Background: Ongoing research in the dental field has begun to focus on the use of injectable platelet-rich fibrin (I-PRF) as a regenerative tool with the potential to prompt tissue regeneration. In this regard, this systematic scoping review aimed to collect, map, and appraise the in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the role of I-PRF in or soft and hard tissue regeneration in relation to oral and maxillofacial structures. Methods: A systematic electronic search of Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases was performed from 2000 to December 2021 using a combination of keywords. All in vitro and in vivo studies, written in English and concerning the potential role of I-PRF in regenerative dentistry were considered. Results: In total, 18 in vitro studies, 5 animal studies, 6 case reports, and 31 clinical studies have evaluated the effect of I-PRF on oral and maxillofacial soft and hard tissue regeneration. The investigated studies verified the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial efficacy and the positive effects of I-PRF application for wound, periodontal, bone, cartilage, and pulp regeneration, as well as acceleration in tooth movement during orthodontic treatment. Conclusions: Current literature approves the feasibility of I-PRF application as a promising regenerative adjunct to dental procedures.
Vertical displacement is a common concrete slab sidewalk deficiency, which may cause trip hazards and reduce wheelchair accessibility. This paper presents an automatic approach for trip hazard detection and mapping based on deep learning. A low-cost mobile LiDAR scanner was used to obtain full-width as-is conditions of sidewalks, after which a method was developed to convert the scanned 3D point clouds into 2D RGB orthoimages and elevation images. Then, a deep learning-based model was developed for pixelwise segmentation of concrete slab joints. Algorithms were developed to extract different types of joints of straight and curved sidewalks from the segmented images. Vertical displacement was evaluated by measuring elevation differences of adjacent concrete slab edges parallel to the boundaries of joints, based on which potential trip hazards were identified. In the end, the detected trip hazards and normal sidewalk joints were geo-visualized with specific information on Web GIS. Experiments demonstrated the proposed approach performed well for segmenting joints from images, with a highest segmentation IoU (Intersection over Union) of 0.88, and achieved similar results compared with manual assessment for detecting and mapping trip hazards but with a higher efficiency. The developed approach is cost- and time-effective, which is expected to enhance sidewalk assessment and improve sidewalk safety for the general public.
The purpose of this case study is to describe the movement of spiritual care into outpatient, managed care and population health settings, as it has evolved in a major not-for-profit health care system in the United States. The objective is to begin to establish the effectiveness of integrating spiritual care as a part of the interdisciplinary team (IDT) in these contexts. The case study presents two practice settings: a remote patient monitoring program for patients with complex medical conditions, and integration into population health as a part of a Medicare Advantage Insurance program that is a cooperative venture between the health care system (Ascension) and an established insurance program (Centene). The cases presented suggest that the integration of spiritual care into the outpatient, managed care and population health contexts has a threefold benefit: enhancing patient care, increasing the effectiveness of the IDT, and providing for the care and support of the members of the IDTs themselves. The cases presented suggest inclusion of spiritual care in the care management/population health approach to patient care is viable and valuable both for the benefit of the patient and the functioning of the care team.
This article explores shortcomings in military effectiveness in the war in Afghanistan. It focuses on three sets of problems: the failure to resolve internal contradictions in the training effort, the failure to integrate political considerations with military activity, and poor strategic and operational/tactical integration.
Biotin-dependent enzymes employ a carrier domain to efficiently transport reaction intermediates between distant active sites. The translocation of this carrier domain is critical to the interpretation of kinetic and structural studies, but there have been few direct attempts to investigate the dynamic interplay between ligand binding and carrier domain positioning in biotin-dependent enzymes. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate where the biotinylated carrier domain must translocate ∼70 Å from the biotin carboxylase domain to the carboxyltransferase domain. Many prior studies have assumed that carrier domain movement is governed by ligand-induced conformational changes, but the mechanism underlying this movement has not been confirmed. Here, we have developed a system to directly observe PC carrier domain positioning in both the presence and absence of ligands, independent of catalytic turnover. We have incorporated a cross-linking trap that reports on the interdomain conformation of the carrier domain when it is positioned in proximity to a neighboring carboxyltransferase domain. Cross-linking was monitored by gel electrophoresis, inactivation kinetics, and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. We demonstrate that the carrier domain positioning equilibrium is sensitive to substrate analogues and the allosteric activator acetyl-CoA. Notably, saturating concentrations of biotin carboxylase ligands do not prevent carrier domain trapping proximal to the neighboring carboxyltransferase domain, demonstrating that carrier domain positioning is governed by conformational selection. This model of carrier domain translocation in PC can be applied to other multi-domain enzymes that employ large-scale domain motions to transfer intermediates during catalysis.
99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and 99m Tc-duramycin in vivo imaging detects pulmonary oxidative stress and cell death, respectively, in rats exposed to >95% O 2 (hyperoxia) as a model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Pre-exposure to hyperoxia for 48 h followed by 24 h in room air (H-T) is protective against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. This study's objective was to determine the ability of 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-duramycin to track this protection and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. Rats were exposed to normoxia, hyperoxia for 60 h, H-T, or H-T followed by 60 h of hyperoxia (H-T+60). Imaging was performed 20 minutes post intravenous injection of either 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-duramycin. 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-duramycin lung uptake was 200% and 167% greater (p <0.01) in hyperoxia compared to normoxia rats, respectively. On the other hand, uptake of 99m Tc-HMPAO in H-T+60 was 24% greater (p <0.01) than in H-T rats, but 99m Tc-duramycin uptake was not significantly different (p=0.09). Lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, pleural effusion, endothelial filtration coefficient, and histological indices all showed evidence of protection and paralleled imaging results. Additional results indicate higher mitochondrial complex IV activity in H-T versus normoxia rats, suggesting that mitochondria of H-T lungs may be more tolerant of oxidative stress. A pattern of increasing lung uptake of 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-duramycin correlates with advancing oxidative stress and cell death and worsening injury, whereas stable or decreasing 99m Tc-HMPAO and stable 99m Tc-duramycin reflects hyperoxia tolerance, suggesting the potential utility of molecular imaging for identifying at-risk hosts that are more or less susceptible to progressing to ARDS.
Purpose: Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) graft harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) alters patellar tendon properties which inflict poor quadriceps neuromuscular function. BPTB autografts are associated with higher rates of post-traumatic osteoarthritis which in turn is associated with pathological gait. The purpose of this study was to investigate the latency between the time of peak quadriceps activity and peak knee flexion moment during gait, between those with BPTB grafts (n = 23) and other graft types (hamstring autograft or allografts [n = 54]), 5 ± 2 months and 2-years (25 ± 3 months) following ACLR. We hypothesized that longer latencies would be observed in the BPTB graft group in the involved limb. We expected latencies to shorten over time. Methods: Knee moments and quadriceps electromyography were collected during gait, and vastus medialis (VM), lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and quadriceps latencies were calculated. Linear mixed effects models were used to compare latencies between graft types and over the two timepoints. Results: Main effects of graft type were observed for VM (p = 0.0005) and quadriceps (p = 0.033) latencies with the BPTB graft group demonstrating longer latencies. No main effects of graft type were observed for VL (p = 0.051), and RF (p = 0.080) latencies. Main effects of time were observed for RF latency (p = 0.022). Conclusions: Our hypothesis that the BPTB graft group would demonstrate longer extensor latency was supported. Contrary to our second hypothesis, however, latency only improved in RF and regardless of graft type, indicating that neuromuscular deficits associated with BPTB grafts may persist 2-years after surgery. Persistent deficits may be mediated by changes in the patellar tendon's mechanical properties. Graft-specific rehabilitation may be warranted to address the long-term neuromechanical deficits that are present after BPTB graft harvest.
This study examined levels of depression and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores), and self-reported (Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire), and accelerometer-measured physical activity in older adults with multiple sclerosis ( n = 40) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy controls ( n = 40). We observed differences in depression, anxiety, and physical activity between groups and further observed that minutes/day of moderate to vigorous physical activity partially accounted for group differences in depression scores. We provide preliminary support for research examining approaches for increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity and possibly reducing depression symptoms in older adults with multiple sclerosis.
A new Dethiosulfovibrio strain, designated F2B T , was isolated from an anaerobic digester for treating solid waste from a marine recirculating aquaculture system. The motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming curved rods were 2–7 µm long and 1 µm in diameter. Growth occurred at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40 °C with a maximum rate of growth at 30 °C. The pH range for growth was pH 6.0–8.0, with a maximum rate of growth at pH 7.5. This isolate was halotolerant growing in NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.6 M with a maximum rate of growth at 0.4 M. Similarly to the five described Dethiosulfovibrio species, this obligate anaerobe isolate was fermentative, capable of utilizing peptides, amino acids and some organic acids for growth, but unlike described strains in the genus did not reduce thiosulphate or elemental sulphur to hydrogen sulphide during fermentation of organic substrates. The G+C content of 55 mol% is similar to the described Dethiosulfovibrio species. The average nucleotide identity analysis between whole genome sequences showed less than 93.15% sequence similarity between strain F2B T and the five other described Dethiosulfovibrio species. Differences in the physiological and phylogenetic characteristics between the new strain and other Dethiosulfovibrio specied indicate that F2B T represents a novel species of this genus and the epithet Dethiosulfovibrio faecalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F2B T (=DSM 112078 T =KCTC25378 T ).
Gekkotan lizards of the genus Hemidactylus exhibit derived digital morphologies. These include heavily reduced antepenultimate phalanges of digits III and IV of the manus and digits III–V of the pes, as well as enigmatic cartilaginous structures called paraphalanges. Despite this well‐known morphological derivation, no studies have investigated the development of these structures. We aimed to determine if heterochrony underlies the derived antepenultimate phalanges of Hemidactylus. Furthermore, we aimed to determine if convergently evolved paraphalanges exhibit similar or divergent developmental patterns. Herein we describe embryonic skeletal development in the hands and feet of four gekkonid species, exhibiting a range of digital morphologies. We determined that the derived antepenultimate phalanges of Hemidactylus are the products of paedomorphosis. Furthermore, we found divergent developmental patterns between convergently evolved paraphalanges.
Who do we aim to educate with primate conservation education programs (PCEPs)? In a commentary published in a recent AJP, Annette Lanjouw suggested that many efforts to “educate” habitat‐country communities can be neocolonial in their approaches. Forest destruction and habitat loss are a result of global consumption and expansion. We therefore need to approach conservation education from many angles including local stakeholders, policy makers, government officials, and the humans living in industrialized nations who are major consumers of the items that shrink primate habitats. In this review, we investigate PCEPs to determine if the conservation education goals, education methods, and assessment processes are proceeding within a neocolonial context. We reviewed the last 20 years of primate conservation literature and looked for publications that were focused on education programs. We found that in 50 of 52 publications published between 2001 and 2021, the education programs take place in habitat‐country local communities. We also reviewed primate field researcher and field site websites, and in most cases, education programs were also focused on educating local communities living near or in nonhuman primate habitats. Exceptions were student clubs, zoo programs, and a high school outreach program. Many PCEP providers presented a list of “lessons learned” and we compiled their wisdom in combination with our experience to provide a framework for moving forward. We conclude that as conservation primatologists, we must think beyond our field sites to create opportunities for educational outreach. We can reach global consumers by linking to zoos, television/motion picture, print media, social media, and working with schools on curricula. Primatologists can engage our undergraduates to establish clubs and create meaningful assignments that reach beyond the classroom. We encourage primatologists from the Global North to consider their positionality and the history of conservation exclusion in their attempts to conserve primates. Linking Conservation Goals to the Conservation Education Outcomes and Assessment We surveyed the Primate Conservation Education Program (PCEP) published literature and online resources to deconstruct the recommendations, strengths and weaknesses of PCEPs. We collated information on lessons learned to provide a framework for moving forward. Global North primatologists who are interested in beginning a PCEP should first consider outreach and education in the Global North. We surveyed the Primate Conservation Education Program (PCEP) published literature and online resources to deconstruct the recommendations, strengths and weaknesses of PCEPs. We collated information on lessons learned to provide a framework for moving forward. Global North primatologists who are interested in beginning a PCEP should first consider outreach and education in the Global North.
Purpose The aim of this study was to advance the use of structured, monologic discourse analysis by validating an automated scoring procedure for core lexicon (CoreLex) using transcripts. Method Forty-nine transcripts from persons with aphasia and 48 transcripts from persons with no brain injury were retrieved from the AphasiaBank database. Five structured monologic discourse tasks were scored manually by trained scorers and via automation using a newly developed CLAN command based upon previously published lists for CoreLex. Point-to-point (or word-by-word) accuracy and reliability of the two methods were calculated. Scoring discrepancies were examined to identify errors. Time estimates for each method were calculated to determine if automated scoring improved efficiency. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for the tasks ranged from .998 to .978, indicating excellent intermethod reliability. Automated scoring using CLAN represented a significant time savings for an experienced CLAN user and for inexperienced CLAN users following step-by-step instructions. Conclusions Automated scoring of CoreLex is a valid and reliable alternative to the current gold standard of manually scoring CoreLex from transcribed monologic discourse samples. The downstream time saving of this automated analysis may allow for more efficient and broader utilization of this discourse measure in aphasia research. To further encourage the use of this method, go to https://aphasia.talkbank.org/discourse/CoreLexicon/ for materials and the step-by-step instructions utilized in this project. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.20399304
In a previous version of this publication, the author Mercedes Rodriguez Celin’s name was listed as M.R. Celin.
In this paper, we study how local politics affect state level implementation of a critical federal environmental policy, the Clean Air Act, in the electricity generation sector. The analysis focuses on the installation of capital intensive air pollution abatement technology in highly regulated “nonattainment” areas, which violate federal air quality standards. The primary research design uses a regression discontinuity in the vote share for Republican governors and event study analyses of close elections. In nonattainment areas, Republican gubernatorial control differentially decreases new air pollution abatement capital spending by 90% and the probability of installing the most effective nitrogen oxide abatement technology by nine percentage points, relative to attainment areas and the counterfactual of Democratic gubernatorial control. The health benefits from reduced nitrogen oxide emissions in nonattainment areas likely exceed the additional costs of new air pollution abatement technology at electric utilities. However, the estimated benefit-cost ratios are smaller than those from many other air pollution abatement policies and net benefits may be negative for technology that will operate for fewer than five years.
Dermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth are rare lesions presumed to be caused by entrapment of germinal epithelium during the closure of the mandibular and hyoid branchial arches. They usually manifest as nonpainful swelling. Developmental cysts are histopathologically classified into 3 types: epidermoid, dermoid, and teratoid. An ultrasound scan is commonly used as the first choice to investigate a lesion. Other imaging methods, such as the US, CT, and MRI, are used for differential diagnosis. This article's aim is to present the imaging findings of 4 cases of sublingual dermoid cysts and to review the literature.
Background The ability to debrief is considered an essential clinical and simulation teaching skill because of the deep learning cultivated. Regulatory bodies identify the need for debriefing training and professional development followed by formative and summative assessment. Method The Debriefing for Meaningful Learning Evaluation Scale (DMLES) is a behaviorally anchored rating scale developed to assess 20 behaviors aligned with Debriefing for Meaningful Learning (DML). Participants from five baccalaureate pre–licensure nursing programs were recruited to receive DML training, then facilitate and record a debriefing for subjective and objective assessment using the DMLES. Results A total of 52 debriefers submitted 81 recorded debriefings. DMLES subjective ratings at two time points were higher than that of expert raters of the same debriefings demonstrating statistically significant differences between subjective and objective mean scores. Conclusions The difference between subjective and objective scores demonstrated the Dunning-Kruger Effect (DKE), a subjective overestimation of skill performance when compared to objective assessment. The potential for DKE is an important consideration for determining assessment methods.
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