Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology
Recent publications
This study investigated the efficacy of hotel facilities’ management practices on employee performance. A descriptive research survey was applied, while the study area was Nairobi County. The sampling techniques applied were a census, stratified, purposive and simple random sampling which gave a sample size of 144 employees. Study results show that sufficient lighting to allow ease of working and moving around safely gave the highest mean value among maintenance management factors (3.95), while work surfaces and head-height beams yielded the highest mean (3.95) among hotel workplace design factors. Nonetheless, health and safety had the majority (40%) of respondents among the hotel facilities regulations and standards. Finally, hotel maintenance management gave the greatest contribution in the relationship between hotel facilities management practices and employee performance (Β = 0.572, t = 4.637, p < 0.001), while hotel workplace design gave the least contribution (B = −0.299, t = −2.576, p = 0.011).
Rhizobia are soil bacteria that induce nodule formation on leguminous plants. In the nodules, they reduce dinitrogen to ammonium that can be utilized by plants. Besides nitrogen fixation, rhizobia have other symbiotic functions in plants including phosphorus and iron mobilization and protection of the plants against various abiotic stresses including salinity. Worldwide, about 20% of cultivable and 33% of irrigation land is saline, and it is estimated that around 50% of the arable land will be saline by 2050. Salinity inhibits plant growth and development, results in senescence, and ultimately plant death. The purpose of this study was to investigate how rhizobia, isolated from Kenyan soils, relieve common beans from salinity stress. The yield loss of common bean plants, which were either not inoculated or inoculated with the commercial R. tropici rhizobia CIAT899 was reduced by 73% when the plants were exposed to 300 mM NaCl, while only 60% yield loss was observed after inoculation with a novel indigenous isolate from Kenyan soil, named S3. Expression profiles showed that genes involved in the transport of mineral ions (such as K+, Ca2+, Fe3+, PO43−, and NO3−) to the host plant, and for the synthesis and transport of osmotolerance molecules (soluble carbohydrates, amino acids, and nucleotides) are highly expressed in S3 bacteroids during salt stress than in the controls. Furthermore, genes for the synthesis and transport of glutathione and γ-aminobutyric acid were upregulated in salt-stressed and S3-inocculated common bean plants. We conclude that microbial osmolytes, mineral ions, and antioxidant molecules from rhizobia enhance salt tolerance in common beans.
Yams (Dioscorea species) are tuber crops that are grown in tropical regions of Africa, the Caribbean, South America, Asia and South Pacific islands. It is an important food security crop with economic, nutritional and medicinal values. However, many Dioscorea species have similar morphology leading to inaccurate identification, which hinders their conservation and adequate exploitation of the economically important species. The aim of this study was to test the ability of DNA barcoding [ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rbcL) and Maturase K (matK)] markers to distinguish species and as an alternative tool for correcting species misidentification. Phylogenetic analysis of rbcL and matK sequences revealed four strongly supported distinct species that included Dioscorea bulbifera, Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea minutiflora and Dioscorea cayennensis. The specific clade of each of the yam accession was informed by the species. The phylogenetic clustering was confirmed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). DNA polymorphism in the yam species exhibited both synonymous and non-synonymous mutation. RbcL and matK gene sequences had nucleotide diversity of 0.00392 and 0.00632, respectively. There were seven haplotypes within the rbcL gene with a diversity index of 0.800 and variation of 0.00374. For matK gene, there were four haplotypes with a diversity index of 0.745 and variation of 0.00956. This study demonstrates that rbcL and matK are efficient DNA barcoding markers that can be used to identify and discriminate Dioscorea species. The identification and delimitation of Dioscorea species is crucial in utilization, conservation and in designing their breeding strategies.
With the drive for enhanced financial inclusion of the population through encouraging savings and investments in a bid to spur economic growth and attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the critical role played by Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOs) in developing countries in this endeavor cannot be gainsaid. It is worth noting that the extent to which such entities will contribute to economic development depends on the leadership paradigm utilized in guiding their operations and the extent to which they are innovative in their undertakings. This may further depend on the moderating effects of various factors, among them competitor orientation, especially in developing countries like Kenya, where the SACCO sector has grown tremendously with many deposit-taking SACCOs licensed to operate by the government. This study sought to establish the influence of transformational leadership on innovation in Deposit Taking SACCOs as moderated by competitor orientation in developing countries with a focus on Kenya. The study utilized descriptive and correlation research designs where 49 respondents, drawn from all the 7 Deposit-taking SACCOs in the Western region of Kenya, were targeted. Structured questionnaires were employed for data collection. The study used descriptive and inferential statistics to analyze data. Findings revealed that transformational leadership had a positive and significant influence on innovation. Further, competitor orientation had a positive but insignificant moderating effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and innovation. The study recommends that managers utilize transformational leadership practices in their undertakings to encourage innovation that ensures firm competitiveness. They should also focus on competitor orientation to support the firms’ innovative efforts.
Responsive infant and young child feeding as a reciprocal relationship between the child and his or her caregiver is recommended by the WHO but has received less attention than dietary diversity or meal frequency up to now. The current study assessed common (non)responsive child feeding practices and factors that facilitate or hinder caregivers to improve feeding practices in rural Teso South Sub-County, Western Kenya. The qualitative study used focus group discussion (n = 93) and Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) (n = 48) to identify challenges and opportunities in household food distribution and feeding practices. Overall, the implementation of responsive feeding practices was feasible for the caregivers. Parents reported mainly positive experiences in terms of the child’s feeding behavior and effects on child health. Traditional beliefs, practices, and cultural norms hindered some households to change intrahousehold food distribution. Households who manage to implement responsive feeding even in food insecure regions should be consulted to (a) improve existing nutrition education messages that acknowledge these cultural norms, (b) to include more responsive feeding information in nutrition education material, and (c) to address gender norms to create awareness of the importance of responsive feeding practices and the need for adequate time allocation for infant and young child feeding.
Background: International Confederation of Midwives and World Health Organization recommend core competencies for midwifery educators for effective theory and practical teaching and practice. Deficient curricula and lack of skilled midwifery educators are important factors affecting the quality of graduates from midwifery programmes. The objective of the study was to assess the capacity of university midwifery educators to deliver the updated competency-based curriculum after the capacity strengthening workshop in Kenya. Methods: The study used a quasi-experimental (pre-post) design. A four-day training to strengthen the capacity of educators to deliver emergency obstetrics and newborn care (EmONC) within the updated curriculum was conducted for 30 midwifery educators from 27 universities in Kenya. Before-after training assessments in knowledge, two EmONC skills and self-perceived confidence in using different teaching methodologies to deliver the competency-based curricula were conducted. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the before-after knowledge and skills mean scores. McNemar test was used to compare differences in the proportion of educators' self-reported confidence in applying the different teaching pedagogies. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Findings: Thirty educators (7 males and 23 females) participated, of whom only 11 (37%) had participated in a previous hands-on basic EmONC training - with 10 (91%) having had the training over two years beforehand. Performance mean scores increased significantly for knowledge (60.3% - 88. %), shoulder dystocia management (51.4 - 88.3%), newborn resuscitation (37.9 - 89.1%), and overall skill score (44.7 - 88.7%), p < 0.0001. The proportion of educators with confidence in using different stimulatory participatory teaching methods increased significantly for simulation (36.7 - 70%, p = 0.006), scenarios (53.3 - 80%, p = 0.039) and peer teaching and support (33.3 - 63.3%, p = 0.022). There was improvement in use of lecture method (80 - 90%, p = 0.289), small group discussions (73.3 - 86.7%, p = 0.344) and giving effective feedback (60 - 80%, p = 0.146), although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Training improved midwifery educators' knowledge, skills and confidence to deliver the updated EmONC-enhanced curriculum. To ensure that midwifery educators maintain their competence, there is need for structured regular mentoring and continuous professional development. Besides, there is need to cascade the capacity strengthening to reach more midwifery educators for a competent midwifery workforce.
Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) causing cucurbit aphid-borne yellows disease (CABYD) in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), is characterized by interveinal yellowing symptoms in leaves. CABYV is transmitted by Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae. CABYV causes up to 80% yield loss but there is no information available on its occurrence, serological and molecular characteristics in groundnuts. Two disease diagnostic surveys were conducted during the short and long rain seasons of 2020 and 2021 in Bungoma, Busia, Kakamega and Siaya counties growing groundnut. Disease incidence and severity was scored and data collected analysed using R Software. Serological bioassays were done using TAS-ELISA and positive samples pooled then processed with the transposon-based chemistry library preparation kit (Nextera XT, Illumina). Phylogenetic analyses and comparisons were performed using the MEGA X software. The short rains season recorded higher incidence (73.61%) than the long rains season (42.65%). The CABYV isolates from Kenya clustered with other poleroviruses variedly. CABYV6-2 showed 94.5% nucleotide identity with CpPV2 isolate KX599164.1 from Burkina Faso and 83.4% identity with CABYV isolate MG257902.1 from Korea. This research provides evidence for the first report of CABYV infecting A. hypogaea relevant for development of better plant health management technologies for increased groundnut yield.
Attitude has been regarded as a motivating feeling for the learning of biology. However, how inquiry-based learning contributes to attitude change towards the learning of biology has not yet been studied in Rwanda. This study intends to determine the effect of inquiry-based learning on students’ attitudes toward learning biology. A sample of 228 secondary school students at the upper secondary level in Rwanda was used. A quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-test was employed. One group was randomly assigned to the control group (N = 109) under the conventional teaching method, while the second group participated as the experimental group (N = 119) under the inquiry-based learning method. Biology attitude questionnaire (BAQ) was tested and a Pearson reliability of .89 coefficient was found, and hence the BAQ was adopted and used for the control and treatment groups before and after learning microbiology. Results asserted a significant effect of intervention in favor of the experimental group. However, a significant effect of the treatment on students’ attitude change in relation to gender was not identified. The study recommends using inquiry-based learning to promote attitude toward learning biology as it raises students’ interest to learning biology and alleviates the difficulty of its concepts. Keywords: biology education, inquiry-based learning, students’ attitudes, quasi-experimental design
In this paper, a mathematical model based on a system of ordinary differential equations is developed with vaccination as an intervention for the transmission dynamics of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). The model solutions are shown to be well posed. The vaccine reproduction number is computed by using the next-generation matrix approach. The sensitivity analysis carried out on this model showed that the vaccination rate and vaccine efficacy are among the most sensitive parameters of the vaccine reproduction number, RV. The optimal control problem is solved with the rate of vaccination and the transition rate from the vaccinated class to the infected class as control variables. Finally, the numerical simulations showed that the control intervention should aim to increase the vaccination rate with a high-efficacy vaccine.
Infectious agents such as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 have emerged in recent years causing epidemics with high mortality rates. *e quick development of novel therapeutic compounds is required in the fight against such pathogenic agents. Unfortunately, the traditional drug development methods are time-consuming and expensive. In this study, computational algorithms were utilized for virtual screening of a library of natural compounds in the ZINC database for their affinity towards SARS-CoV-2 M pro. Compounds such as cinanserin, nelfinavir, baicalin, baicalein, candesartan cilexetil, chloroquine, dipyridamole, and hydroxychloroquine have the ability to prevent SARS-CoV-2 M pro from facilitating COVID 19 infection; thus, they treat COVID 19. However, these drugs majorly act to reduce the symptoms of the disease. No anti-viral drug against COVID 19 virus infection has been discovered and approved. *erefore, this study sought to explore natural inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 M pro to develop a pharmacophore model for virtual screening of natural compounds in the ZINC database as potential candidates for SARS-CoV-2 M pro inhibitors and as therapeutic molecules against COVID 19. *is study undertook in silico methods to identify the best anti-viral candidates targeting SAR-CoV-2 M pro from natural sources in the ZINC database. Initially, reported anti-SARS-CoV-2 M pro molecules were integrated into designing a pharmacophore model utilizing PharmaGist. Later, the pharmacophore model was loaded into ZINCPHARMER and screened against the ZINC database to identify new probable drug candidates. *e root means square deviation (RMSD) values of the potential drug candidates informed the selection of some of them, which were docked with SARS-CoV-2 M pro to comprehend their interactions. From the molecular docking results, the top four candidates (ZINC000254823011, ZINC000072307130, ZINC000013627512, and ZINC000009418994) against SARS-CoV-2 M pro , with binding energies ranging from-8.2 kcal/mol to-8.6 kcal/mol, were examined for their oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic properties. Consequently, ZINC000072307130 emerged as the only orally bioavailable drug candidate with desirable pharmacokinetic properties. *is candidate drug was used to perform MD simulations, and the outcomes revealed that ZINC000072307130 formed a stable complex with the viral main protease. Consequently, ZINC000072307130 emerges as a potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 M pro inhibitor for the production of new COVID 19 drugs.
In this paper, a mathematical model based on a system of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations is developed to investigate the effect of human mobility on the dynamics of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Positivity and boundedness of the model solutions are shown. The existence of the disease-free, the endemic equilibria, and the travelling wave solutions of the model are shown. From the numerical analysis, it is shown that human mobility plays a crucial role in the disease transmission. Therefore, interventions that affect diffusion (human mobility), such as lock-down, travel restrictions, and cessation of movement, may play a significant role in controlling and preventing the spread of COVID-19.
Malaria remains a major public health concern around the world with tropical and sub-tropical regions bearing the greatest brunt despite up-scaling of control strategies. Despite the provisioning of insecticidal nets to expectant women attending antenatal care facilities, Plasmodium infections was a recurrent problem in Kakamega County. We hypothesized that socioeconomic factors were risk factors for the high prevalence levels of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections (API) among pregnant women in the County. A prospective cohort of 304 asymptomatic pregnant women aged 18 years and older was identified to assess the association between patient characteristics and risk of API using a cross-sectional study design. The study was conducted across four representative antenatal clinics (ANC) in the region. A pre-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic characteristics, residence, and knowledge of malaria. The questionnaire was followed by a face-to-face interview. Each participant provided a fingerprick blood sample for a thick and thion blood smear for parasite studies at Masinde Muliro University Science and Technology. The slides were examined at ×100 oil immersion. Plasmodium and the developmental stages were checked, quantified, and recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver 16. Differences in parasite densities for various parameters was assessed using Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis non-parametric tests. Ordinary linear squares (OLS) regression was used to uncover any significant associations at 95% CI and p-value ≤ 0.05. The majority of the women had a post-primary education (75%), were married (60.9%), multigravidae (50%), in their second trimester (41.4%), residing in rural areas (62.2%), used ITNs (77%), and did not practice IRS (67.8%) as a malaria prevention method. Plasmodium species infection prevalence was (24.34%; 95% CI, 19.52 – 29.16) P. falciparum (82.4%; 95% CI 73.72 – 91.08) accounting for the majority of infections. The parity and gestation status of the pregnant women were found to have a significant association with API. This study showed that a significant number of women in Kakamega County attending ANCs were asymptomatic for Plasmodium malaria. We propose that malaria screening through microscopy and treatment should be incorporated into maternal health within the county. Keywords: Pregnant women, API, antenatal care, Kakamega County
In Kenya, Universities are increasingly using e-learning systems to enhance content delivery and user interaction in a cost-effective manner. Against the backdrop of increasing acceptance of the systems in the universities, there was need of assessing the functionality of e-learning systems adopted by the universities. The paper focused on evaluating the functionality of web-based e-learning systems implemented in Kenyan Universities; drawing from ISO/IEC 9126 model that focuses on systems suitability, accurateness, interoperability, compliance and security. The study was conducted in two Kenyan universities; a public university, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), and a private university, Mount Kenya University (MKU). The study used a descriptive survey design utilizing quantitative data. Collection of data was done using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Respondents were sampled using Simple random sampling. 269 respondents were recruited from a target population of 900 drawn from both universities. Evaluation of E-learning systems indicated that existing systems had certain limitations that negatively affect system functionality elements. The functionality was also influenced by poor ICT infrastructure in the learning institution as well as type and organization of the content published in the systems. The study concludes that functionality of e-learning systems is influenced by interactivity between students and instructors, system security, content delivery and assessment and perceived usefulness of the system. Adoption of an appropriate System Functionality Evaluation Model to identify system weaknesses and improvement of ICT infrastructure in learning institutions will help to improve functionality of the e-learning systems in Kenyan universities.
Introduction Depression is the most common mental disorder among people living with HIV/AIDS and has a negative impact on HIV treatment outcomes. Training lay HIV counselors to identify and manage depression may contribute to improved patient access and adherence to treatment, and reduce stigma and discrimination among lay health workers toward both HIV and depression. The purpose of this study was to assess the current knowledge and attitudes of lay HIV counselors toward managing depression in primary care in Mozambique. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods cross-sectional study to assess depression-related knowledge and attitudes among lay HIV counselors in 13 primary healthcare facilities in Mozambique. We used the quantitative Depression Attitude Questionnaire (DAQ) scale, followed by open-ended questions to further explore three key DAQ domains: the nature of depression, treatment preferences, and professional attitudes or reactions. Results The sample included 107 participants (77.6% female, mean age: 32.3 years, sd = 7.4). Most (82.2%) had less than a high/technical school education. Findings suggested that some HIV counselors had knowledge of depression and described it as a cluster of psychological symptoms (e.g., deep sadness, anguish, apathy, isolation, and low self-esteem) sometimes leading to suicidal thoughts, or as a consequence of life stressors such as loss of a loved one, abuse, unemployment or physical illness, including being diagnosed with HIV infection. HIV counselors identified talking to trusted people about their problems, including family and/or counseling with a psychotherapist, as the best way for patients to deal with depression. While acknowledging challenges, counselors found working with patients with depression to be rewarding. Conclusion Lay health counselors identified HIV and psychosocial issues as key risk factors for depression. They believed that the treatment approach should focus on social support and psychotherapy.
The influence of the 15th January 2010 annular solar eclipse on traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) and equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) is studied using data from six global navigation and satellite system (GNSS) receivers spread across the path of annularity over the low latitude region of East Africa. The GNSS receivers are stationed at Nairobi (RCMN), Malindi (MAL2), and Eldoret (MOIU) in Kenya; Mbarara (MBAR) in Uganda; Kigali (NURK) in Rwanda; and Mtwara (MTWA) in Tanzania. The study period ranges from 12th to 18th January 2010, three days before and after the 15th January 2010 annular solar eclipse. The year 2010 marked the beginning phase of solar cycle 24, evidently observed in low total electron content (TEC) values and the disturbed storm time index (Dst). The eclipse started at 7 : 06 LT and ended at 10 : 14 LT, with MOIU and RCMN experiencing eclipse magnitudes of 0.946 and 0.93, respectively. The maximum obscuration occurred between 8 : 21 LT and 8 : 34 LT across most of the stations. A detrending on vertical TEC (VTEC) derived from GNSS receivers across or close to the path of totality revealed a reduction of ∼2-3 TECU during the maximum phase of the eclipse. The level of reduction was highly close to the totality path and decreased smoothly away from the totality path. Using a background polynomial fitting technique on diurnal TEC, we analyzed TIDs along NURK-MBAR-MOIU and MOIU-RCMN-MAL2 GPS arrays. The results revealed a wavelike perturbation with a virtual horizontal velocity of 830m/s and ∼1 TECU amplitude propagating eastward along the MOIU-RCMN-MAL2 GPS array. The study reports a moderate scintillation activity of 0.5 ≤ ROTI ≤ 0.9 values, demonstrating the presence of few EPBs over the region. The results show a latitudinal variation in GPS-TEC scintillation activities and suggest a possible influence of the eclipse on the observed increase in average scintillation levels across East Africa.
Background: Severe malarial anemia (SMA; Hb < 5.0 g/dl) is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum transmission regions such as western Kenya. Methods: We investigated the relationship between two novel complement component 5 (C5) missense mutations [rs17216529:C>T, p(Val145Ile) and rs17610:C>T, p(Ser1310Asn)] and longitudinal outcomes of malaria in a cohort of Kenyan children (under 60 mos, n = 1,546). Molecular modeling was used to investigate the impact of the amino acid transitions on the C5 protein structure. Results: Prediction of the wild-type and mutant C5 protein structures did not reveal major changes to the overall structure. However, based on the position of the variants, subtle differences could impact on the stability of C5b. The influence of the C5 genotypes/haplotypes on the number of malaria and SMA episodes over 36 months was determined by Poisson regression modeling. Genotypic analyses revealed that inheritance of the homozygous mutant (TT) for rs17216529:C>T enhanced the risk for both malaria (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.144, 95%CI: 1.059–1.236, p = 0.001) and SMA (IRR = 1.627, 95%CI: 1.201–2.204, p = 0.002). In the haplotypic model, carriers of TC had increased risk of malaria (IRR = 1.068, 95%CI: 1.017–1.122, p = 0.009), while carriers of both wild-type alleles (CC) were protected against SMA (IRR = 0.679, 95%CI: 0.542–0.850, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Collectively, these findings show that the selected C5 missense mutations influence the longitudinal risk of malaria and SMA in immune-naïve children exposed to holoendemic P. falciparum transmission through a mechanism that remains to be defined.
Monitoring and measuring spatial changes in aboveground carbon stocks distribution in forest ecosystems and how tree diversity influences it is key to understanding the role of vegetation in implementing climate change mitigation strategies in addition to promoting sustainable forest management. This study was carried out to evaluate spatial changes in aboveground carbon stocks and their relationship to tree species diversity in Kakamega and North Nandi Forest ecosystems. Specifically, the study (i) determined the spatial changes in aboveground carbon stocks (ii) evaluated how changes in species diversity affect aboveground carbon stocks. This study was carried out in the North Nandi and Kakamega Forest ecosystems. Three sites based on forest condition sites were selected in each of the forest ecosystems. These were least disturbed, plantations and disturbed sites. Nested sampling was used to study mature trees and shrub and herbs. All trees greater than 5cm in diameter were counted, identified to species level and recorded. Diameter at breast height was measured using the diameter tape, 1.3m above the ground for DBH ≥ 5cm. Tree height was measured using the Suunto clinometer while wood density was obtained from wood density database at http://db.worldagroforestry.org/wd. An estimation of carbon stocks in aboveground woody biomass was done using allometric models based on non-destructive method. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to analyze the data. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the variation in carbon stocks and tree diversity between forest ecosystems and among forest types. Correlation was used to establish the relationship between tree diversity and above-ground carbon stocks. Kakamega Forest had the highest mean aboveground carbon stocks (157.93 ± 26.91 MgC ha − 1 ) while North Nandi Forest had (97.83 ± 19.89 MgC ha − 1 ). Least disturbed forest areas recorded the highest mean aboveground carbon stocks (65.96 ± 8.56 MgC ha − 1 ). Plantations recorded (26.69 ± 1.12 MgC ha − 1 ) while disturbed forest type had (3.26 ± 0.11 MgC ha − 1 ). There was statistically significant spatial variation in aboveground carbon stock (F (5,18) = 6.523; p < 0.05) between the Kakamega and North Nandi Forest ecosystems. In the Kakamega Forest ecosystem, AGC was highest in least disturbed sites (316.31 ± 15.64 MgC ha − 1 ), followed by plantations (154.96 ± 14.99 MgC ha − 1 ), and lastly disturbed sites (2.53 ± 0.77 MgC ha − 1 ). The AGC variation among the forest types in the Kakamega Forest ecosystem was significant (F (2,9) = 5.966, p < 0.05). In the North Nandi Forest ecosystem, AGC was highest in least disturbed sites (211.40 ± 40.82 MgC ha − 1 ), followed by plantations (58.57 ± 16.06 MgC ha − 1 ), and lastly disturbed sites (23.54 ± 9.85 MgC ha − 1 ). Shannon Wiener’s diversity index revealed a relatively higher tree species diversity in Kakamega Forest (H´= 1.82 ± 0.95) relative to North Nandi Forest (H´= 1.24 ± 0.88). There was a significant variation in spatial tree diversity among different forest types (F (5,18) = 7.311; p < 0.05). There was also a significant positive correlation between the aboveground carbon and tree species diversity (r = 0.62, p < 0.05). Both Kakamega and North Nandi Forest ecosystems independently revealed statistically significant positive correlation between AGC and species diversity (r = 0.67; p < 0.05); and (r = 0.60; p < 0.05) respectively. Statistically significant strong positive correlation was recorded between AGC and species abundance (r = 0.68; p < 0.05); AGC and species richness (r = 0.85; p < 0.05) and AGC and DBH (r = 0.92 at p < 0.05). Kakamega and North Nandi forests vary spatially and temporally in their above ground carbon stocks. Tree species diversity positively influences the above-ground carbon stock of the two forest ecosystems.
Knowledge management is becoming indispensable in organizations since it is a powerful weapon for achieving competitive advantage. However, there is still a dearth of literature for employees and managers in organizations to link their investments in knowledge management and the value the organization gets in terms of employee engagement. This study was designed to assess knowledge management and employee engagement in the hospitality industry in the North Rift region of Kenya. An explanatory research design was adopted with a target population of 580 employees from star-rated hotels in the North Rift region out of which a sample size of 234 respondents was picked. Data was collected using questionnaires and interviews and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version 25.0 for quantitative data and thematic analysis of interview data. From findings, knowledge management explained a 50.4 percent variation in employee engagement. A coefficient of .728 indicated that a unit change in knowledge management leads to .728 units of positive change in employee engagement. Knowledge management significantly affects employee engagement thus the rejection of the null hypothesis. The hospitality business should invest in proper employee knowledge-sharing initiatives to enhance employee competence and motivation, resulting in high levels of engagement. The finding of this study can help major stakeholders in the hospitality industry to strengthen knowledge management for employee engagement.
In this work, akaganeite (β-FeO(OH)) impregnated maize cob biochar (Fe-MCB) was prepared by direct hydrolysis, and its adsorptive potential was tested against aqueous solutions of carbamazepine (CBZ), an emerging contaminant. The adsorbent was characterized by standard methods, namely XRD, SEM-EDX, FT-IR, BET surface area analysis, and VSM. Fe-MCB exhibited mesoporous textural structure with paramagnetic behavior at room temperature. The equilibrium data were modeled using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Fowler-Guggenheim and Sips isotherm models. The adsorption data were best described by Fowler-Guggenheim with an estimated maximum adsorption capacity of 81.80 mg g⁻¹. The adsorption rate was described by the pseudo-first-order (PFO) model. The thermodynamic functions, namely enthalpy (ΔH = -6.88 kJ mol⁻¹), negative Gibbs free energy (ΔG) values, entropy (ΔS = 26.33 J mol⁻¹), indicated that the adsorption was exothermic, spontaneous, with the increased disorder at the solid-liquid interphase. The adsorption mechanism is thought to entail dispersive interactions. Modified maize cob biochar is a potentially techno-economic sorbent for CBZ adsorption.
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1,046 members
Fred Otieno
  • Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
Francis Orata
  • Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Donald Kokonya
  • Community Health & Behavioural Sciences, School of Medicine
Josephine Khaoma Ngaira
  • School of Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance
Edward Mugalavai
  • Centre for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance
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