Calcium phosphates (CaP) represent an important class of osteoconductive and osteoinductive biomaterials. As proof-of-concept, we show how a multi-component CaP formulation (monetite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium pyrophosphate) guides osteogenesis beyond the physiological envelope. In a sheep model, hollow dome-shaped constructs were placed directly over the occipital bone. At 12 months, large amounts of bone (∼75%) occupy the hollow space with strong evidence of ongoing remodelling. Features of both compact bone (osteonal/osteon-like arrangements) and spongy bone (trabeculae separated by marrow cavities) reveal insights into function/need-driven microstructural adaptation. Pores within the CaP also contain both woven bone and vascularised lamellar bone. Osteoclasts actively contribute to CaP degradation/removal. Of the constituent phases, only calcium pyrophosphate persists within osseous (cutting cones) and non-osseous (macrophages) sites. From a translational perspective, this multi-component CaP opens up exciting new avenues for osteotomy-free and minimally-invasive repair of large bone defects and augmentation of the dental alveolar ridge.
Asphalt concrete is among the materials which are most widely used for roads and airport pavements. These pavements over time suffer failure due to passing traffic loads and exposure to different environmental conditions. Typically, when designing a road at the project level, a homogenous pavement design is considered for the entire road segment meaning similar pavement materials and thicknesses are applied throughout a road segment. However, locations such as approach intersections undergo different loading scenarios which make these areas more vulnerable to pavement premature failures such as pavement permanent deformation/rutting and shoving during its service life. The difference in loading scenario is due to high shear stresses associated with vehicle’s stopping and accelerating and also slow traffic movement. As a result, sections such as approach intersections required more frequent treatments for addressing the pavement distresses which makes it both costly and time consuming. Annually, millions of dollars have been spent to compensate rutting failures in the pavement. Therefore, it is critical to agencies to select proper asphalt mixes such as high-performance asphalt mixes for the approach intersections to ensure adequate durability, quality, and safety. The proper mixes also save time and money and minimize environmental impact throughout the road’s lifecycle. With more people coming to York Region’s community every year, the number of vehicles and percentage of trucks transporting goods and services has increased significantly. Therefore, with an increase in temperature pattern in recent years in addition to this traffic increase, York Region is experiencing premature pavement failure, commonly rutting and some shoving, at some of its high-volume intersections. To study the in-service performance and root cause of the rutting and other distress at York Region’s approach intersection, six (6) approach intersections are selected for this study. The study consists of conducting rut depth measurement and geotechnical investigation such as ground generation radar (GPR) testing and collecting cores and borehole samples on the selected sites. This paper presents the field investigation results along with ranking methods to compare the susceptibility of the asphalt surface layer mix to rutting for the tested locations. This paper also explores ideas on how to extrapolate this project level information to the network level for the asset management purposes.
Elastomeric bridge bearings are widely used in bridges to accommodate the deformations produced by mechanical and environmental loads. As their acceptable performance is critical for the bridge performance, finite element analysis (FEA) can be applied to supplement test results on the performance of elastomeric bearings. However, uncertainties are present in both the material properties of their components and the boundary conditions. Therefore, this study provides an initial exploration on how these uncertainties will affect the performance of the bearings under compression. The elastomeric bridge bearing is first modeled using the finite element (FE) method, and then probabilistic analysis is applied using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). Material properties of the elastomer and steel components of the bearing and the friction coefficient at the bearing–support interfaces are treated as random variables, and a probabilistic analysis is performed that shows how specific parameters will influence the output response, including the vertical stiffness, and induced stresses and strains. In addition, the study also provides an initial exploration into the sensitivity of the bearing’s response to epistemic uncertainties in these input parameters. The probabilistic FEA results can ease the development of numerical models of elastomeric bridge bearings, and they can be used to improve the code provisions associated with the design of these bearings.
Background: Systemic oppression, particularly towards sexual minorities, continues to be deeply rooted in the bedrock of many societies globally. Experiences with minority stressors (e.g. discrimination, hate-crimes, internalized homonegativity, rejection sensitivity, and microaggressions or everyday indignities) have been consistently linked to adverse mental health outcomes. Elucidating the neural adaptations associated with minority stress exposure will be critical for furthering our understanding of how sexual minorities become disproportionately affected by mental health burdens. Methods: Following PRISMA-guidelines, we systematically reviewed published neuroimaging studies that compared neural dynamics among sexual minority and heterosexual populations, aggregating information pertaining to any measurement of minority stress and relevant clinical phenomena. Results: Only 1 of 13 studies eligible for inclusion examined minority stress directly, where all other studies focused on investigating the neurobiological basis of sexual orientation. In our narrative synthesis, we highlight important themes that suggest minority stress exposure may be associated with decreased activation and functional connectivity within the default-mode network (related to the sense-of-self and social cognition), and summarize preliminary evidence related to aberrant neural dynamics within the salience network (involved in threat detection and fear processing) and the central executive network (involved in executive functioning and emotion regulation). Importantly, this parallels neural adaptations commonly observed among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of trauma and supports the inclusion of insidious forms of trauma related to minority stress within models of PTSD. Conclusions: Taken together, minority stress may have several shared neuropsychological pathways with PTSD and stress-related disorders. Here, we outline a detailed research agenda that provides an overview of literature linking sexual minority stress to PTSD and insidious trauma, moral affect (including shame and guilt), and mental health risk/resiliency, in addition to racial, ethnic, and gender related minority stress. Finally, we propose a novel minority mosaic framework designed to inform future directions of minority stress neuroimaging research from an intersectional lens.
No previous research has examined age and sex differences in balance outcomes in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at risk of falls. A secondary analysis of baseline data from an ongoing trial of fall prevention in COPD was conducted. Age and sex differences were analyzed for the Berg Balance scale (BBS), Balance Evaluation System Test (BEST test) and Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC). Overall, 223 individuals with COPD were included. Females had higher balance impairments than males [BBS: mean (SD) = 47 (8) vs. 49 (6) points; BEST test: 73 (16) vs. 80 (16) points], and a lower confidence to perform functional activities [ABC = 66 (21) vs. 77 (19)]. Compared to a younger age (50-65 years) group, age >65 years was moderately associated with poor balance control [BBS (r = - 0.37), BEST test (r = - 0.33)] and weakly with the ABC scale (r = - 0.13). After controlling for the effect of balance risk factors, age, baseline dyspnea index (BDI), and the 6-min walk test (6-MWT) explained 38% of the variability in the BBS; age, sex, BDI, and 6-MWT explained 40% of the variability in the BEST test; And BDI and the 6-MWT explained 44% of the variability in the ABC scale. This study highlights age and sex differences in balance outcomes among individuals with COPD at risk of falls. Recognition of these differences has implications for pulmonary rehabilitation and fall prevention in COPD, particularly among females and older adults.
Background: Afghan refugees often face hardship and traumatic experiences before, during, and after migration and frequently suffer from mental health burdens. Evidence based psychological treatments for refugees mostly focus on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), however, refugees often suffer from a variety of general health problems as well as depression and anxiety. We thus aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic psychological intervention. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of an adapted version of Problem Management Plus (aPM+) delivered by mental health professionals to adult Afghan refugees and asylum seekers. Methods: We randomly allocated 88 Afghan refugees either to aPM+ in addition to treatment as usual (aPM+/TAU) or TAU alone. APM+ comprises of six weekly 90-minute individual sessions including strategies of stress management, problem solving, behavioural activation, strengthening social support and either anger regulation or increasing self-efficacy. The primary outcome was general health (GHQ-28) post intervention. Secondary outcome measures included distress by PMLD, Complex PTSD symptoms, quality of life, self-identified problems, and integration. Results: Attrition was high: 42% of the randomized participants did not participate in the post-treatment assessment. A repeated measures per-protocol (completers only) ANCOVA evidenced a significant group × timepoint interaction for GHQ total scores [F(1, 47) = 14.80, p < .001, partial η2 = 0.24]. Post-hoc analyses showed significantly lower symptoms in the aPM+/TAU arm (n = 26) as compared to the TAU arm (n = 25) for the GHQ total scores (dz = 1.04). Most secondary outcomes significantly improved in the aPM+/TAU arm, but not in the TAU arm. Conclusion: APM+ was effective in reducing general health problems in Afghan refugees and might be considered as a first-line intervention. High drop-out rate limit the interpretations of our results, where future investigations should focus on possibilities to reduce these rates.Trial registration: Uniform Trial Number identifier: U1111-1226-3285. Highlights: Refugees' mental health can be strengthened with a brief psychological intervention that also focuses on skills in the context of post-migration stressors.High drop-out rates are a major challenge for future research and delivery of psychological interventions as part of health care systems to refugees and asylum seekers.
Background: While many elaborated treatment protocols focus on post-traumatic stress symptoms, a large number of refugees suffer from a range of mental health problems. Thus, brief and transdiagnostic psychological interventions may be helpful first interventions for help-seeking refugees and asylum seekers in a stepped-care approach. Critically, there is limited research on how transdiagnostic interventions are received in general practice in non-specialized mental healthcare settings in high-income countries, where often only mental health professionals (MHPs) are legally allowed to treat people with mental disorders. MHPs may thus deliver such interventions, but their perspective towards them has not yet been investigated. Objective: We aimed to investigate MHPs' perception of the usability of adapted Problem Management Plus (aPM+), a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention for refugees, which we adapted to address distress caused by post-migration living difficulties (PMLDs). Method: Employing an e-learning tool, we introduced the aPM+ intervention to 59 MHPs and assessed their perspective towards the intervention. We then used an inductive approach to analyse their perspective towards the intervention with open-ended questions. Results: Altogether, 59 MHPs enrolled in the webinar and 29 provided feedback on the intervention. MHPs had a positive view on the intervention but emphasized the importance of situation-specific adaptations to the structure of the manual. The most favoured specific strategies were 'managing stress/slow-breathing', the 'tree of capabilities', and the 'riding the anger' exercise. The last two were additionally developed to reduce distress caused by PMLDs by either enhancing self-efficacy or reducing anger regulation difficulties. Conclusions: An adaptation to aPM+ regarding more flexibility of the manual may enhance the likelihood of MHPs implementing the intervention in their daily practice. Strategies addressing coping with PMLDs could be particularly helpful.Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register identifier: DRKS00016538. Highlights: Mental health professionals had a positive view on a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention for refugees but emphasized the importance of situation-specific adaptations to the structure of the manual.Low -intensity interventions may be useful not only in low- and middle-income countries but also in high-income countries as part of a stepped-care approach, even if distributed by MHPs instead of trained laypersons.
Both mast cells and microbiota play important roles in the pathogenesis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), however the precise mechanisms are unknown. Using microbiota-humanized IBS mouse model, we show that colonic mast cells and mast cells co-localized with neurons were higher in mice colonized with IBS microbiota compared with those with healthy control (HC) microbiota. In situ hybridization showed presence of IBS, but not control microbiota, in the lamina propria and RNAscope demonstrated frequent co-localization of IBS bacteria and mast cells. TLR4 and H4 receptor expression was higher in mice with IBS microbiota, and in peritoneal-derived and bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) stimulated with IBS bacterial supernatant, which also increased BMMCs degranulation, chemotaxis, adherence and histamine release. While both TLR4 and H4 receptor inhibitors prevented BMMCs degranulation, only the latter attenuated their chemotaxis. We provide novel insights into the mechanisms, which contribute to gut dysfunction and visceral hypersensitivity in IBS.
Thin films have been a key element in the technological development and growth of humanity. They were first used thousands of years ago and are still one of the cornerstones of modern science. Thin films are used in countless applications, from the sharpest knife in our kitchen to the most advanced computers. A key challenge to this technology is the ability to micro‐ and nanostructure thin films following deposition. In this chapter, we will review the use of thermally responsive shape memory polymers as attractive substrates for the deposition, micro and nanostructuration of thin films. The potential to use this method to assess the mechanical properties of polymeric thin films, to simulate cell microenvironments, and to be used in wearable electronic and electrochemical sensing are discussed. Toward the end of the chapter, we shall discuss some of the current challenges and opportunities for this relatively new technology.
Background Despite the growing utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for cardiac morphology and function, sex and age-specific normal reference values derived from large, multi-ethnic data sets are lacking. Furthermore, most available studies use a simplified tracing methodology. Using a large cohort of participants without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors from the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Heart and Minds, we sought to establish a robust set of reference values for ventricular and atrial parameters using an anatomically correct contouring method, and to determine the influence of age and sex on ventricular parameters. Methods and results Participants (n = 3206, 65% females; age 55.2 ± 8.4 years for females and 55.1 ± 8.8 years for men) underwent CMR using standard methods for quantitative measurements of cardiac parameters. Normal ventricular and atrial reference values are provided: (1) for males and females, (2) stratified by four age categories, and (3) for different races/ethnicities. Values are reported as absolute, indexed to body surface area, or height. Ventricular volumes and mass were significantly larger for males than females (p < 0.001). Ventricular ejection fraction was significantly diminished in males as compared to females (p < 0.001). Indexed left ventricular (LV) end-systolic, end-diastolic volumes, mass and right ventricular (RV) parameters significantly decreased as age increased for both sexes (p < 0.001). For females, but not men, mean LV and RVEF significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). Conclusion Using anatomically correct contouring methodology, we provide accurate sex and age-specific normal reference values for CMR parameters derived from the largest, multi-ethnic population free of CVD to date. Clinical trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02220582. Registered 20 August 2014—Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02220582 .
Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes 3 million deaths each year, yet 38% of COPD patients continue to smoke. Despite proof of effectiveness and universal guideline recommendations, smoking cessation interventions are underused in practice. We sought to develop an infographic featuring personalized biomedical risk assessment through future lung function decline prediction (with vs without ongoing smoking) to both prompt and enhance clinician delivery of smoking cessation advice and pharmacotherapy, and augment patient motivation to quit. Methods We recruited patients with COPD and pulmonologists from a quaternary care center in Toronto, Canada. Infographic prototype content and design was based on best evidence. After face validation, the prototype was optimized through rapid-cycle design. Each cycle consisted of: (1) infographic testing in a moderated focus group and a clinician interview (recorded/transcribed) (with questionnaire completion); (2) review of transcripts for emergent/critical findings; and (3) infographic modifications to address findings (until no new critical findings emerged). We performed iterative transcript analysis after each cycle and a summative qualitative transcript analysis with quantitative (descriptive) questionnaire analysis. Results Stopping criteria were met after 4 cycles, involving 20 patients (58% male) and 4 pulmonologists (50% male). The following qualitative themes emerged: Tool content (infographic content preferences); Tool Design (infographic design preferences); Advantages of Infographic Messaging (benefits of an infographic over other approaches); Impact of Tool on Determinants of Smoking Cessation Advice Delivery (impact on barriers and enablers to delivery of smoking cessation advice in practice); and Barriers and Enablers to Quitting (impact on barriers and enablers to quitting). Patient Likert scale ratings of infographic content and format/usability were highly positive, with improvements in scores for 20/21 questions through the design process. Providers scored the infographic at 77.8% (“superior”) on the Suitability Assessment of Materials questionnaire. Conclusions We developed a user preference-based personalized biomedical risk assessment infographic to drive smoking cessation in patients with COPD. Our findings suggest that this tool could impact behavioural determinants of provider smoking-cessation advice delivery, while increasing patient quit motivation. Impacts of the tool on provider care, patient motivation to quit, and smoking cessation success should now be evaluated in real-world settings.
Background: Sepsis, the dysregulated host response to infection, triggers abnormal pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory host responses. Limitations in early disease intervention highlight the need for effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Protein C's role as an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory molecule makes it an appealing target for sepsis biomarker studies. This meta-analysis aims to assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of protein C (PC) as a biomarker for adult sepsis. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane Library from database inception to September 12, 2021. We included prospective observational studies of (1) adult patients (> 17) with sepsis or suspicion of sepsis that; (2) measured PC levels with 24 h of study admission with; and (3) the goal of examining PC as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker. Two authors screened articles and conducted risk of bias (RoB) assessment, using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) and the Quality Assessment in Diagnostic Studies-2 (QUADAS-2) tools. If sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) between patient populations. Results: Twelve studies were included, and 8 were synthesized for meta-analysis. Pooled analysis demonstrated moderate certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors (6 studies, 741 patients, SMD = 0.52, 95% CI 0.24-0.81, p = 0.0003, I2 = 55%), and low certainty of evidence that PC levels were less reduced in septic patients without disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) compared to those with DIC (3 studies, 644 patients, SMD = 0.97, 95% CI 0.62-1.32, p < 0.00001, I2 = 67%). PC could not be evaluated as a diagnostic tool due to heterogeneous control populations between studies. Conclusion and relevance: Our review demonstrates that PC levels were significantly higher in sepsis survivors compared to non-survivors and patients with sepsis but not disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Our evaluation is limited by high RoB in included studies and poor reporting of the sensitivity and specificity of PC as a sepsis biomarker. Future studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of PC to identify its clinical significance as a biomarker for early sepsis recognition. Trial Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021229786. The study protocol was published in BMJ Open.
Background tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) have been shown to have critical regulatory roles in cancer biology. However, the contributions of tRFs to colorectal cancer (CRC) remain largely unknown. Methods tRF3008A (a tRFRNA derived from tRNA Val ) was identified by RNA sequencing and validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. The role of tRF3008A in CRC progression was assessed both in vitro and in vivo, and its downstream target genes were identified and validated in CRC cells. RNA pull-down with mass spectrometry and AGO-RIP were used to confirm the interaction of tRF3008A and AGO proteins. The clinical implications of tRF3008A were assessed in CRC tissues and blood samples. Results The expression of tRF3008A was reduced in colorectal cancer, and its reduction was significantly correlated with advanced and metastatic disease in CRC. Patients with low tRF3008A expression showed significantly shorter DFS, and multivariate analysis identified tRF3008A as an independent prognostic biomarker in CRC. Functionally, tRF3008A inhibits the proliferation and migration of CRC in vivo and in vitro by repressing endogenous FOXK1, a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Mechanistically, tRF3008A binds to AGO proteins as a guide to destabilize oncogenic FOXK1 transcript. Conclusions tRF3008A suppresses the metastasis and progression of colorectal cancer by destabilizing FOXK1 in an AGO-dependent manner.
Purpose Under a societal perspective, disease and treatment attributes that the general public deem important should be considered within value frameworks. The objective was to investigate how members of the general public value attributes beyond health gains and healthcare system expenditures; and better understand their perspectives regarding the importance of attributes typically characterizing rare genetic diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit feedback on the importance of disease and treatment attributes from general public participants from three US cities. Participants ranked attributes (scale, 1–10) in terms of importance for future research, reported their rationale for ranking, and provided feedback specific to rare diseases. Interview transcripts were coded using NVivo for thematic analysis. Results The 33 participants (median age, 51 years; 48.5% male) ranked disease severity (mean [median] ranking, 8.7 [9.0]), treatment availability (8.7 [9.0]), and impact on life expectancy (8.4 [9.0]), as most important. The impact on the family, need for equity, and intrinsic value of life were frequently provided rationales. While rare disease as an attribute received a relatively low ranking (6.1 [7.0]), 88% of participants prioritized disease profiles including attributes of severity, health related quality of life (HRQoL) impact, limited lifespan and young age at onset. Conclusion Attributes including disease severity, impact on life expectancy and HRQoL, and treatment availability were all highly important to members of the general public. These findings support the growing evidence regarding the importance of expanding value assessments to include attributes considered important from a societal perspective.
Background Most North American temperate forests are plantation or regrowth forests, which are actively managed. These forests are in different stages of their growth cycles and their ability to sequester atmospheric carbon is affected by extreme weather events. In this study, the impact of heat and drought events on carbon sequestration in an age-sequence (80, 45, and 17 years as of 2019) of eastern white pine ( Pinus strobus L.) forests in southern Ontario, Canada was examined using eddy covariance flux measurements from 2003 to 2019. Results Over the 17-year study period, the mean annual values of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) were 180 ± 96, 538 ± 177 and 64 ± 165 g C m –2 yr –1 in the 80-, 45- and 17-year-old stands, respectively, with the highest annual carbon sequestration rate observed in the 45-year-old stand. We found that air temperature (Ta) was the dominant control on NEP in all three different-aged stands and drought, which was a limiting factor for both gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystems respiration (RE), had a smaller impact on NEP. However, the simultaneous occurrence of heat and drought events during the early growing seasons or over the consecutive years had a significant negative impact on annual NEP in all three forests. We observed a similar trend of NEP decline in all three stands over three consecutive years that experienced extreme weather events, with 2016 being a hot and dry, 2017 being a dry, and 2018 being a hot year. The youngest stand became a net source of carbon for all three of these years and the oldest stand became a small source of carbon for the first time in 2018 since observations started in 2003. However, in 2019, all three stands reverted to annual net carbon sinks. Conclusions Our study results indicate that the timing, frequency and concurrent or consecutive occurrence of extreme weather events may have significant implications for carbon sequestration in temperate conifer forests in Eastern North America. This study is one of few globally available to provide long-term observational data on carbon exchanges in different-aged temperate plantation forests. It highlights interannual variability in carbon fluxes and enhances our understanding of the responses of these forest ecosystems to extreme weather events. Study results will help in developing climate resilient and sustainable forestry practices to offset atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions and improving simulation of carbon exchange processes in terrestrial ecosystem models.
Background There is currently little Canadian data to assess how well traditional time-based residency training programs have prepared residents for careers in Clinical Immunology and Allergy (CIA). This study aims to identify the perceived preparedness of residents in various areas of practice upon the completion of a Canadian CIA residency training program. Methods In the summer of 2020, an electronic survey was sent to 2018 and 2019 graduates of Canadian CIA training programs by the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI). Results Former residents felt well prepared in most Medical Expert areas. Residents felt less prepared for the intrinsic roles of Leader, Communicator, Collaborator, Health Advocate, Scholar, and Professional. The majority of the intrinsic competencies were learned through mentorship and on the job after finishing training. Conclusions Upon completion of training, Canadian CIA residents felt well prepared for many competencies, particularly in Medical Expert areas. Training programs may wish to focus on various intrinsic competencies in order to better prepare residents for transition to practice. Academic half-day was not identified as a primary learning centre for intrinsic competencies, suggesting that new teaching strategies may be required.
Background Food Protein-Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE mediated food allergy most commonly presenting in infants. The most common food triggers include soy, cow’s milk and grains. Symptoms may include intractable vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, pallor, abdominal distention, hypotension and/or shock. Oral food challenges (OFCs) given at food protein dose of 0.06–0.6 g/kg in 3 equivalent doses administered over a few hours are recommended in guidelines to confirm a diagnosis. Case presentation The patient is a 6-month-old girl with a history of severe FPIES symptoms to egg. In our clinic, we perform OFC with 1/100 serving dose on visit 1 and then increase the dose monthly. The patient takes the tolerated dose daily at home between visits. An OFC to baked egg at 1/100 of a serving was performed and was well-tolerated on her initial visit. The patient remained on the same dose upon returning home. Within 1-week, she developed FPIES symptoms including watery diarrhea and severe emesis requiring ondansetron. She required an Emergency Department visit for one of the reactions. Conclusions Our patient had severe FPIES symptoms with a small amount of egg. We believe that administration of three large food challenge doses on one clinic visit, as guidelines currently suggest, does not allow adequate time for symptoms to appear. Our patient likely would have suffered a severe reaction. Also, this guidelines protocol does not allow for monitoring of more delayed or chronic FPIES. We propose a modified protocol to OFCs with cautious up-dosing to allow for safer OFCs and monitoring of chronic FPIES. We have implemented an OFC approach where only one food challenge dose (starting with 1/100 of final dose) is given at each visit. The up-titration of the dose is completed every 4-weeks with one dose only. When the serving sized dose is reached and tolerated, the food can be maintained in the diet.
Background The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a spectrum of adversities that have affected older adults disproportionately. This paper examines older adults with multimorbidity using longitudinal data to ascertain why some of these vulnerable individuals coped with pandemic-induced risk and stressors better than others – termed multimorbidity resilience. We investigate pre-pandemic levels of functional, social and psychological forms of resilience among this sub-population of at-risk individuals on two outcomes – self-reported comprehensive pandemic impact and personal worry. Methods This study was conducted using Follow-up 1 data from the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), and the Baseline and Exit COVID-19 study, conducted between April and December in 2020. A final sub-group of 9211 older adults with two or more chronic health conditions were selected for analyses. Logistic regression and Generalized Linear Mixed Models were employed to test hypotheses between a multimorbidity resilience index and its three sub-indices measured using pre-pandemic Follow-up 1 data and the outcomes, including covariates. Results The multimorbidity resilience index was inversely associated with pandemic comprehensive impact at both COVID-19 Baseline wave (OR = 0.83, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.80,0.86]), and Exit wave (OR = 0.84, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.81,0.87]); and for personal worry at Exit (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.86,0.93]), in the final models with all covariates. The full index was also associated with comprehensive impact between the COVID waves (estimate = − 0.19, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [− 0.22, − 0.16]). Only the psychological resilience sub-index was inversely associated with comprehensive impact at both Baseline (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]) and Exit waves (OR = 0.89, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [0.87,0.91]), in the final model; and between these COVID waves (estimate = − 0.11, p < 0.001, 95% CI: [− 0.13, − 0.10]). The social resilience sub-index exhibited a weak positive association (OR = 1.04, p < 0.05, 95% CI: [1.01,1.07]) with personal worry, and the functional resilience measure was not associated with either outcome. Conclusions The findings show that psychological resilience is most pronounced in protecting against pandemic comprehensive impact and personal worry. In addition, several covariates were also associated with the outcomes. The findings are discussed in terms of developing or retrofitting innovative approaches to proactive coping among multimorbid older adults during both pre-pandemic and peri-pandemic periods.
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