Max-Planck-Institut für Ornithologie, Teilinstitut Radolfzell
Recent publications
Quantifying stress and energetic responses in animals is a major challenge as existing methods lack temporal resolution and elevate animal stress. We propose “wake respirometry”, a new method of quantifying fine-scale changes in CO2 production in unrestrained animals, using a non-dispersive infrared CO2 sensor positioned downwind of the animal i.e. in its wake. We parameterise the dispersion of CO2 in wakes using known CO2 flow rates and wind speeds. Tests with three bird species in a wind tunnel demonstrated that the system can resolve breath-by-breath changes in CO2 concentration, with clear exhalation signatures increasing in period and integral with body size. Changes in physiological state were detectable following handling, flight and exposure to a perceived threat. We discuss the potential of wake respirometry to quantify stress and respiratory patterns in wild animals and provide suggestions for estimating behaviour-specific metabolic rates via full integration of CO2 production across the wake.
Animal species differ considerably in their ability to fight off infections. Finding the genetic basis of these differences is not easy, as the immune response is comprised of a complex network of proteins that interact with one another to defend the body against infection. Here, we used population- and comparative genomics to study the evolutionary forces acting on the innate immune system in natural hosts of avian influenza virus (AIV). For this purpose, we used a combination of hybrid capture, next generation sequencing and published genomes to examine genetic diversity, divergence and signatures of selection in 127 innate immune genes at a micro- and macroevolutionary time scale in 26 species of waterfowl. We show across multiple immune pathways (AIV-, toll-like-, and RIG-I like receptors signalling pathways) that genes involved in pathogen detection (i.e. toll-like receptors) and direct pathogen inhibition (i.e. antimicrobial peptides and interferon-stimulated genes), as well as host proteins targeted by viral antagonist proteins (i.e. MAVS) are more likely to be polymorphic, genetically divergent and under positive selection than other innate immune genes. Our results demonstrate that selective forces vary across innate immune signalling pathways in waterfowl, and we present candidate genes that may contribute to differences in susceptibility and resistance to infectious diseases in wild birds, and that may be manipulated by viruses. Our findings improve our understanding of the interplay between host genetics and pathogens, and offer the opportunity for new insights into pathogenesis and potential drug targets.
Migratory species have a limited time for habitat selection upon arrival at the breeding grounds. This is especially evident in arctic migrants, which are restricted by a narrow window of opportunity when environmental conditions are favorable for breeding. This general time constraint is amplified in rough-legged buzzards (Buteo lagopus) who, as many other arctic predators, rely on rodent (lemming) cycles during the breeding season, a 3-5 year period of waxing and waning local food abundance. It remains unclear how arctic predators, especially migrants, can find nesting areas where rodents are numerous when their selection time is so limited. We hypothesized that rough-legged buzzards select nesting areas during the previous breeding season. We tracked 43 rough-legged buzzards using GPS telemetry and assessed their movements post-breeding prospecting behavior to test our hypothesis. Here we show that rough-legged buzzards search for a nesting location during the previous breeding season in a post-breeding period. In the following year, individuals return to and attempt to breed in the area they inspected the year before. Rough-legged buzzards, regardless of breeding success, remained in the Arctic all breeding season until the end of September. Failed breeders prospected more than successful ones. At the same time, buzzards that bred in the rodent-free ecosystem prospected less and showed a high level of philopatry. Therefore, as rodent cycles have been predicted to collapse in the warming Arctic, we can expect arctic predators to change their movement patterns in the future with serious potential consequences for their conservation. We anticipate our study provides a step forward toward understanding movement and settlement decisions in animals experiencing high inter-annual environmental variation.
Previous research has found that oxytocin (OT) is associated with intergroup behaviour in humans as well as wild chimpanzees, and that exogenous OT affects Pan social attention. The two Pan species, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ drastically from one another in their intensity of intergroup competition, with lethal intergroup aggression often led by males in chimpanzees and more tolerant associations often centered around females in bonobos. However, it remains unclear how exogenous OT changes the two species' responses to ingroup and outgroup individuals. In this study, after intranasal administration of nebulized OT or placebo control, chimpanzees and bonobos viewed image pairs of ingroup and outgroup conspecifics while their eye movements were tracked with an eye-tracker. Although the overall effect of OT was small, we found that OT shifted bonobos' and chimpanzees' attention to outgroup images of the sex primarily involved in intergroup encounters in each species. Specifically, OT selectively shifted attention towards outgroup photos of female conspecifics in bonobos, and those of outgroup male conspecifics in chimpanzees. This suggests that OT generally promotes outgroup attention in both bonobos and chimpanzees but this effect is restricted to the sex most relevant in intergroup relations. These results suggest that, although OT may have a generally conserved role in hominid intergroup behaviour, it may act in species-relevant ways under the influence of their socio-ecological backgrounds.
GPS-enabled loggers have been proven as valuable tools for monitoring and understanding animal movement, behaviour and ecology. While the importance of recording accurate location estimates is well established, deployment on many, especially small species, has been limited by logger mass and cost. We developed an open-source and low-cost 0.65 g GPS logger with a simple smartphone-compatible user interface, that can record more than 10,000 GPS fixes on a single 30 mAh battery charge (resulting mass including battery: 1.3 g). This low-budget ‘TickTag’ (currently 32 USD) allows scientists to scale-up studies while becoming a ‘wearable’ for larger animals and simultaneously enabling high-definition studies on small animals. Tests on two different species (domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris and greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis ) showed that our combination of optimised hardware design and software-based recording strategies increases the number of achievable GPS fixes per g device mass compared to existing micro-sized solutions. We propose that due to the open-source access, as well as low cost and mass, the TickTag fills a technological gap in wildlife ecology and will open up new possibilities for wildlife research and conservation.
Climate warming is increasingly exposing wildlife to sublethal high temperatures, which may lead to chronic impacts and reduced fitness. Telomere length (TL) may link heat exposure to fitness, particularly at early-life stages, because developing organisms are especially vulnerable to adverse conditions, adversity can shorten telomeres, and TL predicts fitness. Here, we quantify how climatic and environmental conditions during early life are associated with TL in nestlings of wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens ( Malurus coronatus ), endangered songbirds of the monsoonal tropics. We found that higher average maximum air temperature (range 31 to 45 °C) during the nestling period was associated with shorter early-life TL. This effect was mitigated by water availability (i.e., during the wet season, with rainfall), but independent of other pertinent environmental conditions, implicating a direct effect of heat exposure. Models incorporating existing information that shorter early-life TL predicts shorter lifespan and reduced fitness showed that shorter TL under projected warming scenarios could lead to population decline across plausible future water availability scenarios. However, if TL is assumed to be an adaptive trait, population viability could be maintained through evolution. These results are concerning because the capacity to change breeding phenology to coincide with increased water availability appears limited, and the evolutionary potential of TL is unknown. Thus, sublethal climate warming effects early in life may have repercussions beyond individual fitness, extending to population persistence. Incorporating the delayed reproductive costs associated with sublethal heat exposure early in life is necessary for understanding future population dynamics with climate change.
One of the most pressing dilemmas of our time is determining how to satisfy the demands of a growing human population while still conserving biodiversity. Worldwide, land modification to accommodate human resource needs has caused significant declines in wildlife populations. To help minimize biodiversity loss, we must support wildlife on human-dominated land, such as farms and urban areas, but our knowledge of how to do so is lacking. Agriculture is a major driver of land modification; but also has the potential to play a role in conserving biodiversity. To support critically endangered ecosystem engineers that use farms, such as giant Galapagos tortoises, we need to understand the characteristics encouraging or hindering them. To quantify tortoise habitat preferences, we assessed the relationship between tortoise density, habitat structure, and land-use type, by recording tortoise density on farms on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos, over two years. Tortoise density was lowest in abandoned farmland and highest in tourist areas and was most strongly positively correlated with abundant ground cover, short vegetation, and few shrubs. The habitat features favoured by tortoises could potentially be manipulated to help support tortoise conservation on farms. Measuring wildlife preferences in human-dominated areas is an important step towards balancing biodiversity conservation and human-enterprise.
Migration patterns in birds vary in space and time. Spatial patterns include chain, leapfrog and telescopic migration. Temporal patterns such as migration duration, number, and duration of stopovers may vary according to breeding latitude, sex, and season. This study aimed to verify these patterns in a long‐distance migrant, the Eurasian curlew Numenius arquata arquata, and to provide a synopsis of spatio‐temporal migration patterns in this species of concern throughout the East Atlantic Flyway. We tagged 85 adults with GPS‐data loggers in Germany, Poland, France and Estonia between 2013 and 2019. We computed the distance flown, linear loxodromic distance, duration, stopover number, total stopover duration, mean stopover duration, departure time and arrival time for 177 out of 187 tracks. On average (± standard deviation), spring migration occurred from 4 to 14 April (10.2 ± 8.4 days), curlews flew 3.623 ± 1.366 km, and had 5.8 ± 3.6 stopovers, with a duration of 29.4 ± 38.2 h per stopover, while autumn migration occurred from 18 to 29 June (10.9 ± 9.9 days), curlews flew 3.362 ± 1.351 km, and had 5.4 ± 4.0 stopovers, with 31.8 ± 32.3 h per stopover. Curlews displayed chain migration because wintering curlews maintained the latitudinal sequence to their breeding sites. Southern curlews had a longer nesting period due to their earlier arrivals. While spring arrival at breeding sites did not differ between the sexes, in autumn females departed earlier than males. Migration duration and distance, as well as stopover number and duration, showed a significant increase with breeding site latitude but did not differ between the sexes or between spring and autumn migrations, suggesting that curlews took a comparable amount of time migrating during both seasons. The high site faithfulness in curlews suggests that rapid autumn migration allows them to return to defend their winter foraging areas.
The immune system is costly to maintain and use because it requires a lot of energy. This can make parasite resistance dependent on host nutritional state. The dependence of immune function on host condition can have broad ecological (e.g., disease dynamics) and evolutionary (e.g., expression of trade‐offs related to parasite resistance) consequences. Research on the dependence of immune function on host condition is typically conducted in laboratory experiments that manipulate either the quantity or composition of available resources. Such studies are essential in establishing conceptual frameworks, but their results are difficult to generalise to natural populations because the experimental treatments may deviate from natural variation in host resource level and use. We examined the condition dependence of immune function in a generalist freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis by relating the activity of two immune parameters of snail haemolymph, phenoloxidase (PO)‐like and antibacterial activity, to snail resource level and use using field‐collected individuals. We measured several variables that reflect the snails’ quality based on their recent (i.e., within the past few days; amount and stable isotope composition [δ15N and δ13C] of produced faeces) and longer‐term (i.e., weeks to months; stable isotope composition of tissues) resource use. The PO‐like activity of the snails’ haemolymph was condition‐dependent. Snails that had recently consumed food from higher trophic levels, presumably including more animal protein (high δ15N values of faeces), had a stronger defence. Additionally, snails with low energy (i.e., lipid) reserves in their tissues (high δ13C values of tissues) showed higher PO‐like activity. The antibacterial activity of the snails’ haemolymph was not condition dependent. The finding of the importance of the composition of recently consumed food on immune function (namely PO‐like activity) suggests that the parasite resistance of snails may change rapidly depending on the type of resources available in their environment. Thus, environmental variation may influence the outcome of host–parasite interactions on fine spatial and temporal scales. Furthermore, the negative relationship between the snails’ energy reserves and PO‐like activity suggests substantial energetic costs of immune activity in L. stagnalis.
Macroecological studies that require habitat suitability data for many species often derive this information from expert opinion. However, expert‐based information is inherently subjective and thus prone to errors. The increasing availability of GPS tracking data offers opportunities to evaluate and supplement expert‐based information with detailed empirical evidence. Here, we compared expert‐based habitat suitability information from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) with habitat suitability information derived from GPS‐tracking data of 1,498 individuals from 49 mammal species. Worldwide. 1998–2021. Forty‐nine terrestrial mammal species. Using GPS data, we estimated two measures of habitat suitability for each individual animal: proportional habitat use (proportion of GPS locations within a habitat type), and selection ratio (habitat use relative to its availability). For each individual we then evaluated whether the GPS‐based habitat suitability measures were in agreement with the IUCN data. To that end, we calculated the probability that the ranking of empirical habitat suitability measures was in agreement with IUCN's classification into suitable, marginal and unsuitable habitat types. IUCN habitat suitability data were in accordance with the GPS data (> 95% probability of agreement) for 33 out of 49 species based on proportional habitat use estimates and for 25 out of 49 species based on selection ratios. In addition, 37 and 34 species had a > 50% probability of agreement based on proportional habitat use and selection ratios, respectively. We show how GPS‐tracking data can be used to evaluate IUCN habitat suitability data. Our findings indicate that for the majority of species included in this study, it is appropriate to use IUCN habitat suitability data in macroecological studies. Furthermore, we show that GPS‐tracking data can be used to identify and prioritize species and habitat types for re‐evaluation of IUCN habitat suitability data.
Social contacts can facilitate the spread of both survival‐related information and infectious diseases, but little is known about how these processes combine to shape host and parasite evolution. Here, we use a theoretical model that captures both infection and information transmission processes to investigate how host sociality (contact effort) and parasite virulence (disease‐associated mortality rate) (co)evolve. We show that selection for sociality (and in turn, virulence) depends on both the intrinsic costs and benefits of social information and infection as well as their relative prevalence in the population. Specifically, greater sociality and lower virulence evolve when the risk of infection is either low or high and social information is neither very common nor too rare. Lower sociality and higher virulence evolve when the prevalence patterns are reversed. When infection and social information are both at moderate levels in the population, the direction of selection depends on the relative costs and benefits of being infected or informed. We also show that sociality varies inversely with virulence, and that parasites may be unable to prevent runaway selection for higher contact efforts. Together, these findings provide new insights for our understanding of group living and how apparently opposing ecological processes can influence the evolution of sociality and virulence in a range of ways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Wind turbines and power lines can cause bird mortality due to collision or electrocution. The biodiversity impacts of energy infrastructure (EI) can be minimised through effective landscape-scale planning and mitigation. The identification of high-vulnerability areas is urgently needed to assess potential cumulative impacts of EI while supporting the transition to zero carbon energy. We collected GPS location data from 1,454 birds from 27 species susceptible to collision within Europe and North Africa and identified areas where tracked birds are most at risk of colliding with existing EI. Sensitivity to EI development was estimated for wind turbines and power lines by calculating the proportion of GPS flight locations at heights where birds were at risk of collision and accounting for species' specific susceptibility to collision. We mapped the maximum collision sensitivity value obtained across all species, in each 5 × 5 km grid cell, across Europe and North Africa. Vulnerability to collision was obtained by overlaying the sensitivity surfaces with density of wind turbines and transmission power lines. Results: Exposure to risk varied across the 27 species, with some species flying consistently at heights where they risk collision. For areas with sufficient tracking data within Europe and North Africa, 13.6% of the area was classified as high sensitivity to wind turbines and 9.4% was classified as high sensitivity to transmission power lines. Sensitive areas were concentrated within important migratory corridors and along coastlines. Hotspots of vulnerability to collision with wind turbines and transmission power lines (2018 data) were scattered across the study region with highest concentrations occurring in central Europe, near the strait of Gibraltar and the Bosporus in Turkey. Synthesis and applications. We identify the areas of Europe and North Africa that are most sensitive for the specific populations of birds for which sufficient GPS tracking data at high spatial resolution were available. We also map vulnerability hotspots where mitigation at existing EI should be prioritised to reduce collision risks. As tracking data availability improves our method could be applied to more species and areas to help reduce bird-EI conflicts.
Environmental factors are common forces driving infectious disease dynamics. We compared inter‐annual and seasonal patterns of anthrax infections in two multihost systems in southern Africa: Etosha National Park, Namibia, and Kruger National Park, South Africa. Using several decades of mortality data from each system, we assessed possible transmission mechanisms behind anthrax dynamics, examining 1) within‐ and between‐species temporal case correlations, and 2) associations between anthrax mortalities and environmental factors, specifically rainfall and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), with empirical dynamic modeling. Anthrax cases in Kruger had wide inter‐annual variation in case numbers, and large outbreaks seemed to follow roughly a decadal cycle. In contrast, outbreaks in Etosha were smaller in magnitude and occurred annually. In Etosha, the host species commonly affected remained consistent over several decades, although plains zebra (Equus quagga) became relatively more dominant. In Kruger, turnover of the main host species occurred after the 1990s, where the previously dominant host species, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), was replaced by impala (Aepyceros melampus). In both parks, anthrax infections showed two seasonal peaks, with each species having only one peak in a year. Zebra, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and impala cases peaked in wet seasons, while elephant (Loxodonta africana), kudu and buffalo (Syncerus caffer) cases peaked in dry seasons. For common host species shared between the two parks, anthrax mortalities peaked in the same season in both systems. Among host species with cases peaking in the same season, anthrax mortalities were mostly synchronized, which may imply similar transmission mechanisms or shared sources of exposure. Between seasons, outbreaks in one species may contribute to more cases in another species in the following season. Higher vegetation greenness was associated with more zebra and springbok anthrax mortalities in Etosha, but fewer elephant cases in Kruger. These results suggest that host behavioral responses to changing environmental conditions may affect anthrax transmission risk, with differences in transmission mechanisms leading to multihost biseasonal outbreaks. This study reveals the dynamics and potential environmental drivers of anthrax in two savanna systems, providing a better understanding of factors driving biseasonal dynamics and outbreak variation among locations.
Forgoing immediate satisfaction for higher pay-offs in the future (delayed gratification) could be adaptive in situations that wild animals may encounter. To explain species-differences in self-control, hypotheses based on social complexity, feeding ecology, brain size and metabolic rate have been proposed. To explore these hypotheses in a comparative setting, we tested three macaw species (neotropical parrots)-great green macaws (N = 8), blue-throated macaws (N = 6), blue-headed macaws (N = 6)-and the distantly related African grey parrots (afrotropical parrots; N = 8) in a modified rotating tray task, in which subjects are required to inhibit consuming a constantly available low-quality reward in favour of a high-quality reward that becomes available only after an increasing delay (min. 5 s, max. 60 s). All four species successfully waited for a minimum of 8.3 s ± 11.7 s (group level mean ± SD) with African greys reaching a delay of 29.4 ± 15.2 s, and great green macaws-as best performing macaw species-tolerating delays of 20 s ± 8 s. The best performing African grey individual reached a maximum delay of 50 s, whereas, a great green and a blue-throated macaw tolerated a delay of 30 s max. Females tolerated higher maximum delays than males. Engaging in distraction behaviours enhanced waiting performance across species and all birds were able to anticipate the waiting duration. Our results suggest that both feeding and socio-ecological complexity may be a factor in self-control, but further systematically collected comparative data on self-control of different (parrot) species are required to test the evolutionary hypotheses rigorously.
Culturally transmitted communication signals – such as human language or bird song – can change over time through cultural drift, and the resulting dialects may consequently enhance the separation of populations. However, the emergence of song dialects has been considered unlikely when songs are highly individual-specific, as in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). Here we show that machine learning can nevertheless distinguish the songs from multiple captive zebra finch populations with remarkable precision, and that ‘cryptic song dialects’ predict strong assortative mating in this species. We examine mating patterns across three consecutive generations using captive populations that have evolved in isolation for about 100 generations. We cross-fostered eggs within and between these populations and used an automated barcode tracking system to quantify social interactions. We find that females preferentially pair with males whose song resembles that of the females’ adolescent peers. Our study shows evidence that in zebra finches, a model species for song learning, individuals are sensitive to differences in song that have hitherto remained unnoticed by researchers. The authors show that captive populations of zebra finches, which have been kept in isolation for up to 100 generations, have diverged in song dialect. When individuals singing different dialects are mixed, mating is assortative for song dialect.
Conventional high-input farming systems in Europe are often regarded as unsustainable with severe environ- mental impacts on biodiversity, soils, water and climate. Low-input farming approaches, such as organic farming, have been proposed to reduce environmental impacts while further improving soil properties such as soil organic matter content and aggregate stability. Whether these changes also influence ecohydrological properties and improve the water relations of organically grown crops remains unclear. In this study we assessed the long-term effects of conventional and organic farming systems on the water relations of soils and crops in the “DOK” (bio- Dynamic, bio-Organic & ‘Konventionell’ = conventional) trial. In particular, we tested if organic and conven- tional farming lead to marked differences in soil moisture, soil water evaporation, as well as root water uptake depth and stomatal conductance of winter wheat and soybean during the growing seasons 2017 and 2018. Stable isotope analyses and ecophysiological measurements revealed that organic compared to conventional farming did not affect soil water evaporation or root water uptake depths. Instead, we found higher soil moisture in the rooting zone and reduced stomatal conductance (gs) in organically grown wheat. Treatment effects on soil moisture and gs of soybean were smaller but showed similar tendencies as observed in wheat. Also, leaf area, and grain and straw yield of wheat decreased under organic farming while yields of soybean were not affected by the treatments. Based on our data we suggest that reduced plant water use observed under organically managed farming lead to the observed higher soil moisture in organically compared to conventionally managed farming systems in the DOK trial. These results suggest advantages of organic farming regarding agronomic water use as well as for the resistance of farming systems to current or future drought scenarios.
Inexpensive and accessible sensors are accelerating data acquisition in animal ecology. These technologies hold great potential for large-scale ecological understanding, but are limited by current processing approaches which inefficiently distill data into relevant information. We argue that animal ecologists can capitalize on large datasets generated by modern sensors by combining machine learning approaches with domain knowledge. Incorporating machine learning into ecological workflows could improve inputs for ecological models and lead to integrated hybrid modeling tools. This approach will require close interdisciplinary collaboration to ensure the quality of novel approaches and train a new generation of data scientists in ecology and conservation. Animal ecologists are increasingly limited by constraints in data processing. Here, Tuia and colleagues discuss how collaboration between ecologists and data scientists can harness machine learning to capitalize on the data generated from technological advances and lead to novel modeling approaches.
Background Although some migratory birds may take different routes during their outbound and inbound migration, the factors causing these differential migrations to and from the breeding grounds, have rarely been investigated. In Northeast Asia, Demoiselle crane ( Anthropoides virgo ) performs one of the most extreme “loop” migrations known to date. During outbound migration, they cross the Himalayas to non-breeding sites in northwest India. Contrastingly, during inbound migration to the breeding grounds, they fly around the western end of the Himalayas. We hypothesise that differences in prevailing environmental conditions aloft and/or on-ground during both seasonal migrations are at the core of this phenomenon. Methods Based on the tracking data of 16 individuals of tagged Demoiselle crane, we compared conditions during actual migration with those of simulated “reverse” migration (i.e. by adding 180 degrees to the flight direction and adding and subtracting half a year to the timestamps of outbound and inbound migration, respectively). Results The comparison of actual and simulated “reverse” migration indicated that cranes would have encountered poorer aloft (wind support and thermal uplift) and on-ground conditions (temperature) if they had migrated in a reverse outbound migration and poorer on-ground conditions (Normalised Difference Vegetation Indexes [NDVI]) if they had migrated in a reverse inbound direction. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that both on-ground and aloft conditions play a key role in explaining Demoiselle cranes’ loop migration, during the periods that they chose to use these alternative routes. Knowledge on the determinants of (differential) migration routes allow predicting migration decisions and may be critical in mitigating global change effects on animal migrations.
Abstract Many aquatic invertebrates are declining or facing extinction from stressors that compromise physiology, resource consumption, reproduction, and phenology. However, the influence of these common stressors specifically on consumer–resource interactions for aquatic invertebrate consumers is only beginning to be understood. We conducted a field study to investigate Pteronarcys californica (i.e., the “giant salmonfly”), a large‐bodied insect that is ecologically and culturally significant to rivers throughout the western United States. We sampled gut contents and polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of salmonflies to compare resource consumption across river (Madison or Gallatin, Montana), sex (male or female), and habitat (rock or woody debris). We found that allochthonous detritus comprised the majority of salmonfly diets in the Gallatin and Madison Rivers, making up 68% of the gut contents on average, followed by amorphous detritus, diatoms, and filamentous algae. Diets showed little variation across river, sex, or length. Minor differences in diets were detected by habitat type, with a higher proportion of diatoms in the diets of salmonflies collected from rocky habitat compared to woody debris. Fatty acid composition generally supported the results of gut content analysis but highlighted the importance of primary producers. The presence of eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n‐3) and alpha linolenic acid (18:3n‐3) indicated consumption of diatoms and filamentous green algae, respectively. Our research underscores the importance of a healthy riparian zone that provides allochthonous detritus for invertebrate nutrition as well as the role of algae as an important source of fatty acids.
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14 members
Stephen Blake
  • Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology
Máté Nagy
  • Department of Collective Behaviour
Barbara Christina Klump
  • Cognitive and Cultural Ecology Group
Michael Abedi-Lartey
  • Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology
Eberhard-Gwinner-Str 6a, 82319, Radolfzell am Bodensee, Bavaria, Germany