The formulation of effective gasoline surrogates is a challenging task due to advanced combustion strategies, engine design and variable operating conditions in spark-ignition engines. In earlier studies, the gasoline surrogates with iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene blends were designed to closely match the commercial gasoline fuels based on their laminar burning velocity variation and ignition delay time measurements. A new approach of proposing the next generation gasoline surrogates is investigated in the present study with direct testing of these surrogates in a real SI engine. The present study helps in assessing the efficacy of proposed gasoline surrogates in a real engine. The combustion, performance, and emission characteristics of proposed gasoline surrogates are compared with the commercially available gasoline fuels. A total of 10 (named A to F) surrogates were investigated with variable percentage of iso-octane, n-heptane and toluene. All the tested surrogates were successfully tested in a multi-cylinder engine. The result shows that, SF and SG are suitable to reproduce the combustion and emission characteristics of commercially available gasolines during detailed engine testing. It is observed that surrogate F and G results are more aligned with the commercial gasoline fuels thus representing the commercial gasoline more closely and can use further for validation and modeling of IC engines through the application of detailed kinetic models. However, a significant change was observed for other tested surrogates.
The longstanding progressive neurodegenerative conditions of the central nervous system arise mainly due to deterioration, degradation and eventual neuronal cell loss. As an individual ages, the irreversible neurodegenerative disorders associated with it also begin to develop which have become exceedingly prominent and pose a significant burden mentally, socially and economically on the individual and its family. These disorders express several symptoms such as tremors, dystonia, loss of cognitive functions, impairment of motor activity leading to immobility, loss of memory and many more which worsen with time. The treatment employed in management of these debilitating neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease which mainly in-volves the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal region, Alzheimer’s disease which arises due to accumulation of Tau proteins causing diffusive atrophy in the brain, Huntington’s disease which involves damage of striatal and spinal neurons, etc possess several adverse effects leading to exploration of several lead targets and molecules existing in herbal drugs. The current review highlights the mechanistic role of natural products in treatment of several neurodegenera-tive and cerebrovascular diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, ischemic stroke and depression.
The study covered investigation of heat treatment (routes) effect on heat treatment of 300M ultra high strength steel to achieve the desired microstructure and the corresponding mechanical properties. 300M steel was prepared and subjected to different homogenization and forging processing. Structure–property relationship was established for both conventional and heat treatment route as well as isothermal and modified route. Micrographs of 300M steels indicated that the isothermal heat treatment provided higher volume of retained austenite along with martensite and bainite. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the dislocation density of isothermally heat-treated 300M steels was higher than the conventional steel. Isothermally heat-treated 300M samples have shown improved elongation and impact strength with the marginal loss of yield strength and ultimate tensile strength. Yield strength (1605 MPa), ultimate tensile strength (1890 MPa), impact strength (28 J), and percentage elongation (22%) of the isothermally heat-treated samples were comparable to the specifications of the customer i.e., minimum yield strength 1480 MPa, ultimate tensile strength 1803 MPa, percentage elongation 7% and impact strength at − 40 °C of 20 J, respectively. The SEM analysis of tensile and impact fractured surfaces revealed the large number of dimples which indicate the good ductility and toughness in the isothermally heat-treated samples.
Among the numerous types of chronic skin wounds, the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) remains a major challenge, in view of its etiology. The high rates of amputation even with the best therapeutic regimens suggest the urgent need for newer approaches. Despite improvement in wound healing with electrical stimulation (ES), it is rarely used in therapy. The advent of wearable devices has renewed interest in this modality of therapy. Whereas such devices focus on ES alone, herein we demonstrate an interactive wound dressing that is capable of providing both ES and an optimal environment for faster healing. The composite dressing containing a conducting hydrogel component constructed with carbonized polydopamine/polydopamine/ polyacrylamide and paired with electroactive electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane was capable of generating electrical impulses in response to biomechanical activities. The adhesive and stretchable hydrogel, imparted a moist wound environment apart from protection from bacteria and served as an electrode to direct the electrical impulses generated by the PVDF membrane to the underlying wound due to triboelectrification. The robust mechanical strength of the hydrogel could support physical activities such as walking, stretching etc. The biocompatible dressing encouraged cell growth and migration. The potential of the dressing to improve healing was confirmed in an excisional skin wound model. Evidence of improved re-epithelialization, vascularization and remodeling in wounds covered with the dressing indicated the importance of providing both electrical stimulation and optimal wound environment for faster healing. The proposed approach of using a triboelectric nanogenerator and a conducting hydrogel could aid in the repair of hard-to-heal wounds, such as diabetic foot ulcers.
In early December 2019, a large pneumonia epidemic occurred in Wuhan, China. The World Health Organization is concerned about the outbreak of another coronavirus with the powerful, rapid, and contagious transmission. Anyone with minor symptoms like fever and cough or travel history to contaminated places might be suspected of having COVID-19. COVID-19 therapy focuses on treating the disease's symptoms. So far, no such therapeutic molecule has been shown effective in treating this condition. So the treatment is mostly supportive and plasma. Globally, numerous studies and researchers have recently started fighting this virus. Vaccines and chemical compounds are also being investigated against infection. COVID-19 was successfully diagnosed using RNA detection and very sensitive RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction). The evolution of particular vaccinations is required to reduce illness severity and spread. Numerous computational analyses and molecular docking have predicted various target compounds that might stop this condition. This paper examines the main characteristics of coronavirus and the computational analyses necessary to avoid infection.
Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH) is the most common structural and congenital defect of the hip joint in infants and often results in disabilities and functional disorders. Early diagnosis and management are recommended for the complete restoration of anatomical structures and function of the hip joint. The objective of the study is to determine the therapeutic effects of physiotherapy intervention for the management of patients with DDH. The authors searched PubMed, Scopus, and PEDro databases respectively under Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and health science description (DeSC) for studies on DDH. A total of 42,872 articles were found on the initial search. In total after removing duplicates, leaving with total of 12,452 articles. After applying filters, total number of 1698 articles were remained and assessed for eligibility criteria. Only six articles met the criteria for inclusion. From remaining six articles theoretical pathophysiology, symptoms etiology, diagnosis, therapy, and results of Physiotherapy were gathered. The studies were analyzed according to the PEDro scale. Sackett’s levels of evidence were used to check the available evidence regarding DDH. Two reviewers examined articles independently and found six papers that met the study’s inclusion criteria with a total of 252 patients who deal with physiotherapy management in developmental dysplasia of the hip. Early physiotherapy exercises improved the functions of the hip and reduced future complications in patients with reduction in pain scores. Early implementation of well-structured and tailored physiotherapy program is unquestionably beneficial in improving functional deficits. Following a review of the progress and effects documented in the research findings, it is clear that the effects of physical therapeutic interventions depicted a complex of useful contributing factors to a general muscle balance, as evidenced by children improved general growth following their chronological age.
Azole nucleus represents an important class of biologically active compounds that are gaining more attention in the field of medicinal chemistry due to large number of structure diversity. Among azoles, pyrazoles and isoxazoles five‐membered nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds are associated wide range of biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti‐inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Some of azole derivatives e.g., 1,4,5‐trisubstituted pyrazoles, 4,5‐disubstituted isoxazoles and 4,5‐disubstituted‐1H‐pyrazoles) are still unexplored in literature, these unexplored azoles have fascinated the consideration of many researchers to study their framework synthetically and biologically. This present review is an attempt to update and understand the chemistry of unexplored pyrazoles and isoxazoles along with their medicinal importance. This article would definitely help the researchers to bring further enhancement in the synthesis of biologically active pyrazoles and isoxazoles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Objective: Microbial diseases are snowballing at an alarming proportion. Therefore, the intent of this study was to inspect the antimicrobial action of ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole against various human pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal microbial strains. Pyrazoles have been recognized for over a century as a significant and bioactive class of heterocyclic compounds. The association of pyrazoles with a ferrocene moiety may give new class of compounds. The present study was designed to synthesize biological active ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole through a novel route. Methods: The anhydride of ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole, namely, (S)-(3-(3-(carboxyamino)-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)cyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)(cyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)iron was synthesized using expansion cyclocondensation. FTIR, NMR, and GC-MS were performed to analyze the structure of the synthesized ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole. Antimicrobial, DNA photo-cleaving, and anti-angiogenic activities of ferrocenyl-substituted compounds were studied. Results: Anhydride of (S)-(3-(3-(carboxyamino)-3H-pyrazol-4-yl)cyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)(cyclopenta-1,3-dien-1-yl)iron obtained with yield of 87%. Spectral analysis confirmed the formation of anhydride. The synthesized compound was found to be biological active in the range of 85–95 μg/ml. Conclusion: This study described the novel method for the synthesis of biologically active anhydride of ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole. The study demonstrations that synthesized ferrocenyl-substituted pyrazole in today’s situation is the encouraging antimicrobial mediator against the human pathogens. In addition, it may open new doors to initiate research against drug resistance bacteria with possible biomedical applications.
Purpose of Review Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) continues to be a worldwide health concern since it is the major cause of mortality and hospitalisation worldwide. Increased macrolide resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae and other infections has resulted in a significantly larger illness burden, which has been exacerbated by evolving demography and a higher prevalence of comorbid disorders. Owing to such circumstances, the creation of new antibiotic classes is critical. Recent Findings Lefamulin, also referred to as BC-3781, is the primary pleuromutilin antibiotic which has been permitted for both intravenous and oral use in humans for the remedy of bacterial infections. It has shown activity against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant strains as well as atypical organisms which as often implicated in CABP. It has a completely unique mechanism of action that inhibits protein synthesis via way of means of stopping the binding of tRNA for peptide transfer. The C(14) side chain is responsible for its pharmacodynamic and antimicrobial properties, together with supporting in overcoming bacterial ribosomal resistance and mutations improvement amplifying the number of hydrogen bonds to the target site. Summary This review aims to highlight the pre-existing treatment options and specific purposes to shed some light upon the development of a new drug lefamulin and its specifications and explore this novel drug’s superior efficacy to already existing treatment strategies.
Adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction (AdSVF) comprises a heterogeneous cell population, including the multipotent mesenchymal stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and pericytes. As such, multipotent adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs), are one of the important components of AdSVF. Commonly used techniques to harvest AdSVF involve enzymatic or non-enzymatic methods. The enzymatic method is considered to be the gold standard technique due to its higher yield. The cellular components of AdSVF can be resuspended in normal saline, platelet-rich plasma, or phosphate-buffered saline to produce a ready-to-use solution. Freshly isolated AdSVF has exhibited promising osteogenic and vasculogenic capacity. AdSVF has already been proven to possess therapeutic potential for osteoarthritis management. It is also an attractive therapeutic option for enhancing wound healing. In addition, the combined use of AdSVF and platelet-rich plasma has an additive stimulatory effect in accelerating wound healing and can be considered an alternative to AdMSC treatment. It is also widely used for managing various orthopaedic conditions in clinical settings and has the potential for regenerating bone, cartilage, and tendons. Autologous AdSVF cells are used along with bone substitutes and other biological factors as an alternative to conventional bone grafting techniques owing to their promising osteogenic and vasculogenic capacity. It can also be used for treating osteonecrosis, meniscus tear, chondromalacia, and tendon injuries in veterinary practice. It has several advantages over in vitro expanded AdMSC, including precluding the need for culturing, reduced risk of cell contamination, and cost-effectiveness, making it ideal for clinical use.
In this paper, based on the concept of Renyi–Tsallis entropy, we propose an inaccuracy measure for a pair of probability distribution and discuss its relationship with mean codeword length. Furthermore, we propose a new fuzzy entropy measure in the setting of fuzzy set theory and its several properties are examined. Comparison with several existing entropies shows that the proposed fuzzy information measure has a greater ability in discriminating different FSs (fuzzy sets). Furthermore, we introduce a new fuzzy mean codeword length and give their relationship with fuzzy information measure. The upper bounds of these entropies in terms of mean codeword lengths have been provided and some basic properties of the proposed codeword length have been studied. In addition, we introduce a new similarity measure for fuzzy sets and give its applications in pattern recognition and cluster analysis. To implement the application of proposed similarity measure in real life problem, we have taken real data from the repository of machine learning. These practical examples are given to support the findings and also show the availability of similarity measure between fuzzy sets.
Die is one of the main tools used in manufacturing components from sheet metal and plates in production industries. Die is a rigid metallic block with an exceptional shape cut into it used to shape other portions of metal sheets. The most crucial problem of structural design and analysis of industrial die is that the steel consumed for die manufacture is giant. This paper concentrated at the various stages or stations that will be modified the design to minimize the cost for the industrial die. To overcome the chances of failure and improve the structural rigidity of the notching die, a new die is to be designed to perform better under the working environment. Lowering the stress concentration factor of the current die (which has abrupt change in area) can improve the structural rigidity. Therefore, designing a new industrial die is the main objective of this paper. A filleted die is designed to reduce stress and distribute load over the area to reduce the chances of failure. Designing and analyzing this die is done under the working environment and found successful working. Hence, a new filleted die is produced better structural stability, higher production rate and less chances of failure in a working environment. This work can be referred for study and analysis of die on ANSYS for a similar problem in the future if it arises and a practical solution can be drawn. This paper's main areas of research are providing an economical solution to the problem, minimizing the stresses involved, and designing a new die with minimal stress concentration factors.
Fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have attracted increasing attention in recent years because to their multiple benefits, including low toxicity, biocompatibility, simplicity of functionalization, eco-friendly production, and a wide range of applications. However, expensive precursors and manufacture, as well as a time-consuming procedure, limit their economical design, which must be addressed. We provide a straightforward, cost-effective, eco-friendly, and long-term synthesis method for fluorescent CQDs based on an affordable medicinal plant precursor such as Cissus quadrangularis. The nitrogen doped-CQDs produced had a homogenous size distribution (4–9 nm) and green fluorescent nature, as well as strong photo-stability, excellent water solubility, and a quantum yield of roughly 5%. The existence of a large fraction of sp² and sp³ carbon groups, as well as other hydrophilic oxygen and nitrogen-containing groups, was confirmed. Potential fluorescence processes are also hypothesised. Furthermore, we report a successful demonstration of N-CQDs for possible and cost-effective applications in quantum dot-based optical displays and down-conversion green emissive light-emitting diodes.
Mitochondria provide neurons not only energy as ATP to keep them growing, proliferating and developing, but they also control apoptosis. Due to their high bioenergetic demand, neurons which are highly specific terminally differentiated cells, essentially depend on mitochondria. Defective mitochondrial function is thus related to numerous age-linked neurodegenerative ailments like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), in which the build-up of impaired and malfunctioning mitochondria has been identified as a primary sign, paying to disease development. Mitophagy, selective autophagy, is a key mitochondrial quality control system that helps neurons to stay healthy and functional by removing undesired and damaged mitochondria. Dysfunctional mitochondria and dysregulated mitophagy have been closely associated with the onset of ADs. Various proteins associated with mitophagy were found to be altered in AD. Therapeutic strategies focusing on the restoration of mitophagy capabilities could be utilized to strike the development of AD pathogenesis. We summarize the mechanism and role of mitophagy in the onset and advancement of AD, in the quality control mechanism of mitochondria, the consequences of dysfunctional mitophagy in AD, and potential therapeutic approaches involving mitophagy modulation in AD. To develop new therapeutic methods, a better knowledge of the function of mitophagy in the pathophysiology of AD is required.
Herein, we present a novel ternary nanocomposite Bi2O3@[email protected]3N4 decorated glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for electrochemical detection of Riboflavin (RF). The electrocatalyst Bi2O3@[email protected]3N4 was prepared by a simple route; given by ultrasonicated the mixture of Bi2O3, MWCNT and g-C3N4 in a single pot and then refluxing it to 80°C. The as-synthesized electrocatalyst showed improved and impressive electrochemical performance due to the synergistic effect of g-C3N4, MWCNT, and Bi2O3. Additionally, the electrocatalytic response of the prepared Bi2O3@[email protected]3N4/GCE towards RF determination was examined using Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). It has been depicted that in comparison to other prepared materials the Bi2O3@[email protected]3N4/GCE exhibited an impressive electrocatalytic response towards the determination of RF, within a broad linear range (0.02 to 70 μM) having lower detection limit (1.032 μM). Furthermore, the Bi2O3@[email protected]3N4/GCE also offered improved stability, anti-inference ability, remarkable repeatability and good sensitivity. Finally, the prepared electrocatalyst showed satisfactory results in the real sample analysis of three different pharmaceutical samples containing RF namely Neurobion forte, Supradyn daily and Becosules capsules.
India is vast country with an approximate population of around 138 crores as of 2020 according to United Nations data. The increase in population leads to the high demand of petroleum oils and gases which results in the increase in the price as well. The combustion of fossil fuels produces harmful emissions, which are also responsible for secondary pollutants such as smog, acid rain, and other harmful air pollutants. To overcome these situations, there is need of alternative and clean fuel. Among the available alternatives, biodiesel derived from non-edible plants have been considered a better option than petroleum diesel. Government of India has proposed to use 5% biodiesel produced from waste cooking oils and non-edible oils such as jatropha, karanja by 2030. This study presents the current scenario of jatropha as a feedstock for biodiesel production and how the flexibility in the growth of jatropha makes it suitable for India. With the development done so far by many investigators to establish jatropha biodiesel as potential substitute of diesel has also been covered in this article.
Background Vaccine hesitancy is of considerable concern as it threatens the great potential of a vaccine against COVID-19. This study aims to determine factors associated with community health workers’ willingness to participate in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccine, and their vaccination intention, in India. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 377 community health workers using self-administered anonymous questionnaire during the lockdown periods in India. Participant's socio-demographics, willingness-to-participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials, intention to accept COVID-19 vaccine were recorded in a Likert scale. Data were analysed descriptively, and a multivariate logistic regression model was used to investigate factors associated with willingness to participate and accept the vaccine. Results Among 377 CHWs, 70 (19%) intended to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trial, 151 (40%) responded positively regarding their intention to get vaccinated. Those with knowledge on development of COVID-19 vaccine [aOR 3.05 (95% CI: 1.18–7.88), p = 0.021], and men [aOR 3.69 (95% CI: 1.51–8.97), p = 0.004] were more willing to participate in clinical-trial, while an undergraduate degree, and trust in domestic vaccines were identified as deterrents for the same. Perceiving COVID-19 as risk [aOR 2.31 (95% CI: 1.24–4.31), p = 0.009], and male gender [aOR 2.39 (95% CI: 1.17–4.88), p = 0.017] were factors associated with intention to get vaccinated. Respondents who had knowledge about COVID-19 virus were less likely to uptake the hypothetical vaccine [aOR 0.32 (95% CI: 0.12–0.88), p = 0.027]. Conclusions Increasing knowledge regarding COVID-19 is not enough to improve vaccine acceptance rates. Targeted interventions addressing socio-demographic determinants related to COVID-19 vaccination should help improve acceptance.
In this study, some identities involving the Riemannian curvature invariants are presented on lightlike hypersurfaces of a statistical manifold in the Lorentzian settings. Several inequalities characterizing lightlike hypersurfaces are obtained. These inequalities are also investigated on lightlike hypersurfaces of Lorentzian statistical space forms.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.