive valueNXF, nuclear export factorPBMCs, Peripheral blood mononuclear cellsPCT, procalcitoninPPI, Protein-protein interactionsPPV, positive predictive valuePTEN, phosphatase and tensin homologqPCR, quantitative polymerase chain reactionROC, receiver operating characteristicSARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2SD, standard deviationTLR4, Toll-like receptor 4TM, thrombomodulinTP53, Tumour protein P53UBC, Ubiquitin CWBC, white blood cells.
Our understanding of microorganisms residing within our gut and their roles in the host metabolism and immunity advanced greatly over the past 20 years. Currently, microbiome studies are shifting from association and correlation studies to studies demonstrating causality of identified microbiome signatures and identification of molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions. This transformation is crucial for the efficient translation into clinical application and development of targeted strategies to beneficially modulate the intestinal microbiota. As mechanistic studies are still quite challenging to perform in humans, the causal role of microbiota is frequently evaluated in animal models that need to be appropriately selected. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview on approaches that can be applied in addressing causality of host-microbe interactions in five major animal model organisms (Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, rodents, and pigs). We particularly focused on discussing methods available for studying the causality ranging from the usage of gut microbiota transfer, diverse models of metabolic and immune perturbations involving nutritional and chemical factors, gene modifications and surgically induced models, metabolite profiling up to culture-based approached. Furthermore, we addressed the impact of the gut morphology, physiology as well as diet on the microbiota composition in various models and resulting species specificities. Finally, we conclude this review with the discussion on models that can be applied to study the causal role of the gut microbiota in the context of metabolic syndrome and host immunity. We hope this review will facilitate important considerations for appropriate animal model selection.
Background: The study examined the psychometric properties of the Child and Adolescent Trauma Screen 2 (CATS-2) as a measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to DSM-5 and (Complex) PTSD following the ICD-11 criteria in children and adolescents (7-17 years). Methods: Psychometric properties were investigated in an international sample of traumatized children and adolescents (N = 283) and their caregivers (N = 255). We examined the internal consistency (α), convergent and discriminant validity, the factor structure of the CATS-2 total scores, latent classes of PTSD/Complex PTSD (CPTSD) discrimination, as well as the diagnostic utility using ROC-curves. Results: The DSM-5 total score (self: α = .89; caregiver: α = .91), the ICD-11 PTSD total score (self: α = .67; caregiver: α = .79) and the ICD-11 CPTSD total score (self: α = .83; caregiver: α = .87) have proven acceptable to excellent reliability. The latent structure of the 12-item ICD-11 PTSD/CPTSD construct was consistent with prior findings. Latent profile analyses revealed that ICD-11 CPTSD was empirically distinguishable from ICD-11 PTSD using the CATS-2. ROC-analysis using the CAPS-CA-5 as outcome revealed that CATS-2 DSM-5 PTSD scores of ≥21 (screening) to ≥25 (diagnostic) were optimally efficient for detecting probable DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis. For the ICD-11 PTSD scale scores of ≥7 (screening) to ≥9 (diagnostic) were optimally efficient for detecting probable DSM-5 PTSD diagnosis. Conclusions: The CATS-2 is a brief, reliable and valid measure of DSM-5 PTSD, ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD symptomatology in traumatized children and adolescents, allowing crosswalk between diagnostic systems using one measure. Highlights: The CATS-2 screens for potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and PTSD symptoms.The CATS-2 captures DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and enables clinicians and researchers to crosswalk between both diagnostic systems.International validation has proven good psychometric properties and presents cut-off scoresThe CATS-2 is a license-free instrument and is freely accessible.
Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between follow-up imaging characteristics and overall survival (OS) in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients under sorafenib treatment. Methods Associations between OS and objective response (OR) by mRECIST or early tumor shrinkage (ETS; ≥20% reduction in enhancing tumor diameter at the first follow-up imaging) were analyzed in HCC patients treated with sorafenib within a multicenter phase II trial (SORAMIC). 115 patients were included in this substudy. The relationship between survival and OR or ETS were explored. Landmark analyses were performed according to OR at fixed time points. Cox proportional hazards models with OR and ETS as a time-dependent covariate were used to compare survival with factors known to influence OS. Results The OR rate was 29.5%. Responders had significantly better OS than non-responders (median 30.3 vs. 11.4 months; HR, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.22–0.63], p < 0.001), and longer progression-free survival (PFS; median 10.1 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.015). Patients with ETS ≥ 20% had longer OS (median 22.1 vs. 11.4 months, p = 0.002) and PFS (median 8.0 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.034) than patients with ETS < 20%. Besides OR and ETS, male gender, lower bilirubin and ALBI grade were associated with improved OS in univariate analysis. Separate models of multivariable analysis confirmed OR and ETS as independent predictors of OS. Conclusion OR according to mRECIST and ETS in patients receiving sorafenib treatment are independent prognostic factors for OS. These parameters can be used for assessment of treatment benefit and optimal treatment sequencing in patients with advanced HCC.
Background Duration of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) prior to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) affects outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related ARDS, the role of pre-ECMO IMV duration is unclear. This single-centre, retrospective study included critically ill adults treated with ECMO due to severe COVID-19-related ARDS between 01/2020 and 05/2021. The primary objective was to determine whether duration of IMV prior to ECMO cannulation influenced ICU mortality. Results During the study period, 101 patients (mean age 56 [SD ± 10] years; 70 [69%] men; median RESP score 2 [IQR 1–4]) were treated with ECMO for COVID-19. Sixty patients (59%) survived to ICU discharge. Median ICU length of stay was 31 [IQR 20.7–51] days, median ECMO duration was 16.4 [IQR 8.7–27.7] days, and median time from intubation to ECMO start was 7.7 [IQR 3.6–12.5] days. Fifty-three (52%) patients had a pre-ECMO IMV duration of > 7 days. Pre-ECMO IMV duration had no effect on survival ( p = 0.95). No significant difference in survival was found when patients with a pre-ECMO IMV duration of < 7 days (< 10 days) were compared to ≥ 7 days (≥ 10 days) ( p = 0.59 and p = 1.0). Conclusions The role of prolonged pre-ECMO IMV duration as a contraindication for ECMO in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS should be scrutinised. Evaluation for ECMO should be assessed on an individual and patient-centred basis.
Background: The genetic disorder tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is frequently accompanied by the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, with varying degrees of impairment. These co-morbidities in TSC have been linked to the structural brain abnormalities, such as cortical tubers, and recurrent epileptic seizures (in 70-80% cases). Previous transcriptomic analysis of cortical tubers revealed dysregulation of genes involved in cell adhesion in the brain, which may be associated with the neurodevelopmental deficits in TSC. In this study we aimed to investigate the expression of one of these genes - cell-adhesion molecule contactin-3. Methods: Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the contactin-3 gene (CNTN3) was performed in resected cortical tubers from TSC patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (n = 35, age range: 1-48 years) and compared to autopsy-derived cortical control tissue (n = 27, age range: 0-44 years), as well as by western blot analysis of contactin-3 (n = 7 vs n = 7, age range: 0-3 years for both TSC and controls) and immunohistochemistry (n = 5 TSC vs n = 4 controls). The expression of contactin-3 was further analyzed in fetal and postnatal control tissue by western blotting and in-situ hybridization, as well as in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line differentiation model in vitro. Results: CNTN3 gene expression was lower in cortical tubers from patients across a wide range of ages (fold change = - 0.5, p < 0.001) as compared to controls. Contactin-3 protein expression was lower in the age range of 0-3 years old (fold change = - 3.8, p < 0.001) as compared to the age-matched controls. In control brain tissue, contactin-3 gene and protein expression could be detected during fetal development, peaked around birth and during infancy and declined in the adult brain. CNTN3 expression was induced in the differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in vitro (fold change = 6.2, p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our data show a lower expression of contactin-3 in cortical tubers of TSC patients during early postnatal period as compared to controls, which may affect normal brain development and might contribute to neuropsychiatric co-morbidities observed in patients with TSC.
Objective White matter lesions (WML) in multiple sclerosis (MS) differ from vascular WML caused by Fabry disease (FD). However, in atypical cases the discrimination can be difficult and may vary between individual raters. The aim of this study was to evaluate interrater reliability of WML differentiation between MS and FD patients. Materials and methods Brain MRI scans of 21 patients with genetically confirmed FD were compared to 21 matched patients with MS. Pseudonymized axial FLAIR sequences were assessed by 6 blinded raters and attributed to either the MS or the FD group to investigate interrater reliability. Additionally, localization of WML was compared between the two groups. Results The median age of patients was 46 years (IQR 35–58). Interrater reliability was moderate with a Fleiss' Kappa of 0.45 (95%CI 0.3–0.59). Overall, 85% of all ratings in the MS group and 75% in the FD group were correct. However, only 38% of patients with MS and 33% of patients with FD were correctly identified by all 6 raters. WML involving the corpus callosum ( p < 0.001) as well as juxtacortical ( p < 0.001) and infratentorial lesions ( p = 0.03) were more frequently observed in MS patients. Conclusion Interrater reliability regarding visual differentiation of WML in MS from vascular WML in FD on standard axial FLAIR images alone is only moderate, despite the distinctive features of lesions in each group.
Objective To assess the biomechanical effects of different prosthetic/implant configurations and load directions on 3-unit fixed prostheses supported by short dental implants in the posterior mandible using validated 3-D finite element (FE) models. Methods Models represented an atrophic mandible, missing the 2nd premolar, 1st and 2nd molars, and rehabilitated with either two short implants (implant length-IL = 8 mm and 4 mm) supporting a 3-unit dental bridge or three short implants (IL = 8 mm, 6 mm and 4 mm) supporting zirconia prosthesis in splinted or single crowns design. Load simulations were performed in ABAQUS (Dassault Systèmes, France) under axial and oblique (30°) force of 100 N to assess the global stiffness and forces within the implant prosthesis. Local stresses within implant/prosthesis system and strain energy density (SED) within surrounding bone were determined and compared between configurations. Results The global stiffness was around 1.5 times higher in splinted configurations vs. single crowns, whereby off-axis loading lead to a decrease of 39%. Splinted prostheses exhibited a better stress distribution than single crowns. Local stresses were larger and distributed over a larger area under oblique loads compared to axial load direction. The forces on each implant in the 2-implant-splinted configurations increased by 25% compared to splinted crowns on 3 implants. Loading of un-splinted configurations resulted in increased local SED magnitude. Conclusion Splinting of adjacent short implants in posterior mandible by the prosthetic restoration has a profound effect on the magnitude and distribution of the local stress peaks in peri-implant regions. Replacing each missing tooth with an implant is recommended, whenever bone supply and costs permit.
Background Diagnostic performance of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) remains limited. We assessed whether compensating the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) thickness for multiple demographic and anatomical factors as well as the combination of macular layers improves the detection of MCI and AD. Methods This cross-sectional study of 62 AD ( n = 92 eyes), 108 MCI ( n = 158 eyes), and 55 cognitively normal control ( n = 86 eyes) participants. Macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC) thickness was extracted. Circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (cpRNFL) measurement was compensated for several ocular factors. Thickness measurements and their corresponding areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were compared between the groups. The main outcome measure was OCT thickness measurements. Results Participants with MCI/AD showed significantly thinner measured and compensated cpRNFL, mGCC, and altered retinal vessel density ( p < 0.05). Compensated RNFL outperformed measured RNFL for discrimination of MCI/AD (AUC = 0.74 vs 0.69; p = 0.026). Combining macular and compensated cpRNFL parameters provided the best detection of MCI/AD (AUC = 0.80 vs 0.69; p < 0.001). Conclusions and relevance Accounting for interindividual variations of ocular anatomical features in cpRNFL measurements and incorporating macular information may improve the identification of high-risk individuals with early cognitive impairment.
Background: This work is aimed at improving the understanding of cardiometabolic syndrome pathophysiology and its relationship with thrombosis by generating a multi-omic disease signature. Methods/results: We combined classic plasma biochemistry and plasma biomarkers with the transcriptional and epigenetic characterisation of cell types involved in thrombosis, obtained from two extreme phenotype groups (morbidly obese and lipodystrophy) and lean individuals to identify the molecular mechanisms at play, highlighting patterns of abnormal activation in innate immune phagocytic cells. Our analyses showed that extreme phenotype groups could be distinguished from lean individuals, and from each other, across all data layers. The characterisa- tion of the same obese group, 6 months after bariatric surgery, revealed the loss of the abnormal activation of innate immune cells previously observed. However, rather than reverting to the gene expression landscape of lean individu- als, this occurred via the establishment of novel gene expression landscapes. NETosis and its control mechanisms emerge amongst the pathways that show an improvement after surgical intervention. Conclusions: We showed that the morbidly obese and lipodystrophy groups, despite some differences, shared a common cardiometabolic syndrome signature. We also showed that this could be used to discriminate, amongst the normal population, those individuals with a higher likelihood of presenting with the disease, even when not display- ing the classic features.
Background Although prehospital point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is gaining in importance, its rapid interpretation remains challenging in prehospital emergency situations. The technical development of remote real-time supervision potentially offers the possibility to support emergency medicine providers during prehospital emergency ultrasound. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of live data transmission and supervision of prehospital POCUS in an urban environment and so to improve patients’ safety. Methods Emergency doctors with moderate ultrasound experience performed prehospital POCUS in emergency cases (n = 24) such as trauma, acute dyspnea or cardiac shock using the portable ultrasound device Lumify™. The ultrasound examination was remotely transmitted to an emergency ultrasound expert in the clinic for real-time supervision via a secure video and audio connection. Technical feasibility as well as quality of communication and live stream were analysed. Results Prehospital POCUS with remote real-time supervision was successfully performed in 17 patients (71%). In 3 cases, the expert was not available on time and in 1 case remote data transmission was not possible due to connection problems. In 3 cases tele-supervision was restricted to video only and no verbal communication was possible via the device itself due to power saving mode of the tablet. Conclusion Remote real-time supervision of prehospital POCUS in an urban environment is feasible most of the time with excellent image and communication quality. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials Number NCT04612816.
Emergency hematopoiesis is the driving force of the inflammatory response to myocardial infarction (MI). Increased proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (LSK) after MI enhances cell production in the bone marrow (BM) and replenishes leukocyte supply for local cell recruitment to the infarct. Decoding the regulation of the inflammatory cascade after MI may provide new avenues to improve post-MI remodeling. In this study, we describe the influence of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent P2Y 12 -mediated signaling on emergency hematopoiesis and cardiac remodeling after MI. Permanent coronary ligation was performed to induce MI in a murine model. BM activation, inflammatory cell composition and cardiac function were assessed using global and platelet-specific gene knockout and pharmacological inhibition models for P2Y 12 . Complementary in vitro studies allowed for investigation of ADP-dependent effects on LSK cells. We found that ADP acts as a danger signal for the hematopoietic BM and fosters emergency hematopoiesis by promoting Akt phosphorylation and cell cycle progression. We were able to detect P2Y 12 in LSK, implicating a direct effect of ADP on LSK via P2Y 12 signaling. P2Y 12 knockout and P2Y 12 inhibitor treatment with prasugrel reduced emergency hematopoiesis and the excessive inflammatory response to MI, translating to lower numbers of downstream progeny and inflammatory cells in the blood and infarct. Ultimately, P2Y 12 inhibition preserved cardiac function and reduced chronic adverse cardiac remodeling after MI. P2Y 12 -dependent signaling is involved in emergency hematopoiesis after MI and fuels post-ischemic inflammation, proposing a novel, non-canonical value for P2Y 12 antagonists beyond inhibition of platelet-mediated atherothrombosis.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the disruption of healthcare systems. Vienna General Hospital (VGH), a tertiary hospital located in Austria, ran at almost full capacity despite high levels of community SARS-CoV-2 transmission and limited isolation room capacity. To ensure safe patient care, a bundle of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures including universal pre-admission screening and serial SARS-CoV-2 testing during hospitalization was implemented. We evaluated whether testing as part of our IPC approach was effective in preventing hospital outbreaks during different stages of the pandemic. Methods In this retrospective single center study, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results of cases admitted to VGH between a low (15/05/2020–01/08/2020) and a high incidence period (15/09/2020–18/05/2021). Outcomes were the diagnostic yield of (a) admission screening, (b) the yield of serial testing during hospitalization and (c) the occurrence of healthcare-associated COVID-19 (HA-COVID-19) and SARS-CoV-2 related hospital outbreaks. Results The admission test positivity rate was 0.2% during the low and 2.3% during the high incidence phase. Regarding test conversions, 0.04% (low incidence phase) and 0.5% (high incidence phase) of initially negative cases converted to a positive test result within 7 days after admission The HA-COVID-19 incidence rate per 100,000 patient days was 1.0 (low incidence phase) and 10.7 (high incidence phase). One COVID-19 outbreak affecting eight patients in total could be potentially ascribed to the non-compliance with our IPC protocol. Conclusion Testing in conjunction with other IPC measures enabled the safe provision of patient care at a hospital with predominantly shared patient rooms despite high case numbers in the community.
Background Medical nutrition therapy may be associated with clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stay. We wanted to assess nutrition practices in European intensive care units (ICU) and their importance for clinical outcomes. Methods Prospective multinational cohort study in patients staying in ICU ≥ 5 days with outcome recorded until day 90. Macronutrient intake from enteral and parenteral nutrition and non-nutritional sources during the first 15 days after ICU admission was compared with targets recommended by ESPEN guidelines. We modeled associations between three categories of daily calorie and protein intake (low: < 10 kcal/kg, < 0.8 g/kg; moderate: 10–20 kcal/kg, 0.8–1.2 g/kg, high: > 20 kcal/kg; > 1.2 g/kg) and the time-varying hazard rates of 90-day mortality or successful weaning from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Results A total of 1172 patients with median [Q1;Q3] APACHE II score of 18.5 [13.0;26.0] were included, and 24% died within 90 days. Median length of ICU stay was 10.0 [7.0;16.0] days, and 74% of patients could be weaned from invasive mechanical ventilation. Patients reached on average 83% [59;107] and 65% [41;91] of ESPEN calorie and protein recommended targets, respectively. Whereas specific reasons for ICU admission (especially respiratory diseases requiring IMV) were associated with higher intakes (estimate 2.43 [95% CI: 1.60;3.25] for calorie intake, 0.14 [0.09;0.20] for protein intake), a lack of nutrition on the preceding day was associated with lower calorie and protein intakes (− 2.74 [− 3.28; − 2.21] and − 0.12 [− 0.15; − 0.09], respectively). Compared to a lower intake, a daily moderate intake was associated with higher probability of successful weaning (for calories: maximum HR 4.59 [95% CI: 1.5;14.09] on day 12; for protein: maximum HR 2.60 [1.09;6.23] on day 12), and with a lower hazard of death (for calories only: minimum HR 0.15, [0.05;0.39] on day 19). There was no evidence that a high calorie or protein intake was associated with further outcome improvements. Conclusions Calorie intake was mainly provided according to the targets recommended by the active ESPEN guideline, but protein intake was lower. In patients staying in ICU ≥ 5 days, early moderate daily calorie and protein intakes were associated with improved clinical outcomes. Trial registration NCT04143503 , registered on October 25, 2019. Graphical abstract
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