Mari State University
  • Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari el, Russia
Recent publications
Today, the development of competitive food products is of particular relevance. This focus should provide the population with high-quality meat products. A special role in this issue is given to non-traditional, national and innovative products, as well as products for healthy nutrition in the context of import substitution.
Foodborne infections are an important global health problem due to their high prevalence and potential for severe complications. Bacterial contamination of meat during processing at the enterprise can be a source of foodborne infections. Polymeric coatings with antibacterial properties can be applied to prevent bacterial contamination. A composite coating based on fluoroplast and Ag2O NPs can serve as such a coating. In present study, we, for the first time, created a composite coating based on fluoroplast and Ag2O NPs. Using laser ablation in water, we obtained spherical Ag2O NPs with an average size of 45 nm and a ζ-potential of −32 mV. The resulting Ag2O NPs at concentrations of 0.001–0.1% were transferred into acetone and mixed with a fluoroplast-based varnish. The developed coating made it possible to completely eliminate damage to a Teflon cutting board. The fluoroplast/Ag2O NP coating was free of defects and inhomogeneities at the nano level. The fluoroplast/Ag2O NP composite increased the production of ROS (H2O2, OH radical), 8-oxogualnine in DNA in vitro, and long-lived active forms of proteins. The effect depended on the mass fraction of the added Ag2O NPs. The 0.01–0.1% fluoroplast/NP Ag2O coating exhibited excellent bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but did not affect the viability of eukaryotic cells. The developed PTFE/NP Ag2O 0.01–0.1% coating can be used to protect cutting boards from bacterial contamination in the meat processing industry.
The article deals with new archaeological materials concerning one of the objects of the Tsaryovokokshaysk temple complex – the Cathedral of the Resurrection built in 1759. A brief overview of the temple construction at Tsaryovokokshaysk since the founding of the town is presented. On the basis of archival sources and scientific works on the Tsarevokokshaysk temple complex, basic information on the history of the Cathedral of the Resurrection is given, in particular, about the previous wooden temples on the place of the future cathedral, about its construction and further reconstructions, architectural features and parishioners of the church. The second part of the article presents the results of archaeological studies of the foundation of the southern chapel of the cathedral dedicated to the Hieromartyr Feodor, that was carried out in 2021 by Y.A.Zeleneyev. The features of the church architecture that have been traced archaeologically are highlighted, such as the stages of construction and reconstruction of the building, the structure features of the foundation, the dimension of the brick and the order of masonry. Special attention is paid to the heating system of the cathedral revealed during the excavations. Brief information is given on other archaeological sites and artefacts identified during the research of the church. In the course of the study the data of archival sources were confirmed, which, when compared with the results of archaeological studies, give an idea of this object of stone temple architecture of the Mari Krai in the middle of the XVIII century.
Terracotta tiles are a characteristic objects of Russian culture in the 17th century. These terracotta tiles are intended for facing stoves. The article deals with tiles and stamps for making tiles found during the archaeological study of the historical part of Tsaryovokokshaysk. A stove faced with tiles was a luxury item for the upper strata of the population. That is why the findings of tiles are more interesting in the territory of a small town, where wealthy people made up a small percentage of the population. The technology of manufacturing tiles speaks in favor of the presence of local production. Stamps found on the territory of the town for applying a pattern on tiles also indicate the presence of such production in Tsaryovokokshaysk of the 17th century. Stamps are quite rare finds on the territory of Russia, and those ones found far from the centers of tile production are of even greater value. Tsaryovokokshaysk stamps have a more complicated and varied pattern than those found in other regions earlier. The revealed tiles were described and grouped according to the composition of the drawing. In 2021 there was found a tile that had been made using a stamp found in 2015. This fact also proves the presence of local production in the town during the 17th century. The production of tiles in Tsaryovokokshaysk ceased in the 18th century due to socio-economic reasons.
The article discusses various aspects of social entrepreneurship, its unique competitive characteristics and advantages at the regional level, and outlines the role of socially oriented business structures in the sustainable development of territories.
Устанавливается, что семейство всех попарных произведений регулярных гармонических функций в области $D \subset \mathbb{R}^3$ и ньютоновых потенциалов точек, расположенных на луче вне $D$, полно в пространстве $L_2(D)$. Результат используется при обосновании единственности решения линейного интегрального уравнения, к которому сводятся обратные задачи волнового зондирования в $\mathbb{R}^3$. Единственность решений соответствующих обратных задач устанавливается для пространственно непереопределенных постановок, когда размерность пространственного носителя данных совпадает с размерностью носителя искомой функции. Теоремы единственности используются для доказательства осевой симметрии решений рассматриваемых обратных задач при наличии осевой симметрии входных данных этих задач. Библиография: 31 наименование.
The microwave setup for obtaining plasma-activated water (PAW) has been created. PAW contains significant concentrations of H2O2 and NO3−, has a reduced content of O2, high conductivity, a high redox potential and low pH. Likewise, the specific electrical conductivity and concentration of H2O2 and NO3− linearly depend on the treatment time. These parameters are simple and convenient markers for controlling the preparation of PAW. It has been established that PAW solutions with a concentration of 0.5–1.0% increase the germination energy, protect against fusarium and hyperthermia in cotton, wheat and strawberry seeds. In addition, PAWs have a positive effect on the growth rate of plants in the early stages of development. The use of PAW provides significant benefits over the chemical preparations Dalbron and Bakhor, so-called seed germination stimulators (SDS).
The present study evaluates the cytotoxicity of a previously synthesized conjugate of betulinic acid (BA) with the penetrating cation F16 on breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and human fibroblast (HF) cell lines, and also shows the mechanism underlying its membranotropic action. It was confirmed that the conjugate exhibits higher cytotoxicity compared to native BA at low doses also blocking the proliferation of both cell lines and causing cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. We show that the conjugate indeed has a high potential for accumulation in mitochondria, being visualized in these organelles, which is most pronounced in cancer cells. The effect of the conjugate was observed to be accompanied by ROS hyperproduction in both cancerous and healthy cells, despite the lower base level of ROS in the latter. Along with this, using artificial liposomes, we determined that the conjugate is able to influence the phase state of lipid membranes, make them more fluid, and induce nonspecific permeabilization contributing to the overall cytotoxicity of the tested agent. We conclude that the studied BA–F16 conjugate does not have significant selective cytotoxicity, at least against the studied breast cancer cell line MCF-7.
Nowadays, there is a technologically advanced and fast-paced world around us, and it makes high demands on the citizens. One of these requirements is mastering algorithmic culture and algorithmic thinking. The research is focused on developing a course of extracurricular activities for primary school students targeted at developing programming skills and algorithmic thinking. The special study involved 80 second-fourth grade (primary school) students from Engels, Omsk, Yoshkar-Ola, Yakutsk, and Osh. The thematic course of the research Algorithmic thinking and programming in Scratch was designed with the original proprietary technology of ‘easy’ creative research mini-projects for creating practically relevant games and cartoons. It should take no longer than 45-60 minutes to accomplish them, representing the ‘from Knowledge to Competence’ general concept. A set of basic skills of algorithmic literacy that primary school students could develop successfully was identified. They are the following: realizing the nature of the algorithm, its features; the ability to find out algorithms in the processes in the world around; the ability to visualize (depict) an algorithm; the ability to differentiate the type of the algorithm; the ability to follow the algorithm accurately; the ability to modify the algorithm; the ability to choose an advanced algorithm; the ability to compile an algorithm while solving a learning and cognitive problem. The suggested technology has proved the effective mastering the necessary basic set of skills in the field of project performance. After completing the full-year cycle of training, the students were engaged with further literacy improvement.
The education of children with special needs is one of the main tasks for the country. This is a necessary condition for creating a truly inclusive society, where everyone can feel the involvement and relevance of their actions. We are obliged to give every child the opportunity, regardless of their needs and other circumstances, to fully realize their potential, to benefit society and become a full-fledged member of it. The purpose of the article is an applied analysis of working with people with special learning needs. The leading method for studying this problem is the design method, which allows us to consider this problem as a purposeful and organized process for improving professional and special competencies. The structure of the presented work includes target, content, organizational-procedural and effective components. Taking into account the results of this study, we can identify a number of scientific problems and promising areas that require further consideration: deepening and expanding some of the provisions set out in the article related to the formation and accumulation of psychological and pedagogical experience.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive hereditary disease caused by the absence of the dystrophin protein. This is secondarily accompanied by a dysregulation of ion homeostasis, in which mitochondria play an important role. In the present work, we show that mitochondrial dysfunction in the skeletal muscles of dystrophin-deficient mdx mice is accompanied by a reduction in K+ transport and a decrease in its content in the matrix. This is associated with a decrease in the expression of the mitochondrial large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa) in the muscles of mdx mice, which play an important role in cytoprotection. We observed that the BKCa activator NS1619 caused a normalization of mitoBKCa expression and potassium homeostasis in the muscle mitochondria of these animals, which was accompanied by an increase in the calcium retention capacity, mitigation of oxidative stress, and improvement in mitochondrial ultrastructure. This effect of NS1619 contributed to the reduction of degeneration/regeneration cycles and fibrosis in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice as well as a normalization of sarcomere size, but had no effect on the leakage of muscle enzymes and muscle strength loss. In the case of wild-type mice, we noted the negative effect of NS1619 manifested in the inhibition of the functional activity of mitochondria and disruption of their structure, which, however, did not significantly affect the state of the skeletal muscles of the animals. This article discusses the role of mitoBKCa in the development of DMD and the prospects of the approach associated with the correction of its function in treatments of this secondary channelopathy.
This article presents the results of historical and medical study reflecting the state of child health care system in Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the Great Patriotic War of 1941–1945. The aim of the study is to analyze the situation regarding children’s health care during the most crucial period for our country. We have studied published and unpublished documents from the State Archive of Russian Federation, archives of Chuvash Republic, newspapers, journals, collections of scientific articles, and monographs to cover this issue. Local health authorities have significantly reorganized their work during the war years and set new tasks for protection of local and evacuated children’s health and lives. People’s Commissariat of Public Health of Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic has managed to prevent the reduction in the number of pediatric medical and preventive institutions, implemented their adequate staffing level, increase the efficacy of therapeutic and preventive measures, and resist infectious diseases outbreaks even under the evacuation measures, insufficient funding, and lack of qualified specialists. The child health care system created before the war in the whole USSR (Chuvashia included) and the medical and preventive work that was carried out during the war gave positive results. Child mortality decreased by 1.7 times compared to the pre-war 1940. Thus, children’s health care in Chuvashia withstood this difficult test and proved its efficacy during the Great Patriotic War.
The article attempts to carry out a comparative analysis of the agrarian policy pursued by the governments of the White Movement during the Civil War (1918–1920). The period of the second half of the XIX – early XX century was marked by the development of land relations in the Russian Empire. Despite serfdom abolition, peasant land scarcity continued to be the main problem of the peasant issue. The First World War, like the Russian-Japanese war, was supposed to be a small victorious war in order to postpone making the final decision on the agrarian issue. Absence of reforms combined with a protracted nature of the war contributed to the emergence of new liberal democratic forces in Russia. Beginning with February 1917, the Provisional Government tried to pursue a revolutionary policy to raise the authority of the government among soldiers, peasants and workers. However, political misconceptions and mistakes contributed to further power decentralization in Russia, which led first to the counter-revolution formation, and only then to isolation of the White Movement from this united front. With small resources, the leaders of the European part of the movement faced a problem that was not yet solved. Despite the Decree on Land adopted by the Soviet government, redistribution of land was not carried out, the agrarian issue continued to be acute, especially in the outskirts, which were under the rule of the whites. In contrast to the Decree on Land, the leaders of the White Movement had to pursue their own policy, which would be more attractive to the peasant masses. 95% of the population of Russia was peasants, so to gain their support would mean victory in the civil war. The regional and the national character of the White Movement determined future agrarian policy. It is also necessary to take into account that domestic policy was implemented in wartime conditions, which affected the effectiveness of reforms. Contradictions between the right-wingers and left-wingers delayed the development and implementation of reforms, which ultimately resulted in their failure. However, despite this, the white governments managed to lay a regulatory framework in their territorial entities, while taking into account the national and climatic specifics of the region.
The article proposes the algorithm of electric circuit state matrix transformation obtained by the modified nodal analysis. The algorithm is aimed at reducing the system of electrical circuit differential equations to Cauchy problem form for the purpose of subsequent solution. Application of the modified nodal analysis to an electric circuit with energy inertial elements leads to a system of ordinary differential equations, which contains a singular matrix before the derivatives vector in matrix form if there are ungrounded capacitors in a circuit. For this reason, direct reduction of this equations system to Cauchy problem form is impossible. The idea of solving such systems is to pass from equations with potentials to equations with voltages and subsequent division of the equations system into two pieces: containing derivatives and without them. An important step in the transformation to equations with voltages is the elimination of linearly dependent rows of the singular matrix. The algorithm of that transformation is based on the analysis of the adjacency matrix compiled for the capacitors of the electrical circuit, and is the subject of this work. The algorithm can be used for topologically arbitrary connection of an unlimited number of capacitors. For the purpose of demonstration, an example of using the algorithm is given in the article.
In the context of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the economy is in need of professionals with completely new competencies. So, the ability to make decisions based on big data, act in a situation of uncertainty, analyze and critically comprehend incoming information, etc. comes first. A modern employee is required to assimilate a new way of thinking, ethics and attitudes, the formation and development of digital culture and digital literacy. The training of such specialists becomes the most important task of education. However, the analysis of modern research shows that teachers themselves also need tools that would allow them to effectively perform their professional duties in the new economic reality. Based on the review of the requirements and the main groups of risks caused by the digital transformation of education, we conclude that the presence of a well-developed standardized model of digital competencies of teachers can become a reliable support for teachers and teachers. Also, the introduction of such a model in the educational programs of universities and professional development programs will bring the professional training of teachers in line with the requirements of digital transformation.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is caused by the loss of functional dystrophin that secondarily causes systemic metabolic impairment in skeletal muscles and cardiomyocytes. The nutraceutical approach is considered as a possible complementary therapy for this pathology. In this work, we have studied the effect of pyrimidine nucleoside uridine (30 mg/kg/day for 28 days, i.p.), which plays an important role in cellular metabolism, on the development of DMD in the skeletal muscles of dystrophin deficient mdx mice, as well as its effect on the mitochondrial dysfunction that accompanies this pathology. We found that chronic uridine administration reduced fibrosis in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice, but it had no effect on the intensity of degeneration/regeneration cycles and inflammation, pseudohypetrophy, and muscle strength of the animals. Analysis of TEM micrographs showed that uridine also had no effect on the impaired mitochondrial ultrastructure of mdx mouse skeletal muscle. The administration of uridine was found to lead to an increase in the expression of the Drp1 and Parkin genes, which may indicate an increase in the intensity of organelle fission and the normalization of mitophagy. Uridine had little effect on OXPHOS dysfunction in mdx mouse mitochondria, and moreover, it was suppressed in the mitochondria of wild type animals. At the same time, uridine restored the transport of potassium ions and reduced the production of reactive oxygen species; however, this had no effect on the impaired calcium retention capacity of mdx mouse mitochondria. The obtained results demonstrate that the used dose of uridine only partially prevents mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscles during Duchenne dystrophy, though it mitigates the development of destructive processes in skeletal muscles.
Long-term hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is associated with complex damage to cardiomyocytes and the development of mitochondrial dysfunction in the myocardium. Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, plays an important role in cellular metabolism and is used to improve cardiac function. Herein, the antidiabetic potential of uridine (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days, i.p.) and its effect on mitochondrial homeostasis in the heart tissue were examined in a high-fat diet–streptozotocin-induced model of diabetes in C57BL/6 mice. We found that chronic administration of uridine to diabetic mice normalized plasma glucose and triglyceride levels and the heart weight/body weight ratio and increased the rate of glucose utilization during the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Analysis of TEM revealed that uridine prevented diabetes-induced ultrastructural abnormalities in mitochondria and sarcomeres in ventricular cardiomyocytes. In diabetic heart tissue, the mRNA level of Ppargc1a decreased and Drp1 and Parkin gene expression increased, suggesting the disturbances of mitochondrial biogenesis, fission, and mitophagy, respectively. Uridine treatment of diabetic mice restored the mRNA level of Ppargc1a and enhanced Pink1 gene expression, which may indicate an increase in the intensity of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy, and as a consequence, mitochondrial turnover. Uridine also reduced oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction and suppressed lipid peroxidation, but it had no significant effect on the impaired calcium retention capacity and potassium transport in the heart mitochondria of diabetic mice. Altogether, these findings suggest that, along with its hypoglycemic effect, uridine has a protective action against diabetes-mediated functional and structural damage to cardiac mitochondria and disruption of mitochondrial quality-control systems in the diabetic heart.
This paper demonstrates the membranotropic effect of modified levopimaric acid diene adducts on liver mitochondria and lecithin liposomes. We found that the derivatives dosedependently reduced the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria due to inhibition of the activity of complexes III and IV of the respiratory chain and protonophore action. This was accompanied by a decrease in the membrane potential in the case of organelle energization both by glutamate/malate (complex I substrates) and succinate (complex II substrate). Compounds 1 and 2 reduced the generation of H2O2 by mitochondria, while compound 3 exhibited a pronounced antioxidant effect on glutamate/malate-driven respiration and, on the other hand, caused ROS overproduction when organelles are energized with succinate. All tested compounds exhibited surface-active properties, reducing the fluidity of mitochondrial membranes and contributing to nonspecific permeabilization of the lipid bilayer of mitochondrial membranes and swelling of the organelles. Modified levopimaric acid diene adducts also induced nonspecific permeabilization of unilamellar lecithin liposomes, which confirmed their membranotropic properties. We discuss the mechanisms of action of the tested compounds on the mitochondrial OXPHOS system and the state of the lipid bilayer of membranes, as well as the prospects for the use of new modified levopimaric acid diene adducts in medicine.
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289 members
Konstantin N Belosludtsev
  • Institute of natural sciences and pharmacy
Mikhail V Dubinin
  • Institute of Natural Sciences and Pharmacy
Victor Samartsev
  • Institute of medicine and natural sciences
A. V. Silant’ev
  • Department of Physics
Sergey Smolentsev
  • Faculty of Agriculture
Lenin Square 1, 424000, Yoshkar-Ola, Republic of Mari el, Russia
Head of institution
Mikhail N. Shvetsov
+7 (8362) 641-541
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