Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
Recent publications
Humans can vividly simulate hypothetical experiences. This ability draws on our memories (e.g., of familiar people and locations) to construct imaginings that resemble real-life events (e.g., of meeting a person at a location). Here, we examine the hypothesis that we also learn from such simulated episodes much like from actual experiences. Specifically, we show that the mere simulation of meeting a familiar person (unconditioned stimulus; US) at a known location (conditioned stimulus; CS) changes how people value the location. We provide key evidence that this simulation-based learning strengthens pre-existing CS-US associations and that it leads to a transfer of valence from the US to the CS. The data thus highlight a mechanism by which we learn from simulated experiences.
Both children and adults have been shown to benefit from the integration of multisensory and sensorimotor enrichment into pedagogy. For example, integrating pictures or gestures into foreign language (L2) vocabulary learning can improve learning outcomes relative to unisensory learning. However, whereas adults seem to benefit to a greater extent from sensorimotor enrichment such as the performance of gestures in contrast to multisensory enrichment with pictures, this is not the case in elementary school children. Here, we compared multisensory- and sensorimotor-enriched learning in an intermediate age group that falls between the age groups tested in previous studies (elementary school children and young adults), in an attempt to determine the developmental time point at which children’s responses to enrichment mature from a child-like pattern into an adult-like pattern. Twelve-year-old and fourteen-year-old German children were trained over 5 consecutive days on auditorily presented, concrete and abstract, Spanish vocabulary. The vocabulary was learned under picture-enriched, gesture-enriched, and non-enriched (auditory-only) conditions. The children performed vocabulary recall and translation tests at 3 days, 2 months, and 6 months post-learning. Both picture and gesture enrichment interventions were found to benefit children’s L2 learning relative to non-enriched learning up to 6 months post-training. Interestingly, gesture-enriched learning was even more beneficial than picture-enriched learning for the 14-year-olds, while the 12-year-olds benefitted equivalently from learning enriched with pictures and gestures. These findings provide evidence for opting to integrate gestures rather than pictures into L2 pedagogy starting at 14 years of age.
Classical linguistic theory assumes that formal aspects, like sound, are not internally related to the meaning of words. However, recent research suggests language might code affective meaning such as threat and alert sublexically. Positing affective phonological iconicity as a systematic organization principle of the German lexicon, we calculated sublexical affective values for sub-syllabic phonological word segments from a large-scale affective lexical German database by averaging valence and arousal ratings of all words any phonological segment appears in. We tested word stimuli with either consistent or inconsistent mappings between lexical affective meaning and sublexical affective values (negative-valence/high-arousal vs. neutral-valence/low-arousal) in an EEG visual-lexical-decision task. A mismatch between sublexical and lexical affective values elicited an increased N400 response. These results reveal that systematic affective phonological iconicity – extracted from the lexicon - impacts the extraction of lexical word meaning during reading.
Given controversial findings of reduced depressive symptom severity and increased hippocampus volume in CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, we sought to provide empirical evidence from a large-scale single-center longitudinal cohort in the community-dwelling adult population—Colaus|PsyCoLaus in Lausanne, Switzerland ( n = 4152). We looked for CYP2C19 genotype-related behavioral and brain anatomy patterns using a comprehensive set of psychometry, water diffusion- and relaxometry-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data (BrainLaus, n = 1187). Our statistical models tested for differential associations between poor metabolizer and other metabolizer status with imaging-derived indices of brain volume and tissue properties that explain individuals’ current and lifetime mood characteristics. The observed association between CYP2C19 genotype and lifetime affective status showing higher functioning scores in poor metabolizers, was mainly driven by female participants (ß = 3.9, p = 0.010). There was no difference in total hippocampus volume between poor metabolizer and other metabolizer, though there was higher subiculum volume in the right hippocampus of poor metabolizers (ß = 0.03, p FDR corrected = 0.036). Our study supports the notion of association between mood phenotype and CYP2C19 genotype, however, finds no evidence for concomitant hippocampus volume differences, with the exception of the right subiculum.
Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the flexible updating of an animal’s choice responses upon rule changes in the environment. However, how anterior cingulate cortex entrains motor cortex to reorganize rule representations and generate required motor outputs remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that chemogenetic silencing of the terminal projections of cingulate cortical neurons in secondary motor cortex in the rat disrupts choice performance in trials immediately following rule switches, suggesting that these inputs are necessary to update rule representations for choice decisions stored in the motor cortex. Indeed, the silencing of cingulate cortex decreases rule selectivity of secondary motor cortical neurons. Furthermore, optogenetic silencing of cingulate cortical neurons that is temporally targeted to error trials immediately after rule switches exacerbates errors in the following trials. These results suggest that cingulate cortex monitors behavioral errors and updates rule representations in motor cortex, revealing a critical role for cingulate-motor circuits in adaptive choice behaviors. The anterior cingulate cortex allows an animal to update its behaviour when the environment changes. In this work, the authors identify a pathway from cingulate to secondary motor cortex, critical for updating motor rules following behavioural errors.
Importance: The behavioral and cognitive symptoms of severe psychotic disorders overlap with those seen in dementia. However, shared brain alterations remain disputed, and their relevance for patients in at-risk disease stages has not been explored so far. Objective: To use machine learning to compare the expression of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), Alzheimer disease (AD), and schizophrenia; estimate predictability in patients with bvFTD and schizophrenia based on sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data; and examine prognostic value, genetic underpinnings, and progression in patients with clinical high-risk (CHR) states for psychosis or recent-onset depression (ROD). Design, setting, and participants: This study included 1870 individuals from 5 cohorts, including (1) patients with bvFTD (n = 108), established AD (n = 44), mild cognitive impairment or early-stage AD (n = 96), schizophrenia (n = 157), or major depression (n = 102) to derive and compare diagnostic patterns and (2) patients with CHR (n = 160) or ROD (n = 161) to test patterns' prognostic relevance and progression. Healthy individuals (n = 1042) were used for age-related and cohort-related data calibration. Data were collected from January 1996 to July 2019 and analyzed between April 2020 and April 2022. Main outcomes and measures: Case assignments based on diagnostic patterns; sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data; 2-year functional outcomes and genetic separability of patients with CHR and ROD with high vs low pattern expression; and pattern progression from baseline to follow-up MRI scans in patients with nonrecovery vs preserved recovery. Results: Of 1870 included patients, 902 (48.2%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 38.0 (19.3) years. The bvFTD pattern comprising prefrontal, insular, and limbic volume reductions was more expressed in patients with schizophrenia (65 of 157 [41.2%]) and major depression (22 of 102 [21.6%]) than the temporo-limbic AD patterns (28 of 157 [17.8%] and 3 of 102 [2.9%], respectively). bvFTD expression was predicted by high body mass index, psychomotor slowing, affective disinhibition, and paranoid ideation (R2 = 0.11). The schizophrenia pattern was expressed in 92 of 108 patients (85.5%) with bvFTD and was linked to the C9orf72 variant, oligoclonal banding in the cerebrospinal fluid, cognitive impairment, and younger age (R2 = 0.29). bvFTD and schizophrenia pattern expressions forecasted 2-year psychosocial impairments in patients with CHR and were predicted by polygenic risk scores for frontotemporal dementia, AD, and schizophrenia. Findings were not associated with AD or accelerated brain aging. Finally, 1-year bvFTD/schizophrenia pattern progression distinguished patients with nonrecovery from those with preserved recovery. Conclusions and relevance: Neurobiological links may exist between bvFTD and psychosis focusing on prefrontal and salience system alterations. Further transdiagnostic investigations are needed to identify shared pathophysiological processes underlying the neuroanatomical interface between the 2 disease spectra.
Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a prominent rehabilitation program for individuals with post-stroke aphasia. Our meta-analysis investigated the efficacy of MIT while considering quality of outcomes, experimental design, influence of spontaneous recovery, MIT protocol variant, and level of generalization. Extensive literature search identified 606 studies in major databases and trial registers; of those, 22 studies-overall 129 participants-met all eligibility criteria. Multi-level mixed- and random-effects models served to separately meta-analyze randomized controlled trial (RCT) and non-RCT data. RCT evidence on validated outcomes revealed a small-to-moderate standardized effect in noncommunicative language expression for MIT-with substantial uncertainty. Unvalidated outcomes attenuated MIT's effect size compared to validated tests. MIT's effect size was 5.7 times larger for non-RCT data compared to RCT data (g̅case report = 2.01 vs. g̅RCT = 0.35 for validated Non-Communicative Language Expression measures). Effect size for non-RCT data decreased with number of months post-stroke, suggesting confound through spontaneous recovery. Deviation from the original MIT protocol did not systematically alter benefit from treatment. Progress on validated tests arose mainly from gains in repetition tasks rather than other domains of verbal expression, such as everyday communication ability. Our results confirm the promising role of MIT in improving trained and untrained performance on unvalidated outcomes, alongside validated repetition tasks, and highlight possible limitations in promoting everyday communication ability.
In visual masking, the visibility of a fleetingly presented visual target is disrupted by the presentation of an additional image, the mask, shortly before or after the target. Rapid stream stimulation (RSS) is a masking paradigm that is frequently used in character processing. Although neuroimaging studies have examined lexicality in terms of RSS, the mechanism underlying character masking has not been investigated. To resolve this issue, we investigated the neural basis of masking effects in lexicality using a two-way factorial design in a 3T-fMRI with masking (mask condition: masked versus unmasked) and target stimulus (character likeness: real-, pseudo-, non-characters) as factors. We found that brain activity in the left middle occipital gyrus (MOG) and lingual gyrus was strongest in the unmasked condition in RSS. Analysis of psychophysiological interactions revealed diverse patterns of functional connectivity in the two conditions, with stronger functional connectivity of the left MOG to the left fusiform gyrus and the right posterior cingulate cortex, suggesting the involvement of lexical processing of familiar characters. Together, these findings of activation and connectivity patterns indicated that masking in RSS reduced the visibility of characters by suppressing activity in the occipital cortex and reduced connectivity in both orthographical and attention networks.
Terrains in a 3D world can be undulating. Yet, most prior research has exclusively investigated spatial representations on a flat surface, leaving a 2D cognitive map as the dominant model in the field. Here, we investigated whether humans represent a curved surface by building a dimension-reduced flattened 2D map or a full 3D map. Participants learned the location of objects positioned on a flat and curved surface in a virtual environment by driving on the concave side of the surface (Experiment 1), driving and looking vertically (Experiment 2), or flying (Experiment 3). Subsequently, they were asked to retrieve either the path distance or the 3D Euclidean distance between the objects. Path distance estimation was good overall, but we found a significant underestimation bias for the path distance on the curve, suggesting an influence of potential 3D shortcuts, even though participants were only driving on the surface. Euclidean distance estimation was better when participants were exposed more to the global 3D structure of the environment by looking and flying. These results suggest that the representation of the 2D manifold, embedded in a 3D world, is neither purely 2D nor 3D. Rather, it is flexible and dependent on the behavioral experience and demand.
As humans we communicate important information through fine nuances in our facial expressions, but because conscious motor representations are noisy, we might not be able to report these fine movements. Here we measured the precision of the explicit metacognitive information that young adults have about their own facial expressions. Participants imitated pictures of themselves making facial expressions and triggered a camera to take a picture of them while doing so. They then rated how well they thought they imitated each expression. We defined metacognitive access to facial expressions as the relationship between objective performance (how well the two pictures matched) and subjective performance ratings. As a group, participants' metacognitive confidence ratings were only about four times less precise than their own similarity ratings. In turn, machine learning analyses revealed that participants' performance ratings were based on idiosyncratic subsets of features. We conclude that metacognitive access to one's own facial expressions is only partial.
Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that ephaptic coupling leads to the synchronisation and slowing down of spikes propagating along the axons within peripheral nerve bundles. However, the main focus thus far has been on a small number of identical axons, whereas realistic peripheral nerve bundles contain numerous axons with different diameters. Here, we present a computationally efficient spike propagation model, which captures the essential features of propagating spikes and their ephaptic interaction, and facilitates the theoretical investigation of spike volleys in large, heterogeneous fibre bundles. We first lay out the theoretical basis to describe how the spike in an active axon changes the membrane potential of a passive axon. These insights are then incorporated into the spike propagation model, which is calibrated with a biophysically realistic model based on Hodgkin–Huxley dynamics. The fully calibrated model is then applied to fibre bundles with a large number of axons and different types of axon diameter distributions. One key insight of this study is that the heterogeneity of the axonal diameters has a dispersive effect, and that a higher level of heterogeneity requires stronger ephaptic coupling to achieve full synchronisation between spikes.
Infants rapidly advance in their speech perception, electrophysiologically reflected in the transition from an immature, positive-going to an adult-like, negative-going mismatch response (MMR) to auditory deviancy. Although the MMR is a common tool to study speech perception development, it is not yet completely understood how different speech contrasts affect the MMR's characteristics across development. Thus, a systematic longitudinal investigation of the MMR's maturation depending on speech contrast is necessary. We here longitudinally explored the maturation of the infant MMR to four critical speech contrasts: consonant, vowel, vowel-length, and pitch. MMRs were obtained when infants (n = 58) were 2, 6 and 10 months old. To evaluate the maturational trajectory of MMRs, we applied second-order latent growth curve models. Results showed positive-going MMR amplitudes to all speech contrasts across all assessment points that decreased over time towards an adult-like negativity. Notably, the developmental trajectories of speech contrasts differed, implying that infant speech perception matures with different rates and trajectories throughout the first year, depending on the studied auditory feature. Our results suggest that stimulus-dependent maturational trajectories need to be considered when drawing conclusions about infant speech perception development reflected by the infant MMR.
Multi-Parameter Mapping (MPM) is a comprehensive quantitative neuroimaging protocol that enables estimation of four physical parameters (longitudinal and effective transverse relaxation rates R1 and R2*, proton density PD, and magnetization transfer saturation MTsat) that are sensitive to microstructural tissue properties such as iron and myelin content. Their capability to reveal microstructural brain differences, however, is tightly bound to controlling random noise and artefacts (e.g. caused by head motion) in the signal. Here, we introduced a method to estimate the local error of PD, R1, and MTsat maps that captures both noise and artefacts on a routine basis without requiring additional data. To investigate the method's sensitivity to random noise, we calculated the model-based signal-to-noise ratio (mSNR) and showed in measurements and simulations that it correlated linearly with an experimental raw-image-based SNR map. We found that the mSNR varied with MPM protocols, magnetic field strength (3T vs. 7T) and MPM parameters: it halved from PD to R1 and decreased from PD to MTsat by a factor of 3-4. Exploring the artefact-sensitivity of the error maps, we generated robust MPM parameters using two successive acquisitions of each contrast and the acquisition-specific errors to down-weight erroneous regions. The resulting robust MPM parameters showed reduced variability at the group level as compared to their single-repeat or averaged counterparts. The error and mSNR maps may better inform power-calculations by accounting for local data quality variations across measurements. Code to compute the mSNR maps and robustly combined MPM maps is available in the open-source hMRI toolbox.
Importance: Alcohol consumption (AC) leads to death and disability worldwide. Ongoing discussions on potential negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on AC need to be informed by real-world evidence. Objective: To examine whether lockdown measures are associated with AC and consumption-related temporal and psychological within-person mechanisms. Design, setting, and participants: This quantitative, intensive, longitudinal cohort study recruited 1743 participants from 3 sites from February 20, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Data were provided before and within the second lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany: before lockdown (October 2 to November 1, 2020); light lockdown (November 2 to December 15, 2020); and hard lockdown (December 16, 2020, to February 28, 2021). Main outcomes and measures: Daily ratings of AC (main outcome) captured during 3 lockdown phases (main variable) and temporal (weekends and holidays) and psychological (social isolation and drinking intention) correlates. Results: Of the 1743 screened participants, 189 (119 [63.0%] male; median [IQR] age, 37 [27.5-52.0] years) with at least 2 alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) yet without the need for medically supervised alcohol withdrawal were included. These individuals provided 14 694 smartphone ratings from October 2020 through February 2021. Multilevel modeling revealed significantly higher AC (grams of alcohol per day) on weekend days vs weekdays (β = 11.39; 95% CI, 10.00-12.77; P < .001). Alcohol consumption was above the overall average on Christmas (β = 26.82; 95% CI, 21.87-31.77; P < .001) and New Year's Eve (β = 66.88; 95% CI, 59.22-74.54; P < .001). During the hard lockdown, perceived social isolation was significantly higher (β = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.06-0.15; P < .001), but AC was significantly lower (β = -5.45; 95% CI, -8.00 to -2.90; P = .001). Independent of lockdown, intention to drink less alcohol was associated with lower AC (β = -11.10; 95% CI, -13.63 to -8.58; P < .001). Notably, differences in AC between weekend and weekdays decreased both during the hard lockdown (β = -6.14; 95% CI, -9.96 to -2.31; P = .002) and in participants with severe AUD (β = -6.26; 95% CI, -10.18 to -2.34; P = .002). Conclusions and relevance: This 5-month cohort study found no immediate negative associations of lockdown measures with overall AC. Rather, weekend-weekday and holiday AC patterns exceeded lockdown effects. Differences in AC between weekend days and weekdays evinced that weekend drinking cycles decreased as a function of AUD severity and lockdown measures, indicating a potential mechanism of losing and regaining control. This finding suggests that temporal patterns and drinking intention constitute promising targets for prevention and intervention, even in high-risk individuals.
Lateralization is a fundamental characteristic of many behaviors and the organization of the brain, and atypical lateralization has been suggested to be linked to various brain-related disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Right-handedness is one of the most prominent markers of human behavioural lateralization, yet its neurobiological basis remains to be determined. Here, we present a large-scale analysis of handedness, as measured by self-reported direction of hand preference, and its variability related to brain structural and functional organization in the UK Biobank (N = 36,024). A multivariate machine learning approach with multi-modalities of brain imaging data was adopted, to reveal how well brain imaging features could predict individual's handedness (i.e., right-handedness vs. non-right-handedness) and further identify the top brain signatures that contributed to the prediction. Overall, the results showed a good prediction performance, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) score of up to 0.72, driven largely by resting-state functional measures. Virtual lesion analysis and large-scale decoding analysis suggested that the brain networks with the highest importance in the prediction showed functional relevance to hand movement and several higher-level cognitive functions including language, arithmetic, and social interaction. Genetic analyses of contributions of common DNA polymorphisms to the imaging-derived handedness prediction score showed a significant heritability (h²=7.55%, p <0.001) that was similar to and slightly higher than that for the behavioural measure itself (h²=6.74%, p <0.001). The genetic correlation between the two was high (rg=0.71), suggesting that the imaging-derived score could be used as a surrogate in genetic studies where the behavioural measure is not available. This large-scale study using multimodal brain imaging and multivariate machine learning has shed new light on the neural correlates of human handedness.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the human spinal cord faces many challenges, such as signal loss due to local magnetic field inhomogeneities. This issue can be addressed with slice-specific z-shimming, which compensates for the dephasing effect of the inhomogeneities using a slice-specific gradient pulse. Here, we aim to address outstanding issues regarding this technique by evaluating its effects on several aspects that are directly relevant for spinal fMRI and by developing two automated procedures in order to improve upon the time-consuming and subjective nature of manual selection of z-shims: one procedure finds the z-shim that maximizes signal intensity in each slice of an EPI reference-scan and the other finds the through-slice field inhomogeneity for each EPI-slice in field map data and calculates the required compensation gradient moment. We demonstrate that the beneficial effects of z-shimming are apparent across different echo times, hold true for both the dorsal and ventral horn, and are also apparent in the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) of EPI time-series data. Both of our automated approaches were faster than the manual approach, lead to significant improvements in gray matter tSNR compared to no z-shimming and resulted in beneficial effects that were stable across time. While the field-map-based approach performed slightly worse than the manual approach, the EPI-based approach performed as well as the manual one and was furthermore validated on an external corticospinal data-set (N > 100). Together, automated z-shimming may improve the data quality of future spinal fMRI studies and lead to increased reproducibility in longitudinal studies.
The human cerebral cortex is symmetrically organized along large-scale axes but also presents inter-hemispheric differences in structure and function. The quantified contralateral homologous difference, i.e., asymmetry, is a key feature of the human brain left-right axis supporting functional processes, such as language. Here, we assessed whether the asymmetry of cortical functional organization is heritable and phylogenetically conserved between humans and macaques. Our findings indicate asymmetric organization along an axis describing a functional trajectory from perceptual/action to abstract cognition. Whereas language network showed leftward asymmetric organization, frontoparietal network showed rightward asymmetric organization in humans. These asymmetries were heritable in humans and showed a similar spatial distribution with macaques, in the case of intra-hemispheric asymmetry of functional hierarchy. This suggests (phylo)genetic conservation. However, both language and frontoparietal networks showed a qualitatively larger asymmetry in humans relative to macaques. Overall, our findings suggest a genetic basis for asymmetry in intrinsic functional organization, linked to higher-order cognitive functions uniquely developed in humans.
Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques are widely used tools for the study and rehabilitation of cognitive functions. Different NIBS approaches aim to enhance or impair different cognitive processes. The methodological focus for achieving this has been on stimulation protocols that are considered either inhibitory or facilitatory. However, despite more than three decades of use, their application is based on incomplete and overly simplistic conceptualizations of mechanisms of action. Such misconception limits the usefulness of these approaches in the basic science and clinical domains. In this review, we challenge this view by arguing that stimulation protocols themselves are neither inhibitory nor facilitatory. Instead, we suggest that all induced effects reflect complex interactions of internal and external factors. Given these considerations, we present a novel model in which we conceptualize NIBS effects as an interaction between brain activity and the characteristics of the external stimulus. This interactive model can explain various phenomena in the brain stimulation literature that have been considered unexpected or paradoxical. We argue that these effects no longer seem paradoxical when considered from the viewpoint of state dependency.
Substantial evidence indicates a huge potential for risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia based on modifiable health and lifestyle factors. To maximize the chances for risk reduction, it is useful to investigate associations of social determinants and lifestyle for brain health. We computed the “LIfestyle for BRAin health” (LIBRA) score for baseline participants of the Leipzig Research Centre for Civilization Diseases (LIFE) Adult Study, a population-based urban cohort in Germany. LIBRA predicts dementia in midlife and early late life populations, comprising 12 modifiable risk factors (heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, diet, depression, cognitive inactivity). Associations of social determinants (living situation, marital status, social isolation, education, net equivalence income, occupational status, socioeconomic status/SES, employment) with LIBRA were inspected using age- and sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression analysis. Z-standardization and sampling weights were applied. Participants (n = 6203) were M = 57.4 (SD = 10.6, range 40–79) years old and without dementia, 53.0% were women. Except for marital status, all considered social determinants were significantly associated with LIBRA. Beta coefficients for the association with higher LIBRA scores were most pronounced for low SES (β = 0.80, 95% CI [0.72–0.88]; p < 0.001) and middle SES (β = 0.55, 95% CI [0.47–0.62]; p < 0.001). Social determinants, particularly socioeconomic factors, are associated with lifestyle for brain health, and should thus be addressed in risk reduction strategies for cognitive decline and dementia. A social-ecological public health perspective on risk reduction might be more effective and equitable than focusing on individual lifestyle behaviors alone.
As members of a social species, we spend most of our time interacting with others. In interactions, we tend to mutually align our behavior and brain responses to communicate more effectively. In a semi-computerized version of the Rock-Paper-Scissors game, we investigated whether people show enhanced interpersonal neural synchronization when making explicit predictions about others’ actions. Across four experimental conditions, we measured the dynamic brain activity using the functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning method. Results showed that interpersonal neural synchrony was enhanced when participants played the game together as they would do in real life in comparison to when they played the game on their own. We found no evidence of increased neural synchrony when participants made explicit predictions about others’ actions. Hence, neural synchrony may depend on mutual natural interaction rather than an explicit prediction strategy. This study is important, as it examines one of the presumed functions of neural synchronization namely facilitating predictions.
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236 members
Manuela Macedonia
  • Lise Meitner Research Group Cognition and Plasticity
Michael Gaebler
  • Department of Neurology
Robert Turner
  • Department of Neurophysics
Alfred Anwander
  • Department of Neuropsychology
Veronika Engert
  • Department of Social Neuroscience
Stephanstr. 1a, 04103 Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany