Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology
Recent publications
In sheep, MHC variability is studied widely to explore disease association. The aim of the current study was to explore the genetic diversity of Ovar-DRB diversity across sheep breeds of India. Here, Ovar-DRB1 locus was studied across 20 sheep breeds. DRB1 was amplified (301 bp) and sequenced using a PCR-sequence-based typing approach. Results revealed a high degree of heterozygosity across breeds (mean: 73.99%). Overall mean distance for DRB1 was highest in Sangamneri (0.18) and lowest in Madgyal sheep (0.10). There was a higher rate of transition, across breeds. Further, 39 alleles were isolated in different breeds, out of which 10 were new. To allow easy access and use of the immune-polymorphic database, an online database management system was launched ( Nucleotide content across breeds for the DRB1 region revealed the richness of GC content (59.26%). Wu-Kabat index revealed vast genetic variation across peptide binding sites (PBS) of DRB1. Residues 6, 66, 69, 52, and 81, were polymorphic showing utility for antigen presentation. All breeds were under positive selection for DRB1 locus (dN > dS). Study revealed the importance of DRB locus diversity for beta chain specifically at PBS across sheep breeds of the Indian subcontinent and presented evidence of positive selection for DRB owing to its evolutionary significance.
Neuroinflammation is a condition that contribute significantly to the pathogenesis and progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. Targeting neuroinflammation is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of these disorders. Dexamethasone is a steroidal based anti-inflammatory drug with the potential to treat neuroinflammation. However, in order to maintain the efficacy of the drug, dexamethasone needs to be coupled with an effective drug delivery vehicle to be able to be transported across Central Nervous System. PLGA nanoparticles has been used as drug delivery vehicles for transport of drugs into the central nervous system. The article describes the preparation and encapsulation of dexamethasone loaded PLGA nanoparticles by solvent evaporation method. Statistical Experimental Design approach was performed, wherein Response Surface Methodology was carried out to optimize the parameters associated with synthesis process. Further, kinetic modeling and drug release profile were also determined. The drug encapsulated nanoparticles were validated for its effectiveness in vitro. Toxicity studies revealed the nanodrug to be non-cytotoxic and Griess assay highlighted its ability to lower neuroinflammation. Further, genetic studies revealed the anti-inflammatory properties of the nanodrug was successfully in modulating neuroinflammation.
Recently, hydrogen gas is becoming the most prominent alternative fuel due to its clean and environment-friendly nature. It only delivers water as a waste product during the operation instead of emitting harmful greenhouse gases. It has a high heating value (142 MJ/kg), over 2.75 times that of other hydrocarbon-based petroleum fuels. Presently, the primary method of producing hydrogen is the steam reforming of fossil fuels, which is not economical and environmentally harmful, and fossil fuels are on the deadline to finish. Hence, alternative methods of hydrogen production are the topic of current research. Biological methods of hydrogen production were found the best for producing green hydrogen because they utilize plentiful available renewable sources as feedstock. The dark fermentation technique is becoming more famous among all biological hydrogen generation methods because of its light autonomous nature and functional ability. It has the facility to convert any type of carbohydrate-rich organic substrates into bio-hydrogen, but pure carbohydrate substances are not economical on a commercial scale. Hence, carbohydrate-rich organic waste can be easily harnessed for bio-hydrogen generation. This method yields hydrogen gas and different high-volatility fatty acids, which could be used for industrial purposes after separation or as a precursor for the bio-methanation process for biogas production. This paper defines mechanism, microbiology, affecting factors, various integration methodologies, and potential and limitations related to the dark fermentation method. Graphical abstract
This paper investigates the composition structures of certain fractional integral operators whose kernels are certain types of generalized hypergeometric functions. It is shown how composition formulas of these operators can be closely related to the various Erdélyi-type hypergeometric integrals. We also derive a derivative formula for the fractional integral operator and some applications of the operator are considered for a certain Volterra-type integral equation, which provide two generalizations to Khudozhnikov’s integral equation (see below). Some specific relationships, examples, and some future research problems are also discussed.
Microfibers and microplastics are widely recognized emerging pollutants, which have the potential to cause an Eco-toxicological effect. Cellulosic and synthetic fibers are being released almost equally to the environment. Synthetic fibers released were non-biodegradable resulting in a significant negative impact on the environment. In the present study, four different households using fully automated washing machines (2 top-load, 2 front-load) were studied in a domestic laundry environment under real conditions. Laundry effluents were collected and contaminants analysis was carried out. The results estimated that the average emission rate of the four households was 7,453,635 MF/7Kg (FL, H1), 7,375,500 MFs/6Kg (FL, H2), 10,692,255 MFs/7Kg (TL, H3) and 7,589,017 MFs/6.2Kg (TL, H4). Synthetic fiber's emission rate was only about 19 %, and the average length range of microfibers released was found to be in the range of ≤5 μm (48.64 %), and the least amount of emission was found in the >500 μm range (11.49 %).
Ascertaining water quality for irrigational use by employing conventional methods is often time taking and expensive due to the determination of multiple parameters needed, especially in developing countries. erefore, constructing precise and adequate models may be bene cial in resolving this problem in agricultural water management to determine the suitable water quality classes for optimal crop yield production. To achieve this objective, ve machine learning (ML) models, namely linear regression (LR), random subspace (RSS), additive regression (AR), reduced error pruning tree (REPTree), and support vector machine (SVM), have been developed and tested for predicting of six irrigation water quality (IWQ) indices such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (%Na), permeability index (PI), Kelly ratio (KR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), and magnesium hazards (MH) in groundwater of the Nand Samand catchment of Rajasthan. e accuracy of these models was determined serially using the mean squared error (MSE), correlation coe cients (r), mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE). e SVM model showed the best-t model for all irrigation indices during testing, that is, RMSE: 0.0662, 4.0568, 3.0168, 0.1113, 3.7046, and 5.1066; r: 0.9364, 0.9618, 0.9588, 0.9819, 0.9547, and 0.8903; MSE: 0.004381, 16.45781, 9.101218, 0.012383, 13.72447, and 26.078; MAE: 0.042, 3.1999, 2.3584, 0.0726, 2.9603, and 4.0582 for KR, MH, SSP, SAR, %Na, and PI, respectively. e KR and SAR values were predicted accurately by the SVM model in comparison to the observed values. As a result, machine learning algorithms can improve irrigation water quality characteristics, which is critical for farmers and crop management in various irrigation procedures. Additionally, the ndings of this research suggest that ML models are e ective tools for reliably predicting groundwater quality using general water quality parameters that may be acquired directly on periodical basis. Assessment of water quality indices may also help in deriving optimal strategies to utilise inferior quality water conjunctively with fresh water resources in the water-limited areas.
Solar energy is the primary source of energy. The conversion and consumption of this energy happen in several ways in the ecosystem. It also produces other renewable resources including biomass and wind energy. The novel solar energy innovations offer a remarkable chance to lessening of ozone-depleting substance discharge. Also, by subbing the conventional energy sources, it decreases an unnatural weather change. In this paper, firstly to develop an addressable approach about uncertainty in India’s energy and emission future, the CO2 emission trend until 2020 has been presented. Secondly, the measures (both regulatory and financial) such as Perform Achieve and Trade, Carbon Tax, Smart Cities and Swachh Bharat Mission undertaken by Govt of India (GOI) to promote green and clean energy are included. Further, the effects of climate change are also identified in this article. A comparative analysis is also discussed on all other green technologies. Moreover, the GOI’s solar power programmes are then discussed accordingly with a list of government institutions, combined with their targets. GOI’s initiative is pictorially represented in the form of a large capacity solar park. In this article, a list of useful software for designing and analysis of solar PV with their specifications is included. This paper further addresses the benefits and limitations of solar energy technology from a scientific and economical viewpoint. In order to highlight the financial benefits of the solar power plant, an analysis report of 125 kWp solar power plants is included for potential readers. This analysis revealed a 5 years payback period. After 5 years of successful operation, the system will become free from all economical liabilities such as loan and interest. The article includes the effectiveness of CO2 reduction strategies and solar energy supremacy for sustainable development. This review article on solar energy will help policymakers and other stakeholders to understand the status and challenges in India for better solar power planning and management.
A natural convection solar tunnel dryer of capacity 100 kg was used to analyse the drying kinetics of naturally grown arid vegetable kachri (Cucumis callosus). The moisture reduction was found from 86.10 % to 7.02 % (on wet basis) in two solar days (15 hours). Solar drying curves were estimated using six different drying kinetic models and were compared based on their modeling efficiency. The statistical analysis revealed that Page and Midilli kinetic drying models accurately estimated solar drying characteristics of kachri with a modeling efficiency of 0.971 as compared to other models. Nutritional, microbial, and organoleptic analysis showed that dried kachri product was nutritionally healthy for human consumption. A significant (p<0.01) relationship was found between rehydration characteristics and rehydration time. Techno-economic indicators show that the drying system was economically feasible and could recover investment in 8.70 months. The net carbon dioxide mitigation potential was found 77.05 tons over the lifespan of the dryer.
Tooth discoloration and plaque formation are serious issues for dental healthcare professionals across the world. Although traditional hydrogen peroxide-based cleaning methods are efficient, but they can cause enamel demineralization, periodontal irritation, and toxicity. Also, these treatments are time-taking. Here, we present a noninvasive, safe, and simple tooth cleaning approach by using the piezoelectric phenomenon. After 6 hours of vibrations, contaminated teeth can be significantly cleaned by the NaNbO3/ZnO binary nanocomposite. Moreover, the NaNbO3/ZnO binary nanocomposite-based piezocatalysis tooth cleaning procedure causes far less harm to enamel and biological cells in comparison to hydrogen peroxide-based cleaning methods. To evaluate its functionality, organic dyes were degraded by piezoelectric effect of NaNbO3/ZnO binary nanocomposite under ultrasonic irradiation. The piezoelectric potential of NaNbO3/ZnO was found to be 3.75 V. The binary nanocomposite’s antibacterial activity was proven to be efficient against Escherichia coli with the inhibitory zone of 21 mm and complete removal of bacteria.
Investment in the small-scale enhancement of groundwater recharge through check dams and other recharge structures in rural India is on the order of USD 1 billion/year. However, for any catchment, the optimal capacity of check dams is unknown, and the impacts on downstream flows are rarely determined. This paper describes a method that can be applied to plan recharge augmentation in catchments that have at least one monitored check dam. It was applied in the Dharta catchment of the Aravalli Hills in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India, where four check dams in an ephemeral stream were monitored by farmers over seven years. For the last three years of this study, the hydrology of two of these check dams was affected by 19 new check dams established upstream. A basic hydrologic model, WaterCress, was calibrated on monitored check-dam storages and used to assess the impacts of the new structures on recharge from those downstream. Then, the model was rerun with a range of capacities of upstream check dams to determine the effects of check-dam capacity on (1) the recharge from the downstream check dam, (2) the total recharge from all check dams, and (3) the frequency of spill from the downstream check dam. Using the available economic information, the benefit–cost ratio was calculated for a range of check-dam capacities. This showed a decline in economic efficiency with each new check dam and defined the optimal capacity. Monsoon size was found to be consequential to results, and longer hydrological records yield more reliable results. The study showed that monitoring check dams, rainfall, and groundwater levels is key to deciding whether additional check dams are economically beneficial.
The present investigation deals with the thermogravimetric analysis of bamboo and bamboo biochar in an inert environment at 10, 20, and 30 °C/min. In addition, vacuum pyrolysis was used for the bamboo biochar. The FWO (Flynn–Wall–Ozawa) and KAS (Kissinger–Akahira–Sunose) methods were used to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters within the active pyrolysis zone. Thermal degradation of bamboo biomass undergoes several steps of loss of mass, including moisture loss, and passive and active pyrolysis. Between 180 and 395 °C, the active pyrolysis zone accounted for 50 to 55% of the mass loss. Furthermore, in both FWO and KAS models, bamboo biochar had lower activation energy values (99.23 and 96.07 kJ/mol) than bamboo biomass (262.5303 and 266.62 kJ/mol). The study’s study on bamboo and its biochar revealed a significant opportunity in the agro-industry for designing and building pyrolysis reactors for long-term biofuel generation.
India is one of the leading countries in the production of horticultural produces. Still, the lack of scientific knowledge, infrastructure, and nonexistence of proper storage facilities forces the farmers to sell their produce in the nearby market immediately after harvest. Although refrigeration and cold storage facilities are developing now to store the horticultural produce, they are not only energy‐intensive but also require huge investment. The majority of farmers cannot afford these facilities even on a rental basis for their harvest. The metabolism of fresh horticultural commodities continues even after the harvest and the rate of deterioration rises because their maturation, senescence, and unfavorable atmospheric factors predominate, especially in tropical countries. A low‐cost, energy‐efficient, environmentally benign and made from the locally available material evaporative cooling chamber (ECC) may resolve some of these issues of on‐farm storage. It is an efficient and cost‐effective way to reduce the temperature and increase relative humidity inside the chamber. A lot of evaporative cooling structures were developed, but still, this simple technology did not make a dent in the production catchment rural areas. In this article, an attempt is made to review the basic principle, methods, factors that influence storage conditions of perishables, design consideration of different evaporative cooling systems, major limitations, challenges, and constraints of its low adoption. The recent developments for modifications and improvement in existing ECCs using the latest technological interventions with the help of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things and their cost analysis are also highlighted. Practical Applications Adoption of a low‐cost and environmentally friendly evaporative cooling system for on‐farm storage made from locally available materials will reduce postharvest losses and improve the economic status of farmers.
'Gola' jujube was irradiated by gamma irradiation doses (0, 0.4, and 1.0 kGy) and stored at 10°C for 35 d. The impact of irradiation on nutritional (total soluble solids, firmness, titratable acidity, pH value and sugars) and bioactive attributes (ascorbic acid, total phenol, total carotenoid and antioxidant activity) were evaluated at 7 d interval. The total soluble solids of ‘Gola’ jujube was significantly increased by irradiation treatment. However, the pH and acidity levels were remained unaffected after 21 d of storage. In addition, fruit treated with gamma irradiation exhibited significantly higher ascorbic acid and total phenol content but, lowest in carotenoid. These results suggested that γ-irradiation might be an effective method to enhance antioxidant potential of jujube fruit, which caused beneficial health effects on consumption.
Oral drug administration is the oldest and widely used method for drug administration. The objectives behind developing an oral drug delivery for the treatment of cancer are to achieve low cost treatment by utilizing novel techniques to target cancer through gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and to enhance patient comfort and compliance through a hospital-free treatment leading to "Chemotherapy at Home." Unfortunately, due to the physiological environment of the GIT and physicochemical properties of drug candidate, the efficacy of oral drug delivery methods is limited in the treatment of cancer. Due to their low hydrophilicity, high P-gp efflux and restricted intestinal permeability most of the anti-cancer drugs fail to achieve oral bioavailability. The review focuses on the efforts, challenges, opportunities and studies conducted by scientists worldwide on the oral administration of anticancer medications via nanocarriers such as liposomes, SLNs and dendrimers, because of their potential to overcome the epithelial barrier associated with GALT, as well as the applications of different polymers in targeting the cancer. The oral delivery can set newer horizons in cancer therapy to make it more patient friendly.
Plant growth performance under a stressful environment, notably in the agriculture field, is directly correlated with the rapid growth of the human population, which triggers the pressure on crop productivity. Plants perceived many stresses owing to degraded land, which induces low plant productivity and, therefore, becomes a foremost concern for the future to face a situation of food scarcity. Land degradation is a very notable environmental issue at the local, regional, and global levels for agriculture. Land degradation generates global problems such as drought desertification, heavy metal contamination, and soil salinity, which pose challenges to achieving many UN Sustainable Development goals. The plant itself has a varied algorithm for the mitigation of stresses arising due to degraded land; the rhizospheric system of the plant has diverse modes and efficient mechanisms to cope with stress by numerous root-associated microbes. The suitable root-associated microbes and components of root exudate interplay against stress and build adaptation against stress-mediated mechanisms. The problem of iron-deficient soil is rising owing to increasing degraded land across the globe, which hampers plant growth productivity. Therefore, in the context to tackle these issues, the present review aims to identify plant-stress status owing to iron-deficient soil and its probable eco-friendly solution. Siderophores are well-recognized iron-chelating agents produced by numerous microbes and are associated with the rhizosphere. These siderophore-producing microbes are eco-friendly and sustainable agents, which may be managing plant stresses in the degraded land. The review also focuses on the molecular mechanisms of siderophores and their chemistry, cross-talk between plant root and siderophores-producing microbes to combat plant stress, and the utilization of siderophores in plant growth on degraded land.
The breaking silence between the plant roots and microorganisms in the rhizosphere affects plant growth and physiology by impacting biochemical, molecular, nutritional, and edaphic factors. The components of the root exudates are associated with the microbial population, notably, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The information accessible to date demonstrates that PGPR is specific to the plant's roots. However, inadequate information is accessible for developing bio-inoculation/bio-fertilizers for the crop in concern, with satisfactory results at the field level. There is a need to explore the perfect candidate PGPR to meet the need for plant growth and yield. The functions of PGPR and their chemotaxis mobility toward the plant root are triggered by the cluster of genes induced by the components of root exudates. Some reports have indicated the benefit of root exudates in plant growth and productivity, yet a methodical examination of rhizosecretion and its consequences in phytoremediation have not been made. In the light of the afore-mentioned facts, in the present review, the mechanistic insight and recent updates on the specific PGPR recruitment to improve crop production at the field level are methodically addressed.
Poor grain drying facilities, along with the burden of drying cost, bound the farmers to market their produce soon after harvest. Thus, this research paper intends to study the influences of a novel cylindrical solar-assisted dryer on farmers' income and its impact on the environment. The paper also presents the design and fabrication of a drying system for maize cobs using non-conventional solar energy. The performance of the solar-assisted drying system was also investigated for drying of yellow dent maize cobs. As a very energy-intensive post-harvest process, drying consumes a lot of electricity, which is usually provided by conventional energy. Here, solar dryers are the perfect solution in terms of efficiency, uniform drying of agricultural food products, less drying time, increased marketability of agricultural products, and reducing the load on farmer's pocket for drying. With a high internal rate of return of 66 percent, the designed dryer proved to be technically and economically viable. Compared to open sun drying, the solar drying system produced better quality and drying time results. Compared to other models, the Midilli model fits the experimental maize drying data better, with a coefficient of determination of R 2 = 0.89729. Energy analysis inferred savings of 1352.97 kWh electrical energy and 128.18 liters of diesel fuel plus a reduction of 1.22 t CO 2 per annum can be achieved by using this dryer.
This work is aimed for experimental study on effects of spark timings, compression ratios (4.5:1 to 7.2:1) and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on combustion characteristics of hydrogen fuelled spark ignition (SI) engine operating at 3000 rpm. The results indicate spark timing should be reduced for hydrogen fuelled engine as compared to the gasoline fuelled engine. Both ignition lag and DOC decreased with an increase in equivalence ratio and compression ratio, while the opposite trend was observed with an increase in EGR. The EGR was limited up to 23.5 % by volume, as higher EGR lead to cyclic variation. The standard Wiebe function constants were modified for the calculation of mass fraction burnt in a hydrogen fuelled SI engine. In addition to this, the empirical correlations were developed for ignition lag (IL) and duration of combustion (DOC) as a function of compression ratio, equivalence ratio, and EGR. The notable findings that emerged from this study are that hydrogen-fuelled SI engines should be operated at varying spark timing with respect to varying equivalence ratios (0.5 to 0.8) and EGR up to 23.5% by volume.
Maize ( Zea mays L.) is the vital cereal crop around the world and is the third wide grown cereal crop in India for food grain purposes. Field surveys were conducted from 2019–2020 recorded stalk rot incidence ranged from 23–50% in several maize growing districts of Southern Rajasthan, India. On the basis of primary symptoms, typical symptoms were observed after flowering season and it starts with the drying of the lower leaves and premature wilting, internal decay and discoloration of stalk tissue, lower internodes turned into grey-green color and stalks are hollow and weak leading to the lodging of the plant and directly reducing maize yield. We identified associated pathogens with post flowering stalk rot disease severity and incidence and Fusarium considered as major threat in all the maize growing regions. Consequently, in this research, identification was confirmed as “ Fusarium spp”. by morphological and molecular sequence analysis. “ Fusarium ” species associated with stalk rot incidence were isolated on PDA. No. of 12 fungal isolates were isolated from Post Flowering Stalk Rot complex from different localities. All Isolates were identified as Fusarium , based on colony character, conidial and morphological characters. However, identification of 10 primarily selected isolates of Fusarium was confirmed by molecular characterization. Based on morphological characteristics, 10 isolates were classified as F. verticillioides (5 isolates) and 2 isolates as Fusarium proliferatum , 1 isolate of Fusarium luffae , 1 isolate of Fusarium pallidoroseum and 1 isolate of Fusarium oxysporum . Colony diameter of isolates ranged between 65.80 to 90 mm. All the ten isolates of Fusarium spp. showed notable variations in conidial morphology. Molecular variability of the ten isolates was carried out by choosing 10 RAPD markers of Operon series. Ten primers produced scorable bands with high percentage of the polymorphism (91.1%). Similarity coefficient among all these isolates of Fusarium spp . based on amplifying DNA using RAPD primers was estimated using Jaccard coefficient of similarity and thus similarity matrix was generated (62.5–85.4%). Dendrogram was constructed based on molecular data generated by 10 RAPD primers using NTSYS Pc (numerical taxonomic and multivariate analysis system) version 2.02.e UPGMA clusters analysis grouped Fusarium spp. isolates into two clusters with 0.32% similarity coefficient.
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297 members
Devendra Jain
  • Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology
Vinod Saharan
  • Department of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology
Sr Bhakar
  • SWE, CTAE, Udaipur
Ravinder Krishna Raina
  • Department of Basic Sciences
R.A. Kaushik
  • Department of Horticulture
Udaipur, India