Mahidol University
  • Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
Recent publications
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) MIL-100 (Cr, Fe) synthesized by the hydrothermal method were subjected to heat treatment under an H2 flow. The MIL-100 (Cr) samples had specific surface areas and pore volumes approximately-two times higher than those of the MIL-100 (Fe) samples. The H2 heat treatment enhanced the crystallinity, especially for MIL-100 (Fe). The resulting adsorbents exhibited a superior CO2 adsorption capacity. Furthermore, the grand canonical Monte Carlo method was used to examine the adsorption mechanism at a molecular level. The heat contribution of each atom type of MOFs was demonstrated. The highest heat was found at low loadings (Henry’s law region) among other regions owing to CO2 adsorption inside the supertetrahedron. The most active atoms were C atoms (CO > CC > CH), followed by the O atom (COunsaturated metal), the unsaturated metal site, the other O atom (COsaturated metal), the saturated metal site, the H atom of the ligands, and the O atom of the metal cluster, respectively. This study can provide insights into the determination of the atomic heat contributions of other adsorbents for a better understanding of material design and the mechanism of adsorption.
The growing awareness of the importance of environmental preservation, resource scarcity, food, and energy security has resulted in a more sustainable and greener production system for various types of biomass. Biomass has been viewed as a significant renewable, abundant, and nonfossil fuel resource to supplement dwindling fossil fuel supplies. Microalgae have recently emerged as attractive biomass for producing multiple valuable products, including biofuels, food, feed, biochemicals, and pharmaceuticals. This chapter discusses the influence of algal biofertilizers on soil properties, enzyme activity, nutrient availability, and the mechanisms involved in plant growth improvement. In addition, information on the use of microalgae as biological resources to synthesize nanoparticles (NPs), the process for NP formation using microalgae, and its application are covered. Challenges and perspectives for future research on algal biofertilizers and NPs synthesized using microalgae have been proposed.
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. fermentation product (HCFP) is widely used in Thailand as a dietary supplement for immune support with no experimental verification. The aims of this study were to investigate the safety and immunomodulation of HCFP in healthy volunteers and to study its effect on antiretroviral drugs in Sprague Dawley rats. The basic characteristics and blood chemistry of 10 healthy volunteers did not show any significant differences between before and after 4 weeks of intervention with a daily intake of HCFP, and no major adverse event was observed. The immunomodulation study revealed that the percentage of neutrophils was significantly increased after 8 weeks of intervention in 30 healthy volunteers. The CD4⁺:CD8⁺ T cell was increased from 1.24 ± 0.49 to 1.29 ± 0.56 with no significant difference. The plasma concentrations of EFV and TDF in Sprague Dawley rats showed no significant difference between the single drug group and combination with HCFP group. © 2022 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are known to harbour a variety of infectious pathogens, including zoonotic species. Long-tailed macaques and humans coexist in Thailand, which creates potential for interspecies pathogen transmission. This study was conducted to assess the presence of B virus, Mycobacterium spp., simian foamy virus (SFV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Plasmodium spp. in 649 free-living Thai long-tailed macaques through polymerase-chain reaction. DNA of SFV (56.5%), HBV (0.3%), and Plasmodium spp. (2.2%) was detected in these macaques, whereas DNA of B virus and Mycobacterium spp. was absent. SFV infection in long-tailed macaques is broadly distributed in Thailand and is correlated with age. The HBV sequences in this study were similar to HBV sequences from orangutans. Plasmodium spp. DNA was identified as P. inui. Collectively, our results indicate that macaques can carry zoonotic pathogens, which have a public health impact. Surveillance and awareness of pathogen transmission between monkeys and humans are important.
Background: Insulin is temperature sensitive as high temperatures reduce its potency. Refrigeration for insulin storage is still needed but households in remote areas do not have refrigerators. Also, the electricity supply is usually affected by natural disasters. We aim to examine the temperature-reducing efficacy of cooling devices in hot-humid conditions. Methods: Five cooling devices, (1) earthen jar filled with water, (2) earthen jar filled with soil, (3) two clay pots, gap filled with wet soil, (4) two clay pots, gap filled with wet sand, and (5) commercial cooling wallet were used in this study. External and internal temperatures were monitored by the temperature logger between October 2019 and September 2020 in Narathiwat, Thailand. Cooling efficacy was assessed by average absolute temperature reduction and relative cooling effect. Results: Mean external temperature and humidity were 27.3 ± 1.5 °C and 78.2 ± 7.1%RH. The mean differences between the external and internal temperatures were; device (1) -0.1 ± 0.6 °C (p = NS), (2) 0.0 ± 0.8 °C (p = NS), (3) -1.7 ± 0.9 °C (p < .0001), (4) -2.0 ± 0.9 °C (p < .0001), and (5) -1.8 ± 0.9 °C (p < .0001). Device no. 3, 4, and 5 achieved a constant temperature reduction. The most efficacious device was device no. 4 with a relative cooling effect of 63.6% better than the cooling wallet (57.7%, p = .003). All devices were more efficacious at lower humidity levels. Conclusions: Traditional low-cost devices, such as clay pots, reduce storage temperatures to or close to room temperature in hot-humid climates. This study provides some guidance for insulin storage in hot-humid environments.
Objective: To evaluate the biliary complication rates and efficacy of peribiliary tumor ablation using irreversible electroporation (IRE) or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Material and methods: This is a retrospective study of 42 consecutive patients with 44 peribiliary tumors (≤5 mm distance between the tumor margin and the primary or secondary bile duct). Data were collected between January 2014 and September 2020 from patients who underwent percutaneous liver ablation using IRE (n = 13) or RFA (n = 31). Results: The median length of follow-up was 23.1 months. The mean tumor size was 17.2 ± 5.2 mm in IRE vs. 18.4 ± 7.0 mm in RFA (p= .56). Complete tumor ablation was achieved in 100% with a significantly larger ablation zone in the IRE group (3.8 ± 0.3 cm vs. 2.6 ± 0.6 cm, p<.001). Significant biliary complications occurred in one patient (7.7%) of the IRE group and in five patients (16.1%) of the RFA group. Significant risk factors for biliary complications included the RFA procedure (HR 9.71, p=.032) and proximity of the tumor to the bile duct (HR 0.63, p=.048). The local tumor progression (LTP) rates were 7.7% (IRE) vs. 21.5% (RFA) at 1 year, 23.1% (IRE) vs. 32.7% (RFA) at 2 years and 23.1% (IRE) vs. 44% (RFA) at 3 years, respectively (p=.289). Conclusions: The IRE and RFA procedures are safe and effective to treat peribiliary liver tumors. However, the RFA may have a higher risk of significant bile duct injury than IRE. The shorter distance between the bile duct and the tumor is a strong risk factor for biliary complications.
Service quality management has been introduced to higher education for many years. However, most Thai tertiary institutions have not effectively adapted service equality management and marketing strategies to enhance the loyalty of their international students. This research paper seeks to identify significant factors that affect international students’ loyalty at the tertiary level in Thailand. Founded on a Push-Pull Model of International Education Movements, this study employed pull factors, so-called perceived educational quality, to draw international students. A survey was conducted on 358 international students currently studying at universities in the northeastern region of Thailand and performed a statistical analysis using the structural equation modelling technique. The empirical results revealed that perceived education quality positively affected student satisfaction and loyalty. The results also recommended that Thai universities and educational administrators educate international students regarding knowledge of other cultures and self-learning skills to help them understand different cultures better and build a relationship with local students. Thus, international students’ loyalty to higher education institutions could be enhanced.
Background Nodular regenerating hyperplasia (NRH) is the most common liver involvement in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID ). Most patients are asymptomatic with gradually increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mildly elevated transaminase enzymes over the years. We report the first case of fatal liver mass rupture in a CVID patient with probable NRH . Case presentation A 24-year-old man was diagnosed with CVID at the age of 1.25 years. Genetic testing revealed a transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin-ligand interactor (TACI) mutation. He had been receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) replacement therapy ever since then. The trough level of serum IgG ranged between 750–1200 mg/dL. However, he still had occasional episodes of lower respiratory tract infection until bronchiectasis developed. At 22 years old, computed tomography (CT) chest and abdomen as an investigation for lung infection revealed incidental findings of numerous nodular arterial-enhancing lesions in the liver and mild splenomegaly suggestive of NRH with portal hypertension. Seven months later, he developed sudden hypotension and tense bloody ascites. Emergency CT angiography of the abdomen showed NRH with intrahepatic hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum. Despite successful gel foam embolization, the patient died from prolonged shock and multiple organ failure. Conclusions Although CVID patients with NRH are generally asymptomatic, late complications including portal hypertension, hepatic failure, and hepatic rupture could occur. Therefore, an evaluation of liver function should be included in the regular follow-up of CVID patients.
Study design: Retrospective study. Objective: To investigate the incidence of and factors associated with hyponatremia among traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Setting: Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. Methods: This retrospective study included traumatic cervical SCI patients that were admitted to the Siriraj Spinal Unit during January 2002 to May 2013. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected. Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients (98 males, 25 females) were enrolled. The mean age of patients was 47.2 ± 16.9 years (range: 11-84). There were 38 complete and 85 incomplete cord injuries. Seventy-six patients were treated surgically, and all others received conservative treatment. Hyponatremia developed in 54 patients (43.9%), and 74.1% of all cases of hyponatremia presented within 9 days after SCI. Hyponatremia occurred on the first day in 10 patients (18.5%), on the fifth day in 6 patients (11.1%), and on the eighth day in 5 patients (9.26%). Hyponatremia occurred in 6/10 patients (60.0%) with upper cervical spine injury (C1-2), and in 48/113 patients (42.5%) with lower cervical spine injury (C3-7) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.031, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.543-7.596; p = 0.292). The incidence of hyponatremia was 65.8% in complete SCI patients, and 34.1% in incomplete SCI patients. Logistic regression analysis revealed complete SCI to be the only factor significantly associated with hyponatremia (OR: 3.714, 95% CI: 1.658-8.317; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Hyponatremia was found to be common in post-traumatic cervical SCI patients. Complete SCI was identified as the only factor significantly associated with hyponatremia in traumatic cervical SCI patients.
Objective To disseminate the portable sequencer MinION in developing countries for the main purpose of battling infectious diseases, we found a consortium called Global Research Alliance in Infectious Diseases (GRAID). By holding and inviting researchers both from developed and developing countries, we aim to train the participants with MinION’s operations and foster a collaboration in infectious diseases researches. As a real-life example in which resources are limited, we describe here a result from a training course, a metagenomics analysis from two blood samples collected from a routine cattle surveillance in Kulan Progo District, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia in 2019. Results One of the samples was successfully sequenced with enough sequencing yield for further analysis. After depleting the reads mapped to host DNA, the remaining reads were shown to map to Theileria orientalis using BLAST and OneCodex. Although the reads were also mapped to Clostridium botulinum, those were found to be artifacts derived from the cow genome. An effort to construct a consensus sequence was successful using a reference-based approach with Pomoxis. Hence, we concluded that the asymptomatic cow might be infected with T. orientalis and showed the usefulness of sequencing technology, specifically the MinION platform, in a developing country.
Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world with a high prevalence in people of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Mediterranean region. Being an X-linked recessive disorder, majority of the patients are males, and women get affected only if they are homozygous or double heterozygous for G6PD mutants. These patients are usually asymptomatic and present with an acute episode of hemolytic anemia when exposed to certain medications, chemicals, infections, fava beans, or any oxidative stress. Case presentation Here, we report a rare case of acute hemolytic anemia in an elderly woman following exposure to henna. On evaluation, she was found to be G6PD-deficient. We postulate that with increasing age, there is an increase in the amount of skewing about 70–90% in women above 70 years old which may lead to hemolysis in G6PD-deficient patients. Conclusion We advise all healthcare workers to keep a close eye and screen for G6PD deficiency in all elderly women presenting with acute hemolytic anemia.
Objective Diacerein inhibits the synthesis and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreases macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and thus increases insulin sensitivity and signalling. We conducted this study to determine the efficacy of low-dose diacerein in improving glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with inadequate glycaemic control and to identify the metabolic determinants for such improvement. We randomised 25 T2DM patients with poor glycaemic control, despite being treated with at least three glucose-lowering agents, to receive diacerein 50 mg once-daily (n = 18) or placebo (n = 17) for 12 weeks. Changes in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were evaluated at the 4th and 12th weeks. Metabolic profiling was performed using liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Results HbA1c levels were significantly reduced from baseline in the diacerein group at 12 weeks (− 0.6%, p < 0.05), whereas fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels were not significantly decreased (− 18.9 mg/dl, p = 0.06). Partial least squares-discriminant analysis demonstrated an association between the serum abundance of threo-isocitric acid (ICA) and HbA1c response in the diacerein group. After adjusting for serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, ICA was still significantly related to the change in HbA1c. Retrospective trial registration Current Controlled Trials TCTR20200820004, 20 August 2020.
Background Productivities of bioactive compounds in high-value herbs and medicinal plants are often compromised by uncontrollable environmental parameters. Recent advances in the development of plant factories with artificial lighting (PFAL) have led to improved qualitative and/or quantitative production of bioactive compounds in several medicinal plants. However, information concerning the effect of light qualities on plant pharmaceutical properties is limited. The influence of three different light-emitting diode (LED) spectra on leaf fresh weight (FW), bioactive compound production and bioactivity of Artemisia annua L. against the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum NF54 was investigated. Correlation between the A. annua metabolites and antimalarial activity of light-treated plant extracts were also determined. Results Artemisia annua plants grown under white and blue spectra that intersected at 445 nm exhibited higher leaf FW and increased amounts of artemisinin and artemisinic acid, with enhanced production of several terpenoids displaying a variety of pharmacological activities. Conversely, the red spectrum led to diminished production of bioactive compounds and a distinct metabolite profile compared with other wavelengths. Crude extracts obtained from white and blue spectral treatments exhibited 2 times higher anti- Plasmodium falciparum activity than those subjected to the red treatment. Highest bioactivity was 4 times greater than those obtained from greenhouse-grown plants. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) revealed a strong correlation between levels of several terpenoids and antimalarial activity, suggesting that these compounds might be involved in increasing antimalarial activity. Conclusions Results demonstrated a strategy to overcome the limitation of A. annua cultivation in Bangkok, Thailand. A specific LED spectrum that operated in a PFAL system promoted the accumulation of some useful phytochemicals in A. annua , leading to increased antimalarial activity. Therefore, the application of PFAL with appropriate light spectra showed promise as an alternative method for industrial production of A. annua or other useful medicinal plants with minimal environmental influence.
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14,707 members
John Boitano
  • Department of Parisitology
Wattana Leowattana
  • Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine
Apilak Worachartcheewan
  • Community Medical Technology
Komgrid Charngkaew
  • Department of Pathology Siriraj Hospital
Paphon Sa-ngasoongsong
  • Department of Orthopedics (Ramathibodi)
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