Massey University
  • Palmerston North, Manawatu, New Zealand
Recent publications
The aim of the present study was to develop a model to predict muscularity and body condition score (BCS) during the lactation of Italian Simmental dairy cows in Emilia Romagna herds. A total of 2656 Italian Simmental primiparous cows from 324 dairy herds were linear classified between 2002 and 2020. Lactation curves for muscularity and BCS were modelled for each cow using random regression model. The model included the fixed effects of age at linear scoring and days in milk modelled with a Legendre polynomial, and the random effects of herd-year of classification, cow and days in milk for each cow modelled with Legendre polynomials. The most parsimonious model included a fixed cubic Legendre polynomial and a random linear polynomial for cow effects. Results indicated that, on an average, BCS nadir was anticipated to that of muscularity, and, in both cases, this moment was around the lactation peak, when animals have the greatest nutrients requirement. After this period, both BCS and muscularity recovered up to post-partum levels. Moreover, after the 9 month of lactation, the absolute growth rate of muscularity and BCS was negative, suggesting that late-gestating cows could potentially enter a phase of body conformation loss. Results reported in the current research indicate that random regression using Legendre polynomials can be successfully employed to predict muscularity and BCS during the lactation of dairy cows.Highlights Modelling dairy cows’ muscularity and BCS allows to use these parameters as indicator traits for functionality in dairy cows. The use of prediction model of muscularity and BCS allows to understand the evolution of these conformation traits during the lactation. The analysis of muscularity and BCS allows to assess health and welfare status of dairy cows, which is essential to maximise production performances. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
It is well known that uncompensable heat stress greatly impairs endurance and team sport-related performance because an increase in the core temperature directly induces a greater magnitude of the central fatigue in the heat than in thermal neutral environments. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to discover reliable cooling strategies for improving endurance performance and repeated sprint ability while exercising in the heat. Whole-body pre-cooling has been shown to improve endurance performance in both dry and humid heat. Despite this, the reduction in thermal perceptions associated with pre-cooling gradually narrows during intense exercise. Hence, effective per-cooling strategies to improve athletic performance in the heat are required. Unfortunately, due to practical issues, adopting pre-cooling approaches as a per-cooling (cooling during exercise) modality to improve athletic performance is impractical. Thus, we sought to examine the impact of head, neck and face cooling on athletic performance in heat. According to current evidence, cooling the head, neck and face reduced local skin temperature in the areas where cooling was applied, resulting in improved local perceptual sensations. In the heat, neck cooling during exercise improves athletic performance in both endurance and team sports athletes. Furthermore, from a practical standpoint, neck cooling is preferred over head, face and combined head/face and neck cooling for both endurance and team sport athletes in the heat. Nonetheless, for all athletes who have access to water, face cooling is a recommended cooling strategy. There is a lack of research on the systematic selection of per-cooling modalities to improve athletic performance based on environmental conditions and the nature of sports. In addition, powerful but portable head, neck and face cooling systems are urgently needed to assist athletes in improving their performance in hot conditions.
Background Deleterious recessive conditions have been primarily studied in the context of Mendelian diseases. Recently, several deleterious recessive mutations with large effects were discovered via non-additive genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of quantitative growth and developmental traits in cattle, which showed that quantitative traits can be used as proxies of genetic disorders when such traits are indicative of whole-animal health status. We reasoned that lactation traits in cattle might also reflect genetic disorders, given the increased energy demands of lactation and the substantial stresses imposed on the animal. In this study, we screened more than 124,000 cows for recessive effects based on lactation traits. Results We discovered five novel quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are associated with large recessive impacts on three milk yield traits, with these loci presenting missense variants in the DOCK8 , IL4R , KIAA0556 , and SLC25A4 genes or premature stop variants in the ITGAL , LRCH4 , and RBM34 genes, as candidate causal mutations. For two milk composition traits, we identified several previously reported additive QTL that display small dominance effects. By contrasting results from milk yield and milk composition phenotypes, we note differing genetic architectures. Compared to milk composition phenotypes, milk yield phenotypes had lower heritabilities and were associated with fewer additive QTL but had a higher non-additive genetic variance and were associated with a higher proportion of loci exhibiting dominance. Conclusions We identified large-effect recessive QTL which are segregating at surprisingly high frequencies in cattle. We speculate that the differences in genetic architecture between milk yield and milk composition phenotypes derive from underlying dissimilarities in the cellular and molecular representation of these traits, with yield phenotypes acting as a better proxy of underlying biological disorders through presentation of a larger number of major recessive impacts.
Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is commonly measured based on the squared coefficient of correlation $$\left({r}^{2}\right)$$ r 2 between the alleles at two loci that are carried by haplotypes. LD can also be estimated as the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 between unphased genotype dosage at two loci when the allele frequencies and inbreeding coefficients at both loci are identical for the parental lines. Here, we investigated whether $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 for a crossbred population (F1) can be estimated using genotype data. The parental lines of the crossbred (F1) can be purebred or crossbred. Methods We approached this by first showing that inbreeding coefficients for an F1 crossbred population are negative, and typically differ in size between loci. Then, we proved that the expected $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 computed from unphased genotype data is expected to be identical to the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 computed from haplotype data for an F1 crossbred population, regardless of the inbreeding coefficients at the two loci. Finally, we investigated the bias and precision of the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimated using unphased genotype versus haplotype data in stochastic simulation. Results Our findings show that estimates of $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 based on haplotype and unphased genotype data are both unbiased for different combinations of allele frequencies, sample sizes (900, 1800, and 2700), and levels of LD. In general, for any allele frequency combination and $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 value scenarios considered, and for both methods to estimate $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 , the precision of the estimates increased, and the bias of the estimates decreased as sample size increased, indicating that both estimators are consistent. For a given scenario, the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimates using haplotype data were more precise and less biased using haplotype data than using unphased genotype data. As sample size increased, the difference in precision and biasedness between the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimates using haplotype data and unphased genotype data decreased. Conclusions Our theoretical derivations showed that estimates of LD between loci based on unphased genotypes and haplotypes in F1 crossbreds have identical expectations. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that the LD for an F1 crossbred population can be accurately estimated from unphased genotype data. The results also apply for other crosses (F2, F3, Fn, BC1, BC2, and BCn), as long as (selected) individuals from the two parental lines mate randomly.
Coenzyme Q8A encodes the homologue of yeast coq8 , an ATPase that is required for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme Q10, an essential component of the electron transport chain. Mutations in COQ8A in humans result in CoQ10 deficiency, the clinical features of which include early-onset cerebellar ataxia, seizures and intellectual disability. The rapid advancement of massively parallel sequencing has resulted in the identification of more than 40 new mutations in COQ8A and functional studies are required to confirm causality and to further research into determining the specific mechanisms through which the mutations result in loss of function. To that end, a Drosophila model of Coq8 deficiency was developed and characterized to determine its appropriateness as a model system to further explore the role of Coq8 in the brain, and for functional characterisation of Coq8 mutations. Pan-neuronal RNAi knockdown of Coq8 was largely lethal, with female escapers displaying severe locomotor deficits. Knockdown of Coq8 in the eye resulted in degeneration of photoreceptors, progressive necrosis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Reintroduction of wild-type Coq8 restored normal function, however expression of human wild-type COQ8A exacerbated the eye phenotype, suggesting it was acting as a dominant-negative. This model is therefore informative for investigating the function of Drosophila Coq8, however human COQ8A mutations cannot be assessed as hCOQ8A does not rescue Coq8 deficiency.
Background Probiotics are live microbial supplements known for its health benefits. Consumption of probiotics reported to improve several health benefits including intestinal flora composition, resistance against pathogens. In the recent years, there is an increasing trend of probiotic-based food products in the market. Main body Probiotics cells are targeted to reach the large intestine, and the probiotics must survive through the acidic conditions of the gastric environment. It is recommended to formulate the probiotic bacteria in the range of 10 ⁸ –10 ⁹ cfu/g for consumption and maintain the therapeutic efficacy of 10 ⁶ –10 ⁷ cfu/g in the large intestine. During the gastrointestinal transit, the probiotics will drastically lose its viability in the gastric environment (pH 2). Maintaining cell viability until it reaches the large intestine remains challenging task. Encapsulating the probiotics cells with suitable wall material helps to sustain the survival of probiotics during industrial processing and in gastrointestinal transit. In the encapsulation process, cells are completely enclosed in the wall material, through different techniques including spray drying, freeze drying, extrusion, spray freeze drying, emulsification, etc. However, spray-drying and freeze-drying techniques are successfully used for the commercial formulation; thus, we limited to review those encapsulation techniques. Short conclusions The survival rate of spray-dried probiotics during simulated digestion mainly depends on the inlet air temperature, wall material and exposure in the GI condition. And fermentation, pH and freeze-drying time are the important process parameters for maintaining the viability of bacterial cells in the gastric condition. Improving the viability of probiotic cells during industrial processing and extending the cell viability during storage and digestion will be the main concern for successful commercialization. Graphical abstract
Background Giardia intestinalis is one of the most common causes of diarrhoea worldwide. Molecular techniques have greatly improved our understanding of the taxonomy and epidemiology of this parasite. Co-infection with mixed (sub-) assemblages has been reported, however, Sanger sequencing is sometimes unable to identify shared subtypes between samples involved in the same epidemiologically linked event, due to samples showing multiple dominant subtypes within the same outbreak. Here, we aimed to use a metabarcoding approach to uncover the genetic diversity within samples from sporadic and outbreak cases of giardiasis to characterise the subtype diversity, and determine if there are common sequences shared by epidemiologically linked cases that are missed by Sanger sequencing. Methods We built a database with 1109 unique glutamate dehydrogenase ( gdh ) locus sequences covering most of the assemblages of G. intestinalis and used gdh metabarcoding to analyse 16 samples from sporadic and outbreak cases of giardiasis that occurred in New Zealand between 2010 and 2018. Results There is considerable diversity of subtypes of G. intestinalis present in each sample. The utilisation of metabarcoding enabled the identification of shared subtypes between samples from the same outbreak. Multiple variants were identified in 13 of 16 samples, with Assemblage B variants most common, and Assemblages E and A present in mixed infections. Conclusions This study showed that G. intestinalis infections in humans are frequently mixed, with multiple subtypes present in each host. Shared sequences among epidemiologically linked cases not identified through Sanger sequencing were detected. Considering the variation in symptoms observed in cases of giardiasis, and the potential link between symptoms and (sub-) assemblages, the frequency of mixed infections could have implications for our understanding of host–pathogen interactions. Graphical Abstract
In some maps the existence of an attractor with a positive Lyapunov exponent can be proved by constructing a trapping region in phase space and an invariant expanding cone in tangent space. If this approach fails it may be possible to adapt the strategy by considering an induced map (a first return map for a well-chosen subset of phase space). In this paper we show that such a construction can be applied to the two-dimensional border-collision normal form (a continuous piecewise-linear map) if a certain set of conditions are satisfied and develop an algorithm for checking these conditions. The algorithm requires relatively few computations, so it is a more efficient method than, for example, estimating the Lyapunov exponent from a single orbit in terms of speed, numerical accuracy, and rigor. The algorithm is used to prove the existence of an attractor with a positive Lyapunov exponent numerically in an area of parameter space where the map has strong rotational characteristics and the consideration of an induced map is critical for the proof of robust chaos.
Code review plays an important role in software quality control. A typical review process involves a careful check of a piece of code in an attempt to detect and locate defects and other quality issues/violations. One type of issue that may impact the quality of software is code smells-i.e., bad coding practices that may lead to defects or maintenance issues. Yet, little is known about the extent to which code smells are identified during modern code review. To investigate the concept behind code smells identified in modern code review and what actions reviewers suggest and developers take in response to the identified smells, we conducted an empirical study of code smells in code reviews by analyzing reviews from four large open source projects from the OpenStack (Nova and Neutron) and Qt (Qt Base and Qt Creator) communities. We manually checked a total of 25,415 code review comments obtained by keywords search and random selection; this resulted in the identification of 1,539 smell-related reviews which then allowed the study of the causes of code smells, actions taken against identified smells, time taken to fix identified smells, and reasons why developers ignored fixing identified smells. Our analysis found that 1) code smells were not commonly identified in code reviews , 2) smells were usually caused by violation of coding conventions, 3) reviewers usually provided constructive feedback, including fixing (refactoring) recommen-2 Xiaofeng Han et al. dations to help developers remove smells, 4) developers generally followed those recommendations and actioned the changes, 5) once identified by reviewers, it usually takes developers less than one week to fix the smells, and 6) the main reason why developers chose to ignore the identified smells is that it is not worth fixing the smell. Our results suggest the following: 1) developers should closely follow coding conventions in their projects to avoid introducing code smells, 2) review-based detection of code smells is perceived to be a trustworthy approach by developers, mainly because reviews are context-sensitive (as reviewers are more aware of the context of the code given that they are part of the project's development team), and 3) program context needs to be fully considered in order to make a decision of whether to fix the identified code smell immediately.
The aim of the current investigation was to undertake a longitudinal, multi-level study involving frontline fire and rescue personnel to assess the extent to which the effects of safety climate unfold over time and impact on safety compliance and participation via the safety-related support provided by both direct supervisors and co-workers. The study sample consisted of 317 firefighters from 46 fire stations in Malaysia, and data was collected using a two-wave longitudinal survey with a six-month gap. SPSS regression analysis was used to test upper-level direct effects, while all lower-level and cross-level effects were assessed using hierarchical linear modelling (HLM). The intermediary effects associated with the two sources of safety support were analysed using the Monte Carlo mediation test. Consistent with the social exchange and social impact theories, the results indicated that the intermediary pathway attributed to co-worker support for safety was over and above that accounted for by supervisory support. There were also firm signs that the intermediary effects associated with co-worker support were more potent than those attributed to supervisory safety support, and that this heightened influence applied irrespective of the safety performance outcome (compliance or participation) or whether the support data were assessed from an individual or team perspective. The theoretical and applied implications of these and other key findings are discussed.
This paper deals with numerical methods for solving systems of nonlinear parabolic problems. Block monotone iterative methods, based on the Jacobi and Gauss–Seidel methods, are in use for solving nonlinear difference schemes which approximate the systems of nonlinear parabolic problems. In the view of the method of upper and lower solutions, two monotone upper and lower sequences of solutions are constructed, where the monotone property ensures the theorem on existence and uniqueness of solutions. Constructions of initial upper and lower solutions are discussed. Numerical experiments are presented.
Firmness is an important parameter for fresh blueberries as it influences the quality perceived by consumers and postharvest storage potential. However, the blueberry research community has not yet identified a universal standard method that can evaluate firmness for quality purposes. Different mechanical tests have been considered , offering different perspectives on this quality trait. This review summarises the most common methods previously used to evaluate textural and mechanical properties of fresh blueberries as influenced by pre-and postharvest factors. In addition, this review intends to assist the blueberry research community and commercial supply chain when selecting suitable methods to measure blueberry firmness as a fruit quality response. Different research initiatives to develop, optimize or standardise instrumental methods to assess blueberry firmness and relate to consumer sensory perception are reviewed. Mechanical parameters obtained by compression tests are the most previously used techniques to evaluate the influence of genotype, maturity, calcium, and postharvest management on blueberry firmness or to relate to sensory descriptors. However, standardising operational settings (e.g., compression distance, loading speed, and calculation procedures) is required to make results comparable across data collection conditions. Whether other mechanical test methods such as penetration or a combination of tests can better characterise blueberry quality or the relationship with consumer acceptance remains unknown and is worth studying.
Social media is increasingly being utilized to facilitate the buying and selling of illegal drugs, particularly by young people. However, the range of social media and messaging platforms means people must make ‘choices’ around which platforms they will use to conduct drug transactions. Polymedia theory suggests that people use different media to manage their social relationships, ‘choosing’ appropriate channels or platforms based on platform features and the social context of the relationship. This paper uses polymedia theory to explore how buyers and sellers navigate platform ‘choice’ for drug trading, and how this bears similarities to the ways in which they move between different platforms in their daily lives. We conducted anonymous online interviews with thirty-three people who buy and/or sell drugs via social media and encrypted messaging apps in New Zealand to explore the factors shaping their selection of platforms for drug transactions. Our findings highlight the importance of the relationship between the buyer and seller in shaping how interviewees weighted the relative importance of platform security and convenience. Though more commercial drug sellers exercised considerable influence in directing buyers of drugs towards a given platform, this pattern was less characteristic of how platform ‘choice’ was navigated in contexts of drug supply between friends. In social supply contexts, platform ‘choices’ were often not explicitly made, but rather exchanges were channelled through platforms already in use within the social group. We highlight the tensions that arise between seller preferences for a more secure platform and buyer preferences for greater convenience in contexts of friendship. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding social media drug market engagement as shaped by broader patterns of social media engagement, and the distinctions between different social contexts and personal relationships, consistent with polymedia theory.
Sustainable consumption behaviors are embedded in a consumption system. Their uptake is influenced by personal characteristics and the context. Feedback loops reinforce extant behavior and path dependencies enable or hinder additional sustainable consumption. This study applies a cross-national approach to reveal the influence of structural characteristics on the pattern of sustainable consumption, comparing results from Austria and New Zealand. Using Rasch Modelling, we test five propositions and find that most of the 26 behaviors investigated are taken up in the same order in both countries. Government regulations, business initiatives, and geographic characteristics influence the uptake of some sustainable behaviors, including recycling, consumption of organic food or use of public transport in the two countries. Consumers experience structural feedback loops and historic government foci have created path dependencies. The results demonstrate that a systemic view of sustainable consumption behaviors is required, to foster and increase sustainable behavior.
Information on the comparative effectiveness of the nitrification inhibitors (NIs), 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) and 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine (nitrapyrin) on New Zealand (NZ) urine-amended pasture soils is lacking. Therefore, laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to test the half-life and efficacy of these NIs to reduce nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from two urine-amended pasture soils varying in clay and organic matter content. Two application rates of each NI were tested as follows: 2.5 and 5 mg DMPP kg⁻¹ soil, and 3 and 6 mg nitrapyrin kg⁻¹ soil. Dicyandiamide (DCD) was used as a reference NI, at the recommended application rate (10 mg DCD kg⁻¹ soil). The half-life values (at 15°C) of the NIs varied with clay and organic matter. These were 12–17 days for DMPP and 18–29 days for nitrapyrin compared with 20–33 days for DCD. All the NIs reduced N2O emissions, but their efficacy differed with the amount of NI and soil type. The reductions in N2O emissions were 19–46% with DMPP and 45–59% with nitrapyrin relative to 43–47% with DCD. The higher rate of nitrapyrin achieved significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions under lower clay and organic matter content. The NIs did not affect the levels of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen (MBC and MBN) during the study period.
Background Despite the detrimental effects and life-course health consequences of violence exposure, relatively few studies have adequate capacity to investigate the evolution of violence from childhood to motherhood. Objective This study aims to examine the cyclical nature of childhood abuse and prenatal inter-partner violent victimization (p-IPV) and its adverse impact on childbirth trauma and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice in Vietnam. Method Using a prospective birth cohort, 150 pregnant women were recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy in Hue city in central Vietnam (Wave 1-Baseline) and re-interviewed approximately three months after delivery (Wave 2-Follow-up). The direct and indirect effects of violent victimization on subsequent childbirth experience (measured by Birth Memories and Recall Questionnaire) and EBF practice were estimated by using augmented-inverse-probability-weighted models, sensitivity analysis, and structural equation model. Results Detrimental and prolonged effects of the inter-generational cycle of violence transverse childhood to motherhood. Women who experienced either childhood abuse or p-IPV violence were more likely to experience negative emotional childbirth memories [ARR 1.21, 95 % CI (1.04, 1.39)]. Evidence also suggested that not continuing to exclusively breastfeed at 3 months post-partum was strongly associated with prenatal depression, young age, and perceived low social status during pregnancy. Perceived strong connectedness among extended family members and social networks (i.e. nexus among family, friends, and neighborhood) provided a buffering effect by preventing EBF termination. Conclusion This research provides insights into the protective role of social connectedness in improving breastfeeding practice. It is vital to establish wholistic antenatal care and social service system to offer specialized support and response for victims of violence and mitigate the long-term sequelae of traumatic events.
We examine the impact of social trust on corporate R&D expenditure. Using a large sample of 1811 Chinese firms during 2007–2018, we show that social trust significantly promotes corporate R&D expenditure. Firms located in higher social trust regions invest 6.16 % (4.17 %) more in R&D1 (R&D2) than those located in lower social trust regions. This result is robust to a battery of robustness checks and endogeneity corrections using the instrumental variable approach, and is more pronounced for non-state owned enterprises (non-SOEs), small firms, firms with low cash flow, firms with weak corporate governance, and firms located in regions with lower marketization index. We further find that, social trust is positively associated with higher innovation output as measured by patents. Overall, we highlight the important role played by social trust in encouraging corporate R&D expenditure and enhancing innovation.
Climate impacts affect marine ecosystems worldwide with island nations such as New Zealand being extremely vulnerable because of their socio-economic and cultural dependence on the marine and costal environment. Cetaceans are ideal indicator species of ecosystem change and ocean health given their extended life span and cosmopolitan distribution, but limited data availability prevents anticipating change in distribution under future climate changes. We projected the range shifts of a key odontocete and mysticete species (Physeter macrocephalus and Balaenoptera musculus) in 2100 relative to present day in New Zealand waters, using an ensemble modelling approach, under three climate change scenarios of different severity. The results show a latitudinal shift in suitable habitat for both whale species, increasing in magnitude with severity of sea surface temperature warming. The most severe climate change scenario tested generated 61% and 42% loss and decrease of currently suitable habitat for sperm and blue whales, respectively, mostly in New Zealand’s northern waters. These predicted changes will have a strong impact on the ecosystem functioning and services in New Zealand’s northern waters but also in coastal areas (critical for the species’ foraging and survival). Not only do these simulated range shifts help to identify future potential climate refugia to mitigate a global warming, they also generate a range of socioeconomic consequences for island nations relying on wildlife tourism, industry, and environmental protection.
Learning from mistakes plays an important role in employee development; however, such a learning scale has not yet been developed. The objective of this study was to develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Learning from Mistakes Climate Scale (LMCS) in Malaysia. A pool of items was first developed based on the literature, with an expert panel then convened to select items that met the definition of learning from mistake climate in the workplace, specifically in Malaysia. The experts agreed on 23 items to be rated. In total, 554 working adults with a mean age of 32.28 were then recruited for this study. The LMCS was administered at baseline and 10-14 days later as a retest: 468 participants took part in the retest study, a dropout rate of 15.52%. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the LMCS is a 17-item one-factor model. Validity, in its various forms, was supported, namely convergent validity, criterion validity, and predictive validity. Analysis also showed significant reliability, that is, test-retest reliability and in all intra-class correlations. The LMCS was found to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess the learning from mistake climate in Malaysia. This is the first scale in the organizational learning climate literature to integrate the mistake tolerance aspect. This instrument can assist in creating a psychologically safe work environment that helps to facilitate learning, especially in a highly hierarchical, collectivistic culture that is high in power distance.
Objective Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of death in Western countries. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between occupational exposure to loud noise, long working hours, shift work, and sedentary work and IHD. Methods This data linkage study included all New Zealanders employed and aged 20–64 years at the time of the 2013 census, followed up for incident IHD between 2013 and 2018 based on hospitalisation, prescription and death records. Occupation and number of working hours were obtained from the census, and exposure to sedentary work, loud noise and night shift work was assessed using New Zealand job exposure matrices. HRs were calculated for males and females using Cox regression adjusted for age, socioeconomic status, smoking and ethnicity. Results From the 8 11 470 males and 7 83 207 females employed at the time of the census, 15 012 male (1.9%) and 5595 female IHD cases (0.7%) were identified. For males, there was a modestly higher risk of IHD for the highest category (>90 dBA) of noise exposure (HR 1.19; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.33), while for females exposure prevalence was too low to calculate an HR. Night shift work was associated with IHD for males (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.14) and females (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34). The population attributable fractions for night shift work were 1.8% and 4.6%, respectively. No clear associations with working long hours and sedentary work were observed. Conclusions This study suggests that occupational exposures to high levels of noise and night shift work might be associated with IHD risk.
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Kristin Stock
  • Massey Geoinformatics Collaboratory
Jane Coad
  • Massey Institute of Food Science & Technology, School of Food & Nutrition
Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos
  • School of Agriculture and Environment
Svetla Sofkova
  • School of Agriculture and Environment
Thanh Ngo
  • College of Business
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