Prototype measurements belong to the key steps in the development of antenna structures. Although accurate validation of their far-field performance can be realized in dedicated facilities, such as anechoic chambers, the high cost of their construction and maintenance might not be justified if the main goal of measurements is to support teaching or low-budget research. Instead, they can be performed in non-anechoic conditions and then refined using appropriate correction algorithms. Unfortunately, the existing post-processing methods suffer from multiple challenges that include manual setup of parameters as well as validation of performance in idealized conditions. In this communication, a multi-taper-based framework for correction of antenna characteristics obtained in non-anechoic environments has been proposed. The algorithm augments one-shot measurements of the structure under test in order to extract the line-of-sight responses while attenuating the interferences pertinent to multi-path propagation and noise from external sources of radiation. The performance of the proposed correction routine has been demonstrated in two test sites using a geometrically small Vivaldi radiator and validated against state-of-the-art techniques from the literature. The uncertainty budget for the measurements performed using the approach amounts to 0.26 dB, which is low given challenging propagation conditions considered for experiments.
One of the methods used to prevent symptoms of skin aging are chemical peels. Among retinoids, retinol is much less described in the literature than tretinoin as a substance used in the peel procedure. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy of using a 4% retinol solution product containing novel TGF-β activators and antioxidants in improving the condition of the skin in patients with facial skin issues caused by aging and skin disorders. Each of 15 patients went through three peel treatment series, with a 30-day gap between each session and was examined using Multi Skin Test MC 1000 Courage + Khazaka, evaluating hydration, elasticity, and skin pigmentation and Observ 520x. All patients reported overall improvement after the peeling procedure, and most of them reported subjective improvement in the reduction of the facial skin: tone, skin pigmentation, dehydration, dryness, structure, and sebaceous gland activity. An objective evaluation revealed significant clinical improvement in pigmentation in study groups. Elasticity parameters were shown to increase during treatment, with a greater effect occurring in patients with mature skin with first signs of aging and patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, atrophic acne scars, and enlarged pores. Concluding, combined peel therapy of 4% retinol serum product containing novel TGF-β activators and antioxidants showed good efficacy in reducing facial pigmentation of the skin high patients’ satisfaction with the procedure. The study revealed that the described method is simple to use, has low cost, is with rare adverse events, and has well tolerability.
Objective: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric issues in hemodialysis population. However, the research on proper diagnostic tools and its treatment is still insufficient. The study was performed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of sertraline and agomelatine in a group of hemodialysis patients. Patients and methods: 78 adult patients from one dialysis centre in Poland were included into the study. The Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) was used to screen for depressive symptoms and was followed by the clinical interview with the psychiatrist. Nine patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder received antidepressant treatment with sertraline or agomelatine, according to the best clinical practice. The additional treatment with vortioxetine was used if the initial one was not effective. The time of observation was 24 weeks. The psychiatric follow up as well as the laboratory data were obtained during the course of observation. Results: All patients receiving sertraline achieved remission of depressive symptoms. In patients receiving agomelatine no remission was observed despite dose augmentation. The side effects of antidepressants were mild and did not result in treatment discontinuation. No abnormalities in liver enzymes levels were observed. In five cases the significant decrease of haemoglobin level was noticed, with no cases of bleeding reported. Conclusion: In patients receiving sertraline the antidepressant effect was satisfactory. No remission of depressive symptoms was observed in patients taking agomelatine. The side effects of antidepressants were mild and transient. Further research on depression treatment in hemodialysis patients is needed, including newer medications.
Futile therapy concerns the clinical aspects of the end-of-life period, as well as the purposefulness of therapy in the context of the quality of life of a patient with an incurable disease in its final stage. The study was an anonymous survey conducted in electronic versions among young Poles university students. The views of these young people will influence health policy in the coming decades. An analysis of the collected data was carried out using the methods of descriptive and analytical statistics. The respondents were divided into two groups according to favulty and gender. A total of 161 students participated in the study, the decision to discontinue therapy in adult patients should first be made by the patients themselves (83.2%), the therapeutic team (72.6%), the patient's family (47.2%), and only 14.9% of the respondents indicated the court decision. In the case of children, as many as 80.1% of the respondents indicated that the patient's family and doctors should make a joint decision. Students of medical universities and other faculties who took part in the study demonstrated good knowledge of issues related to the concept of futile therapy, which is a good prognosis for the future in terms of the level of public awareness. It is also positive that they are aware of the existence of various solutions regarding the possibility of expressing the patient's autonomous decision at every stage of the therapeutic procedure.
Introduction The aim of this study was to assess the adherence to the European Association of Urology (EAU)/European Society for Pediatric Urology (ESPU) 2016 guidelines in the management of undescended testes (UDT). Materials and Methods An online questionnaire was sent in 2023 to members of the European Paediatric Surgeons' Association (EUPSA). Results Among 157 members, 46 and 44% perform orchidopexy before 12 and 18 months, respectively. In total, 92% recommend conservative management of retractile testes and 58% offer close follow-up. In case of nonpalpable testes, 78% favor laparoscopy and 18% ultrasonography. If a peeping testicle is identified at laparoscopy, 76% perform a single-stage orchidopexy. In case of a high testicle, a staged procedure is preferred (84%). Management of blind-ending spermatic vessel is heterogenous with a majority ending the operation, followed by exploration of the inguinal canal and removal of the testicular nubbin with optional fixation of the contralateral testis. Only a minority recommends hormonal therapy to improve fertility potential in bilateral UDT. A majority (59%) discuss testis removal in UDT in postpubertal boys. In addition, 77% declare following the EAU/ESPU guidelines. Unawareness of guidelines was the most common reason cited for nonadherence. International guidelines were found to have the greatest influence on clinical practice; however, personal experience and institutional practice seem to play an important role. Conclusion Most recommendations of the EAU/ESPU guidelines are being followed by EUPSA members; however, personal and institutional practice impact decision making. Hormonal therapy in bilateral UDT, management of vanishing testes, and UDT in postpubertal boys could be improved.
Ultrasound practice is a longstanding tradition for radiology departments, being part of the family of imaging techniques. Ultrasound is widely practiced by non-radiologists but becoming less popular within radiology. The position of ultrasound in radiology is reviewed, and a possible long-term solution to manage radiologist expectations is proposed. An international group of experts in the practice of ultrasound was invited to describe the current organisation of ultrasound within the radiology departments in their own countries and comment on the interaction with non-radiologists and training arrangements. Issues related to regulation, non-medical practitioners, and training principles are detailed. A consensus view was sought from the experts regarding the position of ultrasound within radiology, with the vision of the best scenario for the continuing dominance of radiologists practising ultrasound. Comments were collated from nine different countries. Variable levels of training, practice, and interaction with non-radiologist were reported, with some countries relying on non-physician input to manage the service. All experts recognised there was a diminished desire to practice ultrasound by radiologists. Models varied from practising solely ultrasound and no other imaging techniques to radiology departments being central to the practice of ultrasound by radiologists and non-radiologist, housed within radiology. The consensus view was that the model favoured in select hospitals in Germany would be the most likely setup for ultrasound radiologist to develop and maintain practice. The vision for 20 years hence is for a central ultrasound section within radiology, headed by a trained expert radiologist, with non-radiologist using the facilities. Critical relevance statement The future of ultrasound within the radiology department should encompass all ultrasound users, with radiologists expert in ultrasound, managing the ultrasound section within the radiology department. The current radiology trainees must learn of the importance of ultrasound as a component of the ‘holistic’ imaging of the patient. Key points: 1. Ultrasound imaging within radiology departments precedes the introduction of CT and MR imaging and was first used over 50 years ago. 2. Non-radiology practitioners deploy ultrasound examinations to either ‘problem solve’ or perform a comprehensive ultrasound examination; radiologists provide comprehensive examinations or use ultrasound to direct interventional procedures. 3. Radiology does not ‘own’ ultrasound, but radiologists are best placed to offer a comprehensive patient-focused imaging assessment. 4. A vision of the future of ultrasound within the radiology department is encompassing all ultrasound users under radiologists who are experts in ultrasound, positioned within the radiology department. 5. The current radiology trainee must be aware of the importance of ultrasound as a component of the ‘holistic’ imaging of the patient.
Accumulation of medicinally important flavones and acteoside was evaluated in Scutellaria lateriflora hairy root cultures subjected to different experimental strategies – feeding with precursors of phenolics biosynthesis (phenylalanine, cinnamic acid, and sodium cinnamate), addition of elicitors (chitosan, jasmonic acid) and Amberlite XAD-4 and XAD-7 resins and permeabilization with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol. The production profile of S. lateriflora cultures changed under the influence of the applied strategies. Hairy roots of S. lateriflora were found to be a rich source of wogonoside or wogonin, depending on the treatment used. The addition of sodium cinnamate (1.0 mg/L) was the most effective approach to provide high production of flavonoids, especially wogonoside (4.41% dry weight /DW/; 566.78 mg/L). Permeabilization with DMSO (2 µg/ml for 12 h) or methanol (30% for 12 h) resulted in high biosynthesis of wogonin (299.77 mg/L and 274.03 mg/L, respectively). The obtained results provide new insight into the selection of the optimal growth conditions for the production of in vitro biomass with a significant level of flavone accumulation. The data may be valuable for designing large-scale cultivation systems of hairy roots of S. lateriflora with high productivity of bioactive compounds – wogonin or wogonoside.
There is no consensus as to the standard treatment of ruptured Achilles tendon. In this paper, we present an innovative method of treating Achilles tendon rupture. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous Achilles tendon repair is a minimally invasive method in the treatment of Achilles tendon rupture. This study aims to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the procedure in treating ruptured Achilles tendons and in minimizing the complications of surgical percutaneous suturing. Thirty-four patients were treated for Achilles tendon rupture using a percutaneous suturing method under the control of ultrasound. The average follow-up was ~22 months with good and excellent results. As the sural nerve can be easily displayed by high-frequency real-time ultrasonography, the percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon rupture can be aided by intraoperative ultrasound. The presented method is a quick and efficient surgery, which allows the treatment of torn Achilles tendons in a low-invasive way. The outcomes of this method are promising and enable the reduction of complications of the classic suturing methods. Level of Evidence Diagnostic Level 4. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Objectives The oral cavity constitutes an attractive organ for the local and systemic application of drug substances. Oromucosal tablets, gels, or sprays are examples of the formulations applied. Due to the elution through the saliva, the residence time of the formulation at the application site is relatively short. Medical devices placed in the oral cavity, with a reservoir for an active substance, play an important role in solving this problem. Materials and methods In this review, we discuss the devices described in the literature that are designed to be used in the oral cavity, highlighting the advantages, disadvantages, and clinical applications of each of them. Results Among the intraoral medical devices, special types are personalized 3D-printed devices, iontophoretic devices, and microneedle patches. Conclusion We anticipate that with the development of 3D printing and new polymers, the technology of flexible and comfortable devices for prolonged drug delivery in the oral cavity will develop intensively. Clinical relevance The presented review is therefore a useful summary of the current technological state, when in fact none of the existing devices has been widely accepted clinically.
Childhood obesity has become a worldwide epidemic in the 21st century. Its treatment is challenging and often ineffective, among others due to complex, often not obvious causes. Awareness of the existence and meaning of psychosocial and environmental risk factors seems to be an essential element in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its complications, especially arterial hypertension. In this review, we will discuss the role of that risk factors linking obesity and increased cardiovascular disorders including the role of nutritional factors (including the role of unhealthy diet, inadequate hydration), unhealthy behaviors (e.g. smoking, alcohol and drugs, sedentary behavior, low physical activity, disrupted circadian rhythms, sleep disorders, screen exposure), unfavorable social factors (such as dysfunctional family, bullying, chronic stress, mood disorders, depression, urbanization, noise, and environmental pollution), and finally differences in cardiovascular risk in girls and boys.
Background There are usually multiple factors underlying dementia in old age. Somatic comorbidity is one important element that influences the progression of cognitive impairment. Objective The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between the progression of cognitive impairment and the presence and severity of comorbidities based on a four-year observation. Material Out of 128 patients from the Clinic for Outpatients in Gdansk, who were recruited into the study based on the criteria of the Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment, a total of 93 participants completed the four-year observation. Only the data from participants who completed the full period of observations were analysed. The mean age of the group was M = 75.93 ( SD = 9.43). The level of progression of cognitive impairment was measured using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale – Sum of Boxes, the severity of comorbidities was measured using the modified Cumulative Illness Rating Scale, and, additionally, at the time of inclusion in the study, participants were assessed using the MMSE scale and the Activity Scale, and sociodemographic data were collected. The Generalized Estimating Equations method was employed to fit a marginal model for analyzing the data collected in a repeated measures design. The tested model elucidated the role of the overall severity of comorbidities in explaining the progression of cognitive impairment, while controlling for everyday activity and basic demographic variables. Results During the four-year observation, a significant decline in cognitive function ( B = 1.86, p < 0.01) was observed in the examined sample. The statistical analysis revealed that individuals with higher overall severity of comorbidities exhibited significantly more pronounced progression of cognitive impairment over time. Regarding particular comorbidities, metabolic diseases were found to be associated with a poorer prognosis ( rho = 0.41, p < 0.05). Furthermore, a time physical activity interaction was identified as predicting cognitive impairment, indicating that individuals who were more physically active at the beginning of the study exhibited significantly less pronounced progression of cognitive impairment over the course of the 4 years. Conclusion This study suggests the important roles of comorbidities and physical activity for the prognosis of mild cognitive impairment.
Background: The risk of palatally displaced canines (PDCs) rises in patients with tooth agenesis. The orthodontic extrusion and alignment of PDCs require adequate anchorage to enable tooth movement and control the side effects. There is no paper presenting treatment in the case of severe oligodontia with simultaneous PDCs and the use of mini-implants (MIs) for their orthodontic extrusion. Case presentation: A 15-year-old patient presented with non-syndromic oligodontia and bilateral PDCs. Cone beam computed tomography revealed that both PDCs were in proximity to the upper incisors’ roots. There was no evident external root resorption of the incisors. The “canines first” approach was chosen. MIs were used both as direct and indirect anchorage. First, the extrusive forces of cantilevers were directed both occlusally and distally. Next, the buccal directions of forces were implemented. Finally, fixed appliances were used. PDCs were extruded, aligned, and torqued. Proper alignment and occlusion were achieved to enable further prosthodontic restorations. Conclusions: The use of MIs made it possible to avoid collateral effects, reduce the risk of complications, and treat the patient effectively. MIs provide adequate anchorage in demanding cases. The use of MIs for the extrusion of PDCs made it possible to offer this treatment option to patients with severe oligodontia. The presented protocol was effective and served to circumvent treatment limitations associated with an inadequate amount of dental anchorage and a high risk of root resorption.
Background Evidence suggests that patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) are at significantly higher risk of developing papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the course of PTC in patients with both diseases concomitantly has been found to be more indolent than conventional PTC. Additionally, it has been well proven that BRAF mutation results in an aggressive course of PTC. The aims of this meta-analysis were to identify prevalence of BRAF mutation and its impact on clinicopathological features in patients with concomitant PTC-HT. Methods Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched until 16.09.2022, resulting in 227 articles, of which nine studies were included. Summary estimates, comparing patients with (A) BRAF (+) PTC-HT versus BRAF (+) PTC, and (B) BRAF (+) PTC-HT versus BRAF (-) PTC-HT, were generated with Review Manager 5.0. Results In total, 6395 patients were included in this review. PTC-HT patients had significantly less BRAF mutation than PTC patients (Odds Ratio (OR) (95% Confidence Interval (CI))=0.45 (0.35-0.58), P<0.001). BRAF (+) PTC-HT patients were significantly more likely to have multifocal lesions (OR (95% CI)=1.22 (1.04-1.44), P=0.01) but less likely to have lymph node metastasis (OR (95% CI)=0.65 (0.46-0.91), P=0.01) and extrathyroidal extension (OR (95% CI)=0.55 (0.32-0.96), P=0.03) compared to BRAF (+) PTC patients. BRAF (+) PTC-HT patients were more likely to have multifocal lesions (OR (95% CI)=0.71 (0.53-0.95), P=0.02), lymph node metastasis (OR (95% CI)=0.59 (0.44-0.78), P<0.001) and extrathyroidal extension (OR (95% CI)=0.72 (0.56-0.92), P=0.01) compared to BRAF (-) PTC-HT patients. Conclusion This meta-analysis highlights that the lower prevalence of BRAF mutation in patients with PTC-HT than conventional PTC may explain the indolent clinicopathological course in this cohort.
Citation: Koutentakis, M.; Kuciński, J.;Świeczkowski, D.; Surma, S.; Filipiak, K.J.; Gąsecka, A. The Ketogenic Effect of SGLT-2 Inhibitors-Beneficial or Harmful? J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2023, 10, 465. Abstract: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, also called gliflozins or flozins, are a class of drugs that have been increasingly used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to their glucose-lowering, cardiovascular (CV), and renal positive effects. However, recent studies suggest that SGLT-2 inhibitors might also have a ketogenic effect, increasing ketone body production. While this can be beneficial for some patients, it may also result in several potential unfavorable effects, such as decreased bone mineral density, infections, and ketoacidosis, among others. Due to the intricate and multifaceted impact caused by SGLT-2 inhibitors, this initially anti-diabetic class of medications has been effectively used to treat both patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those with heart failure (HF). Additionally, their therapeutic potential appears to extend beyond the currently investigated conditions. The objective of this review article is to present a thorough summary of the latest research on the mechanism of action of SGLT-2 inhibitors, their ketogenesis, and their potential synergy with the ketogenic diet for managing diabetes. The article particularly discusses the benefits and risks of combining SGLT-2 inhibitors with the ketogenic diet and their clinical applications and compares them with other anti-diabetic agents in terms of ketogenic effects. It also explores future directions regarding the ketogenic effects of SGLT-2 inhibitors.
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