Maulana Azad Medical College
Recent publications
Background Spontaneous vaginoperitoneal fistula formation in a case of carcinoma ovary is a very rare occurrence and has never been reported. Case presentation A 55-year-old postmenopausal lady presented with complaints of abdominal distention and mass coming out of the vagina for the last 10 days. On examination, she had tense ascites, uterovaginal prolapse and hard, fixed mass felt anteriorly on per-rectal examination. Biochemical investigations and radiological imaging suggested advanced stage ovarian neoplasm. She was planned for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. During the second cycle of chemotherapy, she developed spontaneous vaginoperitoneal fistula which was confirmed on exploratory laparotomy where interval debulking surgery was performed in collaboration with gastro-surgeons on a semi-emergency basis. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion Spontaneous vaginoperitoneal fistula is a rare complication and should be kept in mind while managing advanced ovarian neoplasm.
Background Myelopathy, a pathological condition related to the spinal cord can broadly be categorized into compressive and non-compressive aetiologies. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the modality of choice when suspecting non-compressive myelopathy as it helps to localize the affected segment and exclude compression as the cause of myelopathy. This review deals with the imaging approach for non-compressive myelopathies. Main body Demyelinating disorders are the most common cause of non-compressive myelopathy and often show confounding features. Other causes include inflammatory, ischemic, metabolic, and neoplastic disorders. Non-compressive myelopathy can broadly be classified into acute and non-acute onset which can further be categorized according to the distribution of the signal abnormalities, including length of cord involvement, specific tract involvement, enhancement pattern, and the region of the spinal cord that is affected. Conclusions Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of clinically suspected cases of myelopathy and MR imaging (with or without contrast) remains the preferred modality. Compressive causes must be excluded as a cause of myelopathy. Despite a multitude of causes, the most common imaging appearance is a nonspecific T2 hyperintense signal in the spinal cord, and thus, a pragmatic diagnostic approach along with appropriate clinical and biochemical correlation is essential for arriving at an accurate diagnosis.
Objectives The assessment of physical function is fundamental in the management of patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). We aimed to investigate the physical function of patients with IIMs compared with those with non-IIM autoimmune rheumatic diseases (AIRDs) utilizing Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) data obtained in the COVAD study, an international self-reported e-survey assessing the safety of COVID-19 vaccines in AIRDs. Methods Demographics, AIRD diagnosis, disease activity, and PROMIS PF short form-10a data were extracted from the COVAD database. PROMIS PF-10a scores were compared between disease categories and stratified by disease activity. Factors affecting PROMIS PF-10a scores other than disease activity were identified by multivariable regression analysis in patients with inactive disease. Results 1057 IIM patients, 3635 non-IIM AIRD patients, and 3981 healthy controls (HCs) responded to the COVAD e-survey from April to August 2021. Using a binomial regression model, the predicted mean of PROMIS PF-10a scores was significantly lower in IIM patients compared with non-IIM AIRD patients or HCs (36.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.5–37.1] vs 41.3 [95%CI 40.2–42.5] vs 46.2 [95%CI 45.8–46.6], P < 0.001), irrespective of disease activity. The independent factors for lower PROMIS PF-10a scores in patients with inactive disease were older age, female, longer disease duration, and a diagnosis of inclusion body myositis or polymyositis. Conclusion Physical function is significantly impaired in IIMs compared with non-IIM AIRDs or HCs, even in patients with inactive disease. Our study highlights a critical need for better strategies to minimize functional disability in patients with IIMs.
Objectives South Asian body composition is characterized by higher body fat at any given BMI. While this does not occur during fetal growth, it is important to understand if inappropriate fat accretion then begins in the first 2 years in Indian infants. Methods The fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) of healthy term newborns was evaluated at 12 days, 3.5 months, 1 year, and 2 years, by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution. The effect of being born small versus appropriate for gestational age (SGA vs. AGA), and accelerated early growth pattern on FM and FFM accretion was also investigated. Results Newborns (262 total, 150 males) with mean birth weight of 2863 ± 418 g were enrolled. FM percentage (FM%) assessed by D2O in 144, 166, 81, and 115 infants at 12 days, 3.5 months, 1 year, and 2 years respectively, was11.6 ± 6.8, 21.1 ± 7.0, 17.9 ± 8.2 and 22.4 ± 9.5%. Boys had higher FFM at all ages, but FM% was similar in both sexes. Children born SGA had similar FM index (FMI) but a lower FFM index (FFMI) at 2 years compared with those born AGA. Infants with catch-up growth between 0 and 2 years had higher FMI at 2 years compared to those without. Infants in the present study had a lower FM% and FMI till 1 year of age in comparison to previous studies from other countries, but had an increase in adiposity between 1 and 2 years, whereas in previous studies FM% remained stable or declined between 1 and 2 years of age. Conclusion There was an upward inflection in the curve of FM% and FMI between 1 and 2 years of age in the present study, which may represent an early adiposity rebound. Further longitudinal body composition data for Indian infants as well as those of other ethnicities but with low birth weight will clarify whether early accelerated growth pattern contributes to greater accrual of fat rather than lean mass during childhood.
Background Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology associated with high morbidity and mortality. Its association with cardiovascular outcomes is under-documented. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with sarcoidosis compared with that of non-sarcoidosis. Methodology Online databases including PubMed, Embase and Scopus were queried from inception until March 2022. The outcomes assessed included all-cause mortality (ACM) and incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), heart failure (HF) and atrial arrhythmias (AA). Result A total of 6 studies with 22,539,096 participants (42,763 Sarcoidosis, 22,496,354 Non-Sarcoidosis) were included in this analysis. The pooled prevalence of sarcoidosis was 13.1% (95% CI 1% to 70%). The overall mean age was 47 years. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (12.7% vs 12.5%), and diabetes mellitus (5.5% vs 4%) respectively. The pooled analysis of primary endpoints showed that all-cause mortality (RR, 2.08; 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.08; p = 0.01) was significantly increased in sarcoidosis patients. The pooled analysis of secondary endpoints showed that the incidence of VT (RR, 15.3; 95% CI: 5.39 to 43.42); p < 0.001), HF (RR, 4.96; 95% CI: 2.02 to 12.14; p < 0.001) and AA (RR, 2.55; 95% CI: 1.47 to 4.44); p = 0.01) were significantly higher with sarcoidosis respectively compared to non-sarcoidosis. Conclusion Incidence of VT, HF and AA was significantly higher in patients with CS. Clinicians should be aware of these adverse cardiovascular events associated with sarcoidosis.
Background: Arthroscopic Bankart repair has evolved as an excellent treatment option in the management of recurrent shoulder instability as includes minimally invasive approach and significant reduction in perioperative morbidity. Anchor-related complications such as secondary cartilage damage and proud implant position are well described in literature. An all-suture anchor was developed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2010. These anchors are placed into 1.4 mm diameter drilled holes which are smaller than the drill holes used for previously available anchor therefore minimize invasiveness and avoid complication related to metallic and bioabsorbable anchors. Aims and Objectives: This study to assess early radiological and clinical outcome after labral repair using all-suture anchors with specific consideration for bony reactions at the anchor site on magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients underwent labral repair using all-suture anchors were followed up for minimum of 1 year. Functional outcome was assessed on the basis of Rowe score, Constant and Murley score, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. The radiological appearance of bony reaction around the anchor site was judged by the presence of bony edema, tunnel widening (>3 mm), and cyst formation. Results: A total number of 56 all-suture anchors were implanted in 10 patients. The total Rowe score significantly improved from a mean of 24.4 preoperatively to 92.5 postoperatively. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score improved from a mean of 47.1 preoperatively to 88.6 postoperatively and the Constant and Murley score improved from a mean of 57.3 preoperatively to 90.6 postoperatively. On post-operative MRI out of 56 anchors implanted, 35 anchors did not display any reactive bone changes around anchor site. In 17 anchors, bone edema around a suture anchor was seen. Tunnel widening >3 mm was seen in four anchors. None of the anchors showed cyst formation around anchor site. Conclusion: Clinicoradiological outcome after arthroscopic shoulder instability using all-suture anchors was excellent at 1 year follow-up and radiological imaging revealed a good labral healing.
Background It is well established that disease-free survival and overall survival after breast conservation surgery (BCS) followed by radiotherapy are equivalent to that after mastectomy. However, in Asian countries, the rate of BCS continues to remain low. The cause may be multifactorial including the patient’s choice, availability and accessibility of infrastructure, and surgeon’s choice. We aimed to elucidate the Indian surgeons’ perspective while choosing between BCS and mastectomy, in women oncologically eligible for BCS. Methods We conducted a survey-based cross-sectional study in January–February 2021. Indian surgeons with general surgical or specialised oncosurgical training, who consented to participate were included in the study. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of study variables on offering mastectomy or BCS. Results A total of 347 responses were included. The mean age of the participants was 43 ± 11 years. Sixty-three of the surgeons were in the 25–44 years age group with the majority (80%) being males. 66.4% of surgeons ‘almost always’ offered BCS to oncologically eligible patients. Surgeons who had undergone specialised training in oncosurgery or breast conservation surgery were 35 times more likely to offer BCS ( p < 0.01). Surgeons working in hospitals with in-house radiation oncology facilities were 9 times more likely to offer BCS ( p < 0.05). Surgeons’ years of practice, age, sex and hospital setting did not influence the surgery offered. Conclusion Two-thirds of Indian surgeons preferred BCS over mastectomy. Lack of radiotherapy facilities and specialised surgical training were deterrents to offering BCS to eligible women.
This study (August–September 2021) estimated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in the general population of Delhi and correlated it with their anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Samples were selected by simple random sampling method. The neutralizing capacity was estimated by performing a surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) (GenScript), Piscataway, NJ, USA. A total of 2233 (87.1%, 95% C.I. 85.7, 88.3) of the 2564 SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositive samples had detectable SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. In samples with S/CO ≥ 4.00, the neutralizing antibodies ranged from 94.5% to 100%. The SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody seroprevalence strongly correlated with the S/CO range of IgG SARS-CoV-2 (r = 0.62, p = 0.002).
Background: Flexible flat foot or pes planovalgus is a common foot deformity, and silicone and customized insole are commonly used as a non-operative treatment modality of flexible planovalgus. However, there are inadequate data and limited evidence available regarding the immediate effects of their use in midfoot and hindfoot of adults. The aim of this study is to quantify and compare the radiological parameters immediately on weightbearing with silicon and customized insoles and without them to assess the effect on midfoot and hindfoot of the flexible planovalgus in adults. Methods: A total number of 11 (8 females and 3 males) subjects with flexible pes planovalgus deformity without any other foot deformity were included in the study. Each patient was assessed three times in a random sequence without and with use of either silicon insoles or customized insole. The radiographic parameters without insole, with silicon insole, and with customized insole conditions were calculated using online available computer software Kinovea. Results: One-way ANOVA analysis was performed between groups (without insole, with silicone insole and with customized insole). The hindfoot parameters depicted that calcaneal inclination angle (CIA) was significant increased (P = 0.000) and talar declination angle (TDA) was significantly decreased (P = 0.003) only with the use of customized insole compared to without insole. The midfoot parameters depicted that the first metatarsal angle (FMA) and talonavicular coverage angle (TCA) were significantly lower with customized insole (P = 0.00) as compared to other two groups and significantly lower with silicone insole (P = 0.00) as compared to without insole group. Conclusion: The results imply that the compressibility of the insole material affects the forefoot and hindfoot biomechanics differently. This study concludes that silicone insole affects only the midfoot which bears 45% of bodyweight and customized insole affects both midfoot and more importantly the hindfoot which bears 55% of bodyweight.
Abdominal tuberculosis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries also re-emerging in western world due to the AIDS epidemic and population migration. Large proportion of the patients are young and hence radiation exposure is of concern. In addition, in some patients, contrast may be contraindicated or repeat studies may be required, where MR especially DWI may be useful. The aim of the study is to describe MRI features in abdominal tuberculosis including DWI in the involved bowel, lymphadenopathy, omental, and peritoneal thickening. Nodes being especially easy to appreciate on DWI, thus DWI in conjunction with routine noncontrast MR sequence can be useful technique to identify abdominal tubercular lesions in patients with contraindication to contrast. Graphical abstract
Background: Exposure to recurrent infections in childhood was linked to an increased risk of cancer in adulthood. There is also evidence that a history of tonsillectomy, a procedure often performed in children with recurrent infections, is linked to an increased risk of leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma. Tonsillectomy could be directly associated with cancer risk, or it could be a proxy for another risk factor such as recurrent infections and chronic inflammation. Nevertheless, the role of recurrent childhood infections and tonsillectomy on the one hand, and the risk of breast cancer (BC) in adulthood remain understudied. Our study aims to verify whether a history of tonsillectomy increases the risk of BC in women. Methods: A systematic review was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases from inception to January 25, 2022, to identify the studies which assessed the association between the history of tonsillectomy and BC in females. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated using the random/fixed-effects models to synthesize the associations between tonsillectomy and BC risk based on heterogeneity. Results: Eight studies included 2252 patients with breast cancer of which 1151 underwent tonsillectomy and 5314 controls of which 1725 had their tonsils removed. Patients with a history of tonsillectomy showed a higher subsequent risk of developing BC (OR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.11-1.39) as compared to patients without a history of tonsillectomy. Influence analyses showed that no single study had a significant effect on the overall estimate or the heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our study revealed that a history of tonsillectomy is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These findings underscore the need for frequent follow-ups and screening of tonsillectomy patients to assess for the risk of BC.
Hormone-sensitive breast cancer, which demonstrates hormone receptor positivity, accounts for approximately 75% of newly diagnosed breast cancer. 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose is the nonspecific radiotracer of glucose metabolism as opposed to specific receptor based tracers like 16α-[18F]-fluoro-17β-estradiol and [18F]-fluoro-furanyl-norprogesterone, which provide essential information about receptor status in the management of hormonally active malignancies. The complementary information provided by (a) 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose imaging for staging and prognostication along with (b) analyzing the hormonal receptor status with receptor-based PET imaging in breast cancer can optimize tumor characterization and influence patient management.
Uvular necrosis is a potential etiology of postesophagogastroduodenoscopy persistent sore throat and odynophagia, and physicians should be alert to the possibility of this potential complication. Diagnosis is clinical and can be made on the basis of symptoms and characteristic findings on oropharyngeal examination. It has a benign course with an overall good clinical outcome. Conservative symptomatic management is the treatment of choice, and full recovery can be expected in 2 weeks. Keeping oropharyngeal instruments and ventilation tubes to the side of the midline, avoidance of blind suctioning, and decreasing the power of suction devices are some of the measures, which might reduce the risk of intraprocedure uvular injury. In addition, it is important to note that the risk of injury is higher in some individuals, for instance, patients with a long uvula, and it might be beneficial to take extra precautions in these patients.
Background The combination of whole-cell pertussis (wP) antigens with established diphtheria (D), tetanus (T), hepatitis B (HB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), and inactivated poliomyelitis (IPV) antigens provides a high-quality DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccine. This study evaluated a DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T booster coadministered with measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Methods Phase II, open-label, randomized study. Healthy toddlers who had previously completed a DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or separate DTwP-HB-PRP∼T and IPV primary vaccination series received a DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T booster vaccine at 12-24 months of age. All participants had also received 1 or 2 doses of measles-containing vaccine between primary vaccination and enrolment (N=100 and N=6, respectively). Those who had received 1 prior measles-containing vaccine received an MMR dose either concomitantly (N=50) or 28 days after (N=50) the DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T booster. Immunogenicity was evaluated using validated assays and safety by parental reports. Results Pre-booster vaccination, 100.0% participants showed antibody persistence after DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTwP-HB-PRP∼T and IPV for anti-T (≥0.01 IU/mL), anti-Hib (≥0.15 µg/mL), and anti-polio 3 (≥8 1/dil) and at least 95.8% of participants for anti-D (≥0.01 IU/mL), anti-HB (≥10 mIU/mL), and anti-polio 1 and 2 (≥8 1/dil). For the pertussis antigens, pre-booster antibody persistence (≥2 EU/mL) ranged from 88.6-88.7% (anti-PT), 91.4-98.6% (anti-FHA), 69.0-74.3% (anti-PRN), and 97.1-97.2% (anti-FIM). For the booster response, seroprotection based on either the primary series or measles-containing vaccination regimen was 100.0% for anti-D and anti-T (≥0.01 IU/mL and ≥0.10 IU/mL), anti-HB (≥10 mIU/mL and ≥100 mIU/mL), anti-Hib (≥0.15 µg/mL and ≥1 µg/mL) and anti-polio 1, 2, and 3 (≥8 1/dil), and for the pertussis antigens booster response ranged from 88.6-91.8% (anti-PT), 91.1-95.9% (anti-FHA), 88.6-93.9% (anti-PRN), and 95.9-98.6% (anti-FIM). There were no safety concerns in any group. Conclusions This study showed good antibody persistence of the DTwP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccine and good immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose given with MMR in the second year of life. Clinical Trials Registry India Number: CTRI/2018/04/013375
Background The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant mortality and morbidity in the United States. The mental health impact during the pandemic was huge and affected all age groups and population types. We reviewed the existing literature to understand the present trends of psychological challenges and different coping strategies documented across different vulnerable sections of the United States population. This rapid review was carried out to investigate the trends in psychological impacts, coping ways, and public support during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis in the United States.Materials and Methods We undertook a rapid review of the literature following the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. We searched PubMed as it is a widely available database for observational and experimental studies that reported the psychological effects, coping ways, and public support on different age groups and healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic.ResultsWe included thirty-five studies in our review and reported data predominantly from the vulnerable United States population. Our review findings indicate that COVID-19 has a considerable impact on the psychological wellbeing of various age groups differently, especially in the elderly population and HCWs. Review findings suggest that factors like children, elderly population, female gender, overconcern about family, fear of getting an infection, personality, low spirituality, and lower resilience levels were at a higher risk of adverse mental health outcomes during this pandemic. Systemic support, higher resilience levels, and adequate knowledge were identified as protecting and preventing factors. There is a paucity of similar studies among the general population, and we restricted our review specifically to vulnerable subgroups of the population. All the included studies in our review investigated and surveyed the psychological impacts, coping skills, and public support system during the COVID-19 pandemic.Conclusion The evidence to date suggests that female gender, child and elderly population, and racial factors have been affected by a lack of support for psychological wellbeing. Further, research using our hypothesized framework might help any population group to deal with a pandemic-associated mental health crisis, and in that regard, analysis of wider societal structural factors is recommended.
Introduction/aims: We studied COVID-19 vaccination-related adverse events (ADEs) 7-days post-vaccination in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and other systemic autoimmune and inflammatory disorders (SAIDs). Methods: 7-day vaccine ADEs were collected in an international patient self-reported e-survey. Descriptive statistics and multivariable regression were performed. Results: 10,900 respondents [1227 IIMs; 4640 SAIDs; 5033 healthy controls (HCs), median age 42 (IQR 30-55) years, 74% female, 45% Caucasian, 69% completely vaccinated] were analysed. 76.3% IIMs patients reported minor and 4.6% major ADEs. Patients with active IIMs reported more frequent major [OR 2.7 (1.04-7.3)] and minor [OR 1.5 (1.1-2.2)] ADEs than inactive IIMs. Rashes were more frequent in IIMs [OR-2.3(1.2-4.2)] than HCs. ADEs were not impacted by steroid dose, although hydroxychloroquine and intravenous/subcutaneous immunoglobulins were associated with a higher risk of minor ADEs [OR 1.9 (1.1-3.3), OR 2.2 (1.1-4.3)]. Overall, ADEs were less frequent in inclusion body myositis (IBM) and BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine recipients DISCUSSION: 7-day post-vaccination ADEs were comparable in patients with IIMs, SAIDs, and HCs, except for a higher risk of rashes in IIMs. Patients with DM, active disease may be at higher risk, and IBM patients at lower risk of specific ADEs. Overall, the benefit of preventing severe COVID-19 through vaccination likely outweighs the risk of vaccine-related ADEs Our results may inform future guidelines regarding COVID-19 vaccination in patients with SAIDs, and specifically in IIMs. Studies to evaluate long-term outcomes and disease flares are needed to shed more light on developing future COVID-19 vaccination guidelines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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406 members
Sudhir Jain
  • Department of Surgery
Ravi Meher
  • Department of E.N.T.
Achal Gulati
  • Department of E.N.T.
Swati Gupta
  • Radiology
New Delhi, India