Manchester Metropolitan University
  • Manchester, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Background Individuals with glycogen storage disease IIIa (GSD IIIa) (OMIM #232400) experience muscle weakness and exercise limitation that worsen through adulthood. However, normative data for markers of physical capacity, such as strength and cardiovascular fitness, are limited. Furthermore, the impact of the disease on muscle size and quality is unstudied in weight bearing skeletal muscle, a key predictor of physical function. We aim to produce normative reference values of aerobic capacity and strength in individuals with GSD IIIa, and to investigate the role of muscle size and quality on exercise impairment. Results Peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2 peak) was lower in the individuals with GSD IIIa than predicted based on demographic data (17.0 (9.0) ml/kg/min, 53 (24)% of predicted, p = 0.001). Knee extension maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) was also substantially lower than age matched predicted values (MVC: 146 (116) Nm, 57% predicted, p = 0.045), though no difference was found in MVC relative to body mass (1.88 (2.74) Nm/kg, 61% of predicted, p = 0.263). There was a strong association between aerobic capacity and maximal leg strength (r = 0.920; p = 0.003). Substantial inter-individual variation was present, with a high physical capacity group that had normal leg strength (MVC), and relatively high V̇O 2 peak, and a low physical capacity that display impaired strength and substantially lower V̇O 2 peak. The higher physical capacity sub-group were younger, had larger Vastus Lateralis (VL) muscles, greater muscle quality, undertook more physical activity (PA), and reported higher health-related quality of life. Conclusions V̇O 2 peak and knee extension strength are lower in individuals with GSD IIIa than predicted based on their demographic data. Patients with higher physical capacity have superior muscle size and structure characteristics and higher health-related quality of life, than those with lower physical capacity. This study provides normative values of these important markers of physical capacity.
Fibular response to disuse has been described in cross-sectional but not longitudinal studies. This study assessed fibular bone changes in people with spinal cord injury. Fibular bone loss was less than in the tibia and was not correlated together. This might explain low fibular fracture incidents in these patients. Purpose: Cross-sectional studies suggest that the fibula responds differently to loading and disuse compared to the tibia. Whilst tibial bone changes following spinal cord injury (SCI) have been established in longitudinal studies, fibular changes remain unexplored. Methods: Fibular and tibial bone parameters were assessed in 13 individuals with SCI (aged 16-76 years). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans were acquired at 4%, 38% and 66% distal-proximal tibia length at 5 weeks and 12 months post-injury. Changes in 4% site total bone mineral content (BMC), total cross-sectional area (CSA) and bone mineral density (BMD), and 38% and 66% sites total BMC, total CSA, cortical BMD and cortical CSA were assessed using paired T-tests. Relationships between bone loss in the two bones at equivalent sites were assessed using paired T-tests and correlation. Results: At the 4% site, fibular total BMC and BMD losses were less than tibial losses (- 6.9 ± 5.1% and - 6.6 ± 6.0% vs - 14.8 ± 12.4% and - 14.4 ± 12.4%, p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Similarly, at the 66% site, fibular BMC losses were less than those in the tibia (- 2.0 ± 2.6% vs - 4.3 ± 3.6%, p = 0.03), but there was no difference at 38% (- 1.8 ± 3.5% vs - 3.8 ± 2.1%, p = 0.1). No correlation was observed for BMC changes between the two bones (all p > 0.25). Conclusion: These results support cross-sectional evidence of smaller disuse-related bone loss in the fibula compared to the tibia. These results may in part explain lower incidence of fibula fractures in individuals with chronic SCI. The lack of association between losses in the two bones might point to different underlying mechanisms.
Study design A training intervention study using standing dynamic load-shifting Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) in a group of individuals with complete spinal cord injury (SCI) T2 to T10. Objectives Investigate the effect of FES-assisted dynamic load-shifting exercises on bone mineral density (BMD). Setting University Lab within the Biomedical Engineering Methods Twelve participants with ASIA A SCI were recruited for this study. Three participants completed side-to-side load-shifting FES-assisted exercises for 29 ± 5 weeks, 2× per week for 1 h, and FES knee extension exercises on alternate days 3× per week for 1 h. Volumetric Bone Mineral density ( v BMD) at the distal femur and tibia were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) before and after the intervention study. Results Participants with acute and subacute SCI showed an absolute increase of f trabecular v BMD ( v BMD TRAB ) in the proximal (mean of 26.9%) and distal tibia (mean of 22.35%). Loss of v BMD TRAB in the distal femur was observed. Conclusion Improvements in v BMD TRAB in the distal tibia were found in acute and subacute SCI participants, and in the proximal tibia of acute participants, when subjected to anti-gravity FES-assisted load-bearing exercises for 29 ± 5 weeks. No v BMD improvement in distal femur or tibial shaft were observed in any of the participants as was expected. However, improvements of v BMD in the proximal and distal tibia were observed in two participants. This study provides evidence of an improvement of v BMD TRAB , when combining high-intensity exercises with lower intensity exercises 5× per week for 1 h.
Background Sustainable production and consumption are two important issues, which mutually interact. Whereas individuals have little direct influence on the former, they can play a key role on the latter. This paper describes the subject matter of sustainable consumption and outlines its key features. It also describes some international initiatives in this field. Results By means of an international survey, the study explores the emphasis given to sustainable consumption during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the degree of preparedness in individuals to engage in the purchase of green and sustainably manufactured products. The main results indicate that the pandemic offered an opportunity to promote sustainable consumption; nevertheless, the pandemic alone cannot be regarded as a ‘game changer’ in this topic. Conclusions Apart from an online survey with responses from 31 countries, which makes it one of the most representative studies on the topic, a logit model was used to analyse the main variables that affect the probability of pro-environmental consumption behaviour because of the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper lists some of the technological and social innovations that may be needed, so as to guide more sustainable consumption patterns in a post-pandemic world.
Background The implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires much planning and the provision of resources, especially regarding the necessary investments, technologies and infrastructures needed. Yet, it is presently unclear how available these elements are, what gaps exist, what changes have taken place in terms of their availability since the adoption of the SDGs and what their requirements will be in the future. The knowledge gap has become even more concerning because of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a bibliometric analysis, an assessment of the global progress of SDG implementation and requirements, identifying challenges through the development of a matrix, and a set of 11 case studies to triangulate the holistic analysis, an assessment of the global progress of the SDGs implementation and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this process was carried out. Results The findings suggest that the scope and width of resources limitation are currently undermining the implementation of the SDGs. Apart from the fact that the pace of progress has been insufficient, the potential of the SDGs in pursuing sustainability and improving life quality is not fully realised. This trend suggests that a substantial acceleration of the efforts is needed, especially for the five SDGs whose progress since 2015 has not been optimal, namely SDG2, SDG11, SDG13, SDG15, and SDG16, while SDG3, SDG7, SDG9, SDG14, and SDG17 show signs of progress. The case studies showed that different industries have dissimilar effects on achieving the SDGs, with the food sector correlating with 15 SDGs, as opposed to the energy sector correlating with 6 SDGs. Accordingly, the priority level assessment in terms of achieving the SDGs, points to the need to further advance the above-mentioned five SDGs, i.e., 2, 11, 13, 15 and 16. Conclusions This study fills in a knowledge gap in respect of the current need for and availability of investments, new technologies, and infrastructures to allow countries to pursue the SDGs. It is suggested that this availability is rather limited in specific contexts. In respect of the needs to be addressed, these include resource-related constraints, limited technologies and infrastructures, affecting SDG2, SDG11, SDG13, SDG15, and SDG16, whose progress needs to be enhanced. Since the global progress in the process of implementation of the SDGs depends directly and indirectly on addressing the resource gaps, it is suggested that this topic be further investigated, so that the present imbalances in the three dimensions of sustainable development: the economic, social and environmental, be adequately addressed.
Background This paper presents a review of the literature and trends related to social values and sustainable development and describes a set of case studies from a variety of community-based projects which illustrate the advantages that social values bring about as part of efforts to promote sustainability. Three approaches were used to develop this study: a bibliometric analysis of the topic “social values and sustainable development”, an analysis of case studies that concretely present community projects addressing social values and sustainability, and the development of a framework linking up bibliometric clusters and the cases studies. Results While the bibliometric analysis revealed clusters where social values are strongly connected with sustainable development, the case studies indicated the lack of a common terminology and understanding of the relation between social values, sustainable development, and community-based projects. Conclusions The study concludes by suggesting a set of measures that could be deployed to better take social values into account when planning policies or making decisions related to community projects.
This study examined personality antecedents of idea generation when pursuing either benevolent or malevolent goals. Specifically, 308 participants completed two Divergent Thinking tests. A malevolent divergent thinking test (MDT) in which participants generated ideas to inflict revenge and a benevolent divergent thinking test (BDT) in which participants generated well-meaning ideas. In addition, participants provided self-ratings of their Openness-to-experience and Psychopathy. Drawing upon the Blind Variation Selective Retention Combinatorial model, we proposed a dual pathway model, in which Openness-to-experience was hypothesised to relate to BDT performance and psychopathy was hypothesised to relate to MDT performance. Structural Equation Models were consistent with hypotheses. Openness-to-experience was related to BDT but not MDT whereas Psychopathy was related MDT but not BDT. We also explored facet-level and aspect-level models, which revealed some interesting insights. In addition, we provide four key principles underlying the development of our MDT test that can serve as a guide for the construction of future tests.
Liver fibrosis is the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins that occurs in chronic liver injury. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a key role in fibrogenesis which can develop into cirrhosis and carcinoma. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has promising therapeutic effects against fibrogenesis; however, the specific underlying mechanism is not fully elucidated. We investigated the potential of LLLT to attenuate carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats, focusing on oxidative injury, inflammatory response, and the possible role of PPARγ and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Rats were given CCl4 and exposed to LLLT twice/week for 6 weeks and blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. CCl4 caused liver injury and fibrosis manifested by hepatocyte injury, steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, and accumulation of collagen, elevated serum transaminases and bilirubin, and decreased albumin. ROS, MDA, NO, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, iNOS, TGF-β1, and IL-6 were increased in the liver of CCl4-administered rats. Exposure to LLLT ameliorated histopathological alterations, collagen deposition, and liver function markers, and downregulated hepatic α-SMA, collagen 1A1, and collagen 3A1. In Addition, LLLT decreased ROS, MDA, NO, NF-κB p65, TGF-β1, and pro-inflammatory mediators, and enhanced antioxidant defenses. These effects were associated with upregulated PPARγ, Nrf2, and HO-1, both gene and protein expression. In conclusion, LLLT attenuated liver fibrosis by suppressing ECM production and deposition, oxidative injury and inflammation, and upregulating PPARγ and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.
Microbial biofouling on polymer surfaces can lead to their biodeterioration. This may result in deterioration of the surface, leading to cracking and fracturing. Fungal spores from Aspergillus niger 1957, Aspergillus niger 1988 and Aureobasidium pullulans were tested to determine their strength of attachment on three surfaces, p(γ-MPS-co-MMA), p(γ-MPS-co-LMA) and spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMAsc), using lateral force measurements. The results demonstrate that A. niger 1957 and A. niger 1988 spores were most easily removed from the p(γ-MPS-co-MMA) surface, which was the surface with the highest R a value. The A. niger 1957 and A. pullulans spores were most difficult to remove from the PMMAsc surface, which was the hardest surface. A. niger 1988 spores were the most difficult to remove from p(γ-MPS-co-LMA), the most hydrophobic surface. The results with A. pullulans were difficult to elucidate since the spores bound to all three surfaces and were removed with similar rates of force. The lateral force results demonstrate that spore attachment to a surface is a multi-factorial process, and independent surface and microbial factors influence spore binding. Thus, each environmental scenario needs to be considered on an individual basis, since a solution to one biofouling issue will probably not translate across to other systems. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nanocracks in nature and industry'.
Propionic acid (PPA) is a short-chain fatty acid produced endogenously by gut microbiota and found in foodstuffs and pharmaceutical products as an additive. Exposure to PPA has been associated with the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of acetyl‐L‐carnitine (ALCAR) and liposomal Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against cerebral and cerebellar oxidative injury, inflammation, and cell death, and alterations in ALDH1A1-RA-RARα signaling in an autism-like rat model induced by PPA. The rats were treated with PPA and concurrently received ALCAR and/or CoQ10 for 5 days. The animals were sacrificed, and the cerebral cortex and cerebellum were collected for analysis. PPA caused histopathological alterations along with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), NF-κB p65, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the cerebrum and cerebellum of rats. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes were declined in the brain of rats that received PPA. Concurrent treatment with ALCAR and/or CoQ10 prevented tissue injury, decreased MDA, NF-κB p65, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhanced cellular antioxidants in PPA-administered rats. ALCAR and/or CoQ10 upregulated Bcl-2 and decreased Bax and caspase-3 in the brain of rats. In addition, ALCAR and/or CoQ10 upregulated cerebral and cerebellar ALDH1A1 and RARα in PPA-treated rats. The combination of ALCAR and CoQ10 showed more potent effects when compared with the individual treatments. In conclusion, ALCAR and/or CoQ10 prevented tissue injury, ameliorated oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and apoptosis, and upregulated ALDH1A1-RA-RARα signaling in the brain of autistic rats.
Hydrogels could be employed in agriculture for efficient management of water and controlled-release urea (CRU). This study aimed to synthesize a superabsorbent hydrogel for CRU by cross-linking sodium alginate (Alg) and N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium) propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC). The hydrogel structure was characterized by various techniques, and the urea loading and releasing behavior of the synthetic hydrogels were investigated. The results revealed that the maximum urea loading ranged between 107 and 200%, and that the urea loading kinetics fitted with Langmuir model followed by the Freundlich model. The urea release behavior reached equilibrium after 30 days and urea releasing kinetics fitted with the zero-order and Higuchi models. The synthesized hydrogels exerted significant antimicrobial activities and molecular docking showed their binding affinity toward glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, β‐lactamase II, TraR binding site and nucleoside diphosphate kinase. In conclusion, these Alg/HTACC hydrogels showed swelling, urea release, and antimicrobial properties suitable to meet the plant requirements and produce economic and environmental benefits.
Introduction During the COVID-19 pandemic various degrees of lockdown were applied by countries around the world. It is considered that such measures have an adverse effect on mental health but the relationship of measure intensity with the mental health effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here we report data from the larger COMET-G study pertaining to this question. Material and Methods During the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered with an online questionnaire from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ±13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Anxiety was measured with the STAI, depression with the CES-D and suicidality with the RASS. Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. Statistical Analysis It included the calculation of Relative Risk (RR), Factorial ANOVA and Multiple backwards stepwise linear regression analysis Results Approximately two-thirds were currently living under significant restrictions due to lockdown. For both males and females the risk to develop clinical depression correlated significantly with each and every level of increasing lockdown degree (RR 1.72 and 1.90 respectively). The combined lockdown and psychiatric history increased RR to 6.88 The overall relationship of lockdown with severity of depression, though significant was small. Conclusions The current study is the first which reports an almost linear relationship between lockdown degree and effect in mental health. Our findings, support previous suggestions concerning the need for a proactive targeted intervention to protect mental health more specifically in vulnerable groups
Homelessness is a major social and public health concern. It is a traumatic experience, and can have a devastating effect on those experiencing it. People who are homeless often face significant barriers when accessing public services, and those experiencing more visible and extreme forms of homelessness have often faced adverse childhood events, extreme social disadvantage, physical, emotional and sexual abuse, neglect, low self‐esteem, poor physical and mental health, and much lower life expectancy compared to the general population. Problematic substance use is disproportionately high amongst people experiencing homelessness, with many using drugs and alcohol to deal with the stress of living on the street, to keep warm, or to block out memories of previous abuse or trauma. Drug overdose is a major cause of death for people experiencing street homelessness. Substance dependency can also create barriers to successful transition to stable housing. There is ongoing policy interest in the effectiveness of different interventions that aim to stop, reduce or prevent problematic substance use, and there is specific interest in the relative effectiveness of interventions that adopt harm reduction or abstinence‐based approaches. The objective of this review is to understand the effectiveness of different substance use interventions. The review will consider the effectiveness of harm reduction‐based interventions, and abstinence‐based interventions, for adults experiencing homelessness. The focus of the review is on high‐income countries. The primary source of studies for potential inclusion in this review is the Homelessness Effectiveness Studies Evidence and Gaps Maps (EGM). The first of these was published in 2018, with updates published in 2019 and 2020. A further update is due to be published in the summer of 2022. It is this update that provides the final list of studies from which this review will draw. The search for this update (EGM 4th edition) was completed in September 2021. Other potential studies will be identified through a call for grey evidence and hand‐searching key journals. Eligible studies will be impact evaluations with designs at levels, 3, 4 and 5 of the Maryland Scientific Methods scale. This therefore includes all studies categorised as either ‘Randomised Controlled Trials’ or ‘nonexperimental designs with a comparison group’ from the studies which form the basis of the Homelessness Effectiveness Studies Evidence and Gap Maps (EGM) created by CHI and the Campbell Collaboration. We are interested in studies that examine the effect of interventions on substance use outcomes. Studies to be excluded are those with designs at levels 1 and 2 of the Maryland Scientific Methods scale, for example, studies without a control or comparison group, ‘before vs. after’ designs (without an untreated comparison group), and cross‐sectional regressions. Descriptive characteristics and statistical information in included studies will be coded and checked by at least two members of the review team. Studies selected for the review will be assessed for confidence in the findings using a critical appraisal tool for determining confidence in primary studies. Standardised effect sizes will be calculated and, if a study does not provide sufficient raw data for the calculation of an effect size, we will attempt to contact the author(s) to obtain this data. We will aim to use random‐effects meta‐analysis and robust‐variance estimation procedures to synthesise effect sizes. If a study includes multiple effects, we will carry out a critical assessment to determine (even if only theoretically) whether the effects are likely to be dependent. Where we suspect dependent effects, we will determine whether we can account for these by robust variance estimation. We will explore the moderating influence of participant and study characteristics, such as gender, race, substances targeted and length of follow‐up. Where effect sizes are converted from a binary to continuous measure (or vice versa), we will undertake a sensitivity analysis to investigate the effect of the inclusion of studies with a converted effect size in the meta‐analysis by running an additional analysis with these studies omitted. We will also assess the sensitivity of results to inclusion of non‐randomised studies and studies classified as low confidence in findings. All analyses will include an assessment of statistical heterogeneity. Finally, we will undertake analysis to assess whether publication bias is likely to be a factor in our findings.
Background Effective harm reduction work is needed to prevent and respond to the harms associated with image and performance enhancing drug (IPED) use and the diverse needs of IPED communities. Methods based around understanding and mapping complex systems have previously been applied to advance thinking on a range of complex health issues. We applied a systems perspective to explore factors that contribute to IPED-related harms in the UK and to identify harm reduction priorities. Methods An illustrative systems map was developed based on methods for mapping complex systems with expert stakeholders. Participants in two online workshops debated the important factors contributing to harm amongst people who use IPEDs and helped to refine and clarify the map. Discussions using the map reflected on where in the system intervention is needed and the policy implications. Results Stakeholders (n=18) identified 51 distinct factors as being important determinants of IPEDs-related harms, and the connections between them. These were grouped under nine domains that formed this system: identity, cognitive processes, beliefs about risk and harm, health and wellbeing, social environment, beliefs about healthcare, healthcare providers, interventions, and IPED markets. Four harm reduction priorities identified through reflexive discussion included providing a wider range of interventions, improving engagement between the IPED communities and healthcare professionals, new approaches to disseminating information in the community, and early intervention. Conclusion Systems mapping methods are a useful approach to engage stakeholders to discuss drug use issues. A comprehensive policy response is required to this complex issue that recognises diversity in IPEDs communities, their decision-making, and their intervention and service needs, as current approaches are failing to adequately address important areas of harm. Engaging with a wide range of stakeholders is critical to generate new insights that can help respond effectively to reduce the risk of health harms.
The present study focused on the dynamics and factors underpinning domestic abuse (DA) survivors’ decisions to end the abusive relationship. The experiences and opinions of 12 female DA survivors and 18 support workers were examined through in-depth, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. Hybrid thematic analysis was conducted to retrieve semantic themes and explore relationships among the themes identified and the differences in survivors’ and professionals’ narratives of the separation process. The findings highlighted that separation decisions derived from the joint action of two sets of factors, the “promoters” and the “accelerators.” Whilst the “promoters” are factors leading to the separation from the abuser over time, the “accelerators” bear a stronger and more direct connection with survivors’ decision to end the abusive relationship. Despite their differences, both these factors acted as propelling forces, leading survivors to actively pursue the separation from the perpetrator. To portray the dynamic links among these factors, we propose a conceptualisation drawn from Newton’s laws of motion. Our findings also highlighted important differences in the views of survivors and support workers, as the former conceived themselves as proactive in ending the abuse, whereas the latter described the leaving process as mainly led by authorities and services supporting survivors. This study has potential implications for research, policy and clinical practice, as it suggests that far from being a linear sequence of multiple stages, leaving an abusive relationship results from a complex interplay of factors that facilitate (“promoters”) or drastically accelerate (“accelerators”) the separation process. We argue that future research should aim at improving our current understanding of the subjective and situational factors that can act as “accelerators” or “promoters” for women’s leaving decisions. Moreover, clinicians and policymakers should invest in creating interventions that aid victims to recognise and leverage promoters and accelerators, thus increasing their readiness to end the abuse.
This article presents Epistemic Spatialization as a new framework for investigating the interconnected patterns of biases when identifying objects with convolutional neural networks (convnets). It draws upon Foucault's notion of spatialized knowledge to guide its method of enquiry. We argue that decisions involved in the creation of algorithms, alongside the labeling, ordering, presentation, and commercial prioritization of objects, together create a distorted "nomination of the visible": they harden the visibility of some objects, make other objects excessively visible, and consign yet others to permanent or haphazard invisibility. Our approach differs from those who focus on high-stakes misidentifications, such as errors tied to structural racism. Examining the far more dominant series of low-stakes mistakes shows the scope of errors, destabilizing the goal of image content identification with considerable societal impact. We explore these issues by closely examining the demonstration video of a popular convnet. This examination reveals an interlocking series of biases undermining the content identification process. The picture we paint is crucial for a better understanding of the errors that result as these convnets become further embedded in everyday products. The framework is valuable for critical work on computer vision, AI studies, and large-scale visual analysis.
Electrochemical stripping analysis (ESA) is a trace electroanalytical technique for the determination of metal cations, inorganic ions, organic compounds and biomolecules. It is based on a pre-concentration step of the target analyte(s), or a compound of the target, on a suitable working electrode. This is followed by a stripping step of the accumulated analyte using an electroanalytical technique. Advantages of ESA include high sensitivity and low limits of detection, multi-analyte capability, low cost of instrumentation and consumables, low power requirements, potential for on-site analysis, speciation capability and scope for indirect biosensing. This Primer covers fundamental aspects of ESA and discusses methods of pre-concentration and stripping, instrumentation, types of working electrodes and sensors, guidelines for method optimization, typical applications, data interpretation and interferences, and method limitations and workarounds. Finally, the current trends and future prospects of ESA are highlighted. Trace quantities of metal cations, inorganic anions, organic compounds and biomolecules can be measured using electrochemical stripping analysis (ESA). This Primer describes the principles of ESA, including methods of performing the pre-concentration and stripping steps, instrumentation and technique optimization.
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Tomasz Liskiewicz
  • Department of Engineering
Stephen White
  • Department of Life Sciences
Mark Batey
  • MMU Business School
Bruce Edmonds
  • Centre for Policy Modelling
Manchester, United Kingdom