For over half a century, Stanley Milgram’s classic and controversial obedience experiments have been a touchstone in the social and behavioral sciences, introducing generations of students to the concept of destructive obedience to authority and the Holocaust. In the last decade, the interdisciplinary Milgram renaissance has led to widespread interest in rethinking and challenging the context and nature of his Obedience Experiment. In Morality in the Making of Sense and Self, Matthew M. Hollander and Jason Turowetz offer a new explanation of obedience and defiance in Milgram’s lab. Examining one of the largest collections of Milgram’s original audiotapes, they scrutinize participant behavior in not only the experiments themselves, but also recordings of the subsequent debriefing interviews in which participants were asked to reflect on their actions. Taking an interaction centered approach to the sociology of morality, they show that, contrary to traditional understandings of Milgram’s experiments that highlight obedience, virtually all subjects, both compliant and defiant, mobilized practices to resist the authority’s commands, such that all were obedient and disobedient to varying degrees. As Hollander and Turowetz show, whether participants explicitly defined the situation as a moral problem mattered greatly for the outcomes they achieved, shaping their response to the authority’s demands and ultimately whether they would be classified as “obedient” or “defiant.” By illuminating the relationship between concrete moral dilemmas and social interaction, Hollander and Turowetz tell a new, empirically-grounded story about Milgram: one about morality—and immorality—in the making of sense and self.
This article explores the myriad ways that Polish and Ukrainian residents engaged in violent and cruel behavior during World War II through a case study of the Chełm region. Under Nazi occupation, this formerly peaceful community exploded into a horrific scene of nationalist and popular violence. Jews were widely assaulted by their Polish and Ukrainian countrymen; Poles and Ukrainians engaged in mutual killings and ethnic cleansing; rural villagers were subjected to countless raids from area partisans; and escaped Soviet POWs were often denounced or otherwise attacked by area residents. Treating this outbreak as a whole, I argue that anti-Jewish violence was embedded in a vicious social transformation that engendered an array of crimes against multiple groups. By interweaving the fates of different ethnicities into a single study, my paper contextualizes Polish complicity during the Holocaust and highlights the sordid interactions between the German invaders, Jewish citizens, and local Christian society.
Metaculture is a theory first posited by Greg Urban in 2001. Metaculture is culture about culture, according to Urban. Fandom is a community of individuals who share a love for a text or person and discuss that text or person. Many fandoms create their own subcultures surrounding the object of their fannish activities. In those discussions and activities, metaculture is created and becomes a central aspect of what makes a fandom. While all fandoms use and create metaculture similarly, the object of their fandom has a unique relationship with metaculture that is influential in the creation of and a part of that fandom. This article describes the relationship between fandom and metaculture generally as well as in the context of Hamilton: An American Musical , Glamberts and Ratatouille: The Tik-Tok Musical by drawing upon Urban, Henry Jenkins and Katherine Meizel, among others, to discuss how reality television, musical theatre and social media all interact with metaculture differently, influencing the creation and continuing existence of fandoms.
Gandhi’s nonviolent resistance to immoral authority has served as a model for civil rights leaders and activists globally. Likewise, social psychologist Stanley Milgram refers to Gandhi in his 1974 book on his controversial “obedience experiments” which tested the conditions under which ordinary people obey immoral commands. However, Milgram commentators have largely ignored both resistance and morality in the experiments. This chapter examines what Milgram can tell us about moral action under conditions of situational constraint. Drawing on 117 audio recordings of the experiments, we challenge Milgram’s “obedient–disobedient” outcome dichotomy, arguing that all participants resisted and complied to varying degrees. What distinguishes the two outcome groups is not the fact of resistance, but how it was interactionally performed and sustained. We conclude with implications for scholars of Gandhi and civil disobedience.
Critics of Dorothy L. Sayers's novel Gaudy Night have mostly read the text's idiosyncrasies positively in terms of both literary quality and feminist politics, often regarding it as heralding the partial breakthrough of its author into the ranks of more serious literary fiction. This article argues that Gaudy Night's departures from detective story convention represent more than a successful leap into the “highbrow” or a pioneering defense of women's education. Instead, they reflect a complex and problematic engagement with the early twentieth-century middlebrow phenomenon of the “Oxford novel” and, in particular, the relation between this literary form and the sexualized construction of the women's college in popular culture. The article starts by recontextualizing Sayers's work within the “Battle of the Brows” of the 1930s and then examines the specific case of Gaudy Night against this background, arguing that the novel explicitly teases its readership through a canny awareness of the exploitative sexual possibilities represented by the Oxford novel tradition and the popular press. Finally, it argues that these characteristics mean that we should resituate Gaudy Night at the center of 1930s debates over the term middlebrow, suggesting that the novel is valuable not just because it aspires to raise the status of detective fiction but because it highlights the complexity of the connections between representation, reception, and perceived literary quality.
This article describes Carmen Library Link, a tool created at the Ohio State University, which enables librarians to create customized library resource pages that are delivered to students within their courses in the Learning Management System. This article will discuss the need for the tool, how collaboration made the tool possible, and how a librarian at a regional campus has used Carmen Library Link to reach students more effectively.
During the past few years, a pilot-scale spray pyrolysis setup able to produce large quantities of submicronic powders (1kg/day) has been assembled in our laboratory. During the process, droplets of a precursor solution are dried and decomposed to the required compound. The presence of an additional soluble flux in the precursor solution permits to obtain agglomerate-free nanoparticles after washing the product. Therefore, pure zinc oxide nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by adding lithium or sodium nitrates to the initial zinc nitrate solution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, laser scattering size analyzer. The influence of the precursor solution composition and of the operating parameters on the morphology and the average size of ZnO nanoparticles is discussed.
The challenge of helping individuals with mental illness live more independently and purposefully within the community warrants a collaborative system of caregiving between professional and paraprofessional caregivers. Residential community support aides are a crucial component of this system of care. However, current investigation of their daily work experiences is lacking. In this study, a team of researchers, employing an interpretive phenomenological approach, analyzed data from in-depth, individual interviews with 5 residential community support aides and identified a constitutive pattern: the teacher as learner. Examination of this pattern and its associated themes will identify those clinical practices that should be preserved and those that are in need of change.
The threshold for ventricular fibrillation was determined in 12 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs using transthoracic electrodes located at the optimal axillary electroventilation sites. Electroventilation is the name used to designate inspiration produced by stimuli applied to body surface electrodes. The optimal stimulation site for electroventilation was first determined using hand-held electrodes. Then electrodes, 4.1 cm in diameter, were sutured bilaterally to the optimal anterior axillary stimulation site. The threshold current for producing ventricular fibrillation was determined using single pulses ranging from 0.1-10 msec in duration delivered during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. Fibrillation was produced in all dogs with the 10- and 5-msec pulse durations, in 11 dogs with 0.3-msec, in 6 dogs with 0.2-msec, and in 1 dog with 0.1-msec pulse duration. In all dogs, the current required to produce ventricular fibrillation increased greatly as the pulse duration was decreased. The current required for fibrillation was much in excess of that required to produce one tidal volume. With the longer duration pulses, the ratio was about 80. With the 8 microseconds duration pulses used for electroventilation the estimated ratio is about 800.
We have developed a simple measurement procedure for screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAC) and their metabolites in urine using room temperature phosphorescence (RTP). The signal intensities were proportional to the amounts of benzo(a)pyrene-r-7,t-8,9,10,tetrahydrotetrol (BPT) below 75 pmol per spot. The presence of unknown substances in urine of exposed rats caused photochemical interferences in the measurement of RTP. The removal of polar interferants restored the RTP spectra. These substances were removed by selective absorption of the target compounds to hydrocarbon-bonded silica particles (RP) imbedded in Whatman 42 filter paper discs. The sensitivity and linear response range are dependent on the signal to noise ratio of the instrument. Up to 1000 pmol of BPT can be adsorbed to 40 ?g of imbedded RP. When an instrument with signal to noise ratio capabilities of 300 is used, 5 pmol of BPT can be detected with an S/N of 3. Room temperature phosphorescence measurements of urine from rats exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) showed maximum intensity during the first and second days post exposure.
The ORNL EN tandem supplied beams of 3.5-9 MeV C3+ ions which were incident on a differentially pumped He target. Auger electrons emitted by fast C2+ ions emerged at 10° (lab) w.r.t. the incident ion beam. They were detected using a two stage spectrometer with kinematic refocusing. An excitation curve was obtained for the (1s2s2p2)3D state Auger decay to the ground state of C3+. The excitation curve peaks at ~ 6 MeV, which strongly supports the notion that the state is formed through resonant transfer and excitation.
Hospital human resource managers were surveyed to determine their understanding of negligent hiring employment law and the tools used in employment screening. This article describes the results, which indicate that hospital human resource managers understand the law but that there are gaps in the use of some employment screening tools. The authors make recommendations for future research.
The quality of life for infants and children is often dependent on the adequacy of the prenatal care pregnant women receive. From July through to December 1985, 15% of pregnant women in one Midwestern county were identified as having inadequate prenatal care. The purposes of the study were to identify and analyse the reasons women in that county gave for not obtaining adequate prenatal care. In addition, chi-square was used to determine the relationship between the reasons given and the three variables, age, time between knowledge of pregnancy and making an appointment for care, and source of payment. A convenience sample (n = 44) was used in a study over a 5-month period at three locations. The Health Belief Model was the conceptual framework for this study. Insufficient money to pay for care was the primary reason given for not obtaining adequate prenatal care (81%). Other reasons included motivational issues (45%) and access or lack of transportation (19%). There was a significant relationship (P = 0.05) with four reasons to the variable of age and with three reasons to both the variables of time and source of payment. The following recommendations were identified as a result of this research: the need for subsidized prenatal care and the need for a community-wide education campaign regarding the need for adequate prenatal care and the consequences of inadequate care. Prenatal care is sometimes not available to all in the United States in spite of the relationship of infant mortality and the quality of life for infants and children to adequate prenatal care.
The efficacy of defibrillation using the damped sine and constant-tile (60%) truncated exponential waveforms was determined in each of nine dogs. Two measures of efficacy were used to compare the two waveforms: 1) threshold defibrillation current and 2) percent successful defibrillation. For both measures of efficacy, shock strength was expressed in terms of delivered energy. Mean threshold energy was 0.98 J/kg for the damped sine wave and it was 1.24 J/kg for the truncated exponential waveform. Percent successful defibrillation versus energy/kg curves were constructed for each of the waveforms and were found to be essentially the same. Percent successful defibrillation increased with increasing shock intensity. For 50% success, the energy for the damped sine wave was 1.16 J/kg; for the truncated exponential wave, the corresponding value was 1.15 J/kg. A shock of threshold intensity successfully defibrillated in approximately 50% of the defibrillation attempts, i.e., defibrillation threshold corresponds to about 50% successful defibrillation.
This short book (200 pages) begins with an interesting foreword by T. X. Barber that is perhaps the best part of the book. A short history chapter is quite readable and is followed by two chapters of general theoretical knowledge from the field of hypnosis, (e.g., preparing the subject, test of suggestibility, etc.). Throughout the book Gibbons uses the term hyperempiria to denote hypnotically induced states of heightened arousal, and the term hypnosis to refer to hypnotically induced states of reduced awareness. In all regards the two techniques are seen as equal, and should be employed as the suggestor sees most likely to help the client reach stated goals. The remaining chapters in the book are mainly a compendium of induction techniques and therapeutic suggestions. The hypnotic techniques presented include mirror gazing, guided fantasy, dream induction, and many more. Therapeutic suggestions are included for pain control, smoking reduction, hypertension, artistic expression, public speaking, sports performance, and many, many more. Additionally, at the beginning of each chapter Gibbons has a short introduction that speaks briefly to personality dynamics, psychotherapeutic procedures, and possible reasons for therapeutic failures which may be avoided by proper planning.
To investigate whether a hand-positioning device placed in the palm of a patient with nonprogressive brain damage will decrease hypertonicity of the flexor muscles of the hand through proprioreceptive sensory input to the alpha-gamma coactivation loop, a hard cone was placed in the affected hand of 11 subjects who had sustained cerebrovascular accidents and had flexor hypertonicity of the upper extremity. Measurements of hypertonicity and functionality were made weekly for four weeks. All subjects experienced a significant decrease in flexor hypertonicity. Only slight changes were observed in functionality.
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