Background Scrub typhus is a significant tropical disease, occurring in rural settings and therefore usually afflicting remote agricultural populations who have lower socioeconomic status and limited access to medical care. A large proportion of the hill tribe people in Thailand are financially poor, have limited education, and do not have adequate health care access. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and determine factors associated with scrub typhus exposure among the hill tribe population living in high-incidence areas in northern Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to gather information from hill tribe people aged 18 years and over living in ten hill tribe villages in Mae Fah Luang, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study. A validated questionnaire was used as the research instrument, and 5 mL blood samples were taken. Orientia tsutsugamushi IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Logistic regression was used to detect associations between variables at a significance level of α = 0.05. Results A total of 485 hill tribe people participated in the study; 57.1% were female, 29.9% were over 60 years of age, 46.4% were from the Akha tribe, and 74.2% had never attended school. The overall prevalence of scrub typhus exposure was 48.0%. In the multivariate model, five variables were found to be associated with scrub typhus exposure. Participants aged over 60 years had a 4.31-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.73–10.72) of scrub typhus exposure compared to those who were younger than 30 years. Those who were illiterate had a 3.46-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.93–6.21) of scrub typhus exposure than those who had at least a primary education level. Participants from the Akha tribe had a 2.20-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.31–3.72) of scrub typhus exposure than those from the Lahu tribe. Subjects who had a history of cutting grass had a 1.85-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.20–2.84) of scrub typhus exposure. Those who never wore gloves for farming had a 2.12-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.28–3.49) of scrub typhus exposure than those who wore gloves daily. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of scrub typhus exposure among the hill tribe in Thailand. Effective public health interventions to promote scrub typhus awareness and prevention are urgently needed in these populations.
Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) is an evolving modality that uses a near-infrared dye to improve surgical visualization and intraoperative decision-making. The present authors have investigated the topic of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) for burn wound excision. This chapter will provide readers with knowledge of burn wound evaluation, various methods of burn determination, the pitfalls of burn depth determination, and a thorough review of the development, fundamentals, and evidence base for using ICGA precise marking for burn wound evaluation and excision in clinical practice.
Background: Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 envisions a future where everyone has access to clean water and sanitation. Yet, as 2030 looms closer, the complexity of achieving this target becomes apparent, with issues far surpassing basic water infrastructure and utility challenges. The underlying problems lie in broader spheres such as governance, policymaking, and financing. Main body: The global landscape of water management is marked by complexities that transcend the operational troubles of water utilities. Financial sustainability is a monumental task. And while it is true that water utilities struggle with revenue generation, the broader picture reveals systemic challenges. The true cost of water provision often extends to ecosystem services such as watershed protection. Often, these services are not internalized in the revenue models of utilities but are typically subsidized by governments or simply not considered. Balancing affordability for users with cost recovery for service providers, however, is not just an arithmetic exercise. It is also a question of equitable policies. Non-revenue water (NRW), resulting from physical losses such as leaks, theft, and inaccurate [or lack of] metering, exacerbates existing financial strain. Annual NRW losses are estimated at an astonishing 126 billion cubic meters, costing roughly USD 39 billion. But at the most fundamental level of achieving SDG 6 is misgovernance. Effective water governance demands consistent policies, coherent collaboration among diverse stakeholders, and comprehensive strategies that cater to specific regional contexts. Current models often suffer from fragmented policies, inadequate public-private partnerships, and weak engagement mechanisms. A glaring gap exists between academic advancements in water management and their practical implementation in policymaking. Moreover, international cooperation, while vital, reveals an unequal landscape in knowledge exchange. Knowledge transfer is often skewed, favoring dominant nations while sidelining voices from the Global South. This emphasizes the need for an inclusive, equitable, and context-specific global cooperation model. Conclusion: The road to realizing SDG 6 is multifaceted, and while on-the-ground solutions are essential, the real success lies in addressing the foundational challenges. This requires innovative financial solutions, reimagining water governance structures, and ensuring all voices, especially from the Global South, are heard and integrated into global policies. As 2030 nears, it is the synergy of governance, finance, and technology that will ultimately make clean water and sanitation a reality for all.
Sex differences in cognitive function exist, but they are not stable and undergo dynamic change during the lifespan. However, our understanding of how sex-related neural information transmission evolves with age is still in its infancy. This study utilized the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the label-free proteomics method with bioinformatic analysis to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related sex differences in cognitive performance in 199 healthy Thai subjects (aged 20–70 years), as well as explore the sex-dependent protein complexes for predicting cognitive aging. The results showed that males outperformed females in two of the five WCST sub-scores: %Corrects and %Errors. Sex differences in these scores were related to aging, becoming noticeable in those over 60. At the molecular level, differently expressed individual proteins and protein complexes between both sexes are associated with the potential N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity, with the NMDAR complex being enriched exclusively in elderly female samples. These findings provided a preliminary indication that healthy Thai females might be more susceptible to such neurotoxicity, as evidenced by their cognitive performance. NMDAR protein complex enrichment in serum could be proposed as a potential indication for predicting cognitive aging in healthy Thai females.
An abnormal density of Demodex mites can trigger many skin disorders known as demodicosis. Clinical manifestations of demodicosis may resemble other skin diseases and can coexist with other skin disorders, resulting in underdiagnosis and a more challenging diagnosis. Here, we report three cases of demodicosis in acne vulgaris patients. These case series have discussed their clinical features along with optimal strategies for diagnosis and treatment.
COVID-19 virus spread has resulted in the most dramatic changes for all of us. The purpose of this article is to develop a curriculum and share teaching experience in innovation and entrepreneurship for dental students during the pandemic , in order to help train future dentists. This article made extensive use of the adaptive design thinking model, which included brainstorming, classroom presentation, reflection, and revision. Sixth year dental students from the academic years 2020 and 2021 attended, with 26 and 29 students, respectively. Students of both classes were divided into five groups. Each group was tasked with creating an innovative research proposal related to clinical dental issues encountered during the pandemic. After a 6 h team-based discussion that included a 2-time presentation, all dental students were able to develop an innovation research proposal and present it in front of the class. This study reveals the process of developing dental curricula and sharing teaching experiences in innovation and entrepreneurship with dental students during a pandemic. Future research should compare traditional study, online teaching, and blended learning in innovation-related topics among dental students. The application of this novel method to multidisciplinary student teams as well as clinical subjects is also a challenge. Article Highlights • Encourage innovation and entrepreneurship in dental education in the face of a pandemic. • Adaptive design thinking, which includes brainstorming, classroom presentations, reflection, and revision. • An alternative method of fostering dental students' entrepreneurial and innovative visions.
A 32-year-old Thai woman in her first pregnancy presented with multiple hyperpigmented, hyperkeratotic, pruritic, discrete papules coalescing to form plaques with a rippled pattern on the extensor surfaces of upper and lower limbs, back, chest, and abdomen. Her mother had a similar history. Histopathology of the lesion revealed a diagnosis of lichen amyloidosis, confirmed by the Congo red stain. The lesions had started one year prior and had remained stable before pregnancy; however, they became widespread after pregnancy. Thus, prompting the question as to whether this was a coincidence or if the pregnancy had exacerbated the condition. In this case report, we will discuss our approach to this patient and our opinions concerning the relationship between pregnancy and lichen amyloidosis.
More specimens of Hydnotrya have been collected from southwestern China in recent years. Morphological and molecular analyses showed that they belonged to three species of Hydnotrya , of which two are new to science, H. oblongispora and H. zayuensis . The third one was H. laojunshanensis , previously reported in 2013. The new species are described, and their relationship to other species of Hydnotrya is discussed. H. laojunshanensis is re-described in more detail. The main morphological characters of 17 species of Hydnotrya are compared and a key to them is provided as well.
This article is the 15th contribution in the Fungal Diversity Notes series, wherein 115 taxa from three phyla, nine classes, 28 orders, 48 families, and 64 genera are treated. Fungal taxa described and illustrated in the present study include a new family, five new genera, 61 new species, five new combinations, one synonym, one new variety and 31 records on new hosts or new geographical distributions. Ageratinicolaceae fam. nov. is introduced and accommodated in Pleosporales. The new genera introduced in this study are Ageratinicola, Kevinia, Pseudomultiseptospora (Parabambusicolaceae), Marasmiellomycena, and Vizzinia (Porotheleaceae). Newly described species are Abrothallus altoandinus, Ageratinicola kunmingensis, Allocryptovalsa aceris, Allophoma yuccae, Apiospora cannae, A. elliptica, A. pallidesporae, Boeremia wisteriae, Calycina papaeana, Clypeococcum lichenostigmoides, Coniochaeta riskali-shoyakubovii, Cryphonectria kunmingensis, Diaporthe angustiapiculata, D. campylandrae, D. longipapillata, Diatrypella guangdongense, Dothiorella franceschinii, Endocalyx phoenicis, Epicoccum terminosporum, Fulvifomes karaiensis, F. pannaensis, Ganoderma ghatensis, Hysterobrevium baoshanense, Inocybe avellaneorosea, I. lucida, Jahnula oblonga, Kevinia lignicola, Kirschsteiniothelia guangdongensis, Laboulbenia caprina, L. clavulata, L. cobiae, L. cosmodisci, L. nilotica, L. omalii, L. robusta, L. similis, L. stigmatophora, Laccaria rubriporus, Lasiodiplodia morindae, Lyophyllum agnijum, Marasmiellomycena pseudoomphaliiformis, Melomastia beihaiensis, Nemania guangdongensis, Nigrograna thailandica, Nigrospora ficuum, Oxydothis chinensis, O. yunnanensis, Petriella thailandica, Phaeoacremonium chinensis, Phialocephala chinensis, Phytophthora debattistii, Polyplosphaeria nigrospora, Pronectria loweniae, Seriascoma acutispora, Setoseptoria bambusae, Stictis anomianthi, Tarzetta tibetensis, Tarzetta urceolata, Tetraploa obpyriformis, Trichoglossum beninense, and Tricoderma pyrrosiae. We provide an emendation for Urnula ailaoshanensis Agaricus duplocingulatoides var. brevisporus introduced as a new variety based on morphology and phylogeny.
Preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification of the ethyl acetate extracts derived from dried basidiomes of the European mushroom Hericium coralloides led to the identification of two previously undescribed isoindolinone derivatives named corallocins D and E ( 1 – 2 ). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on HR-ESIMS (high-resolution electron spray ionization mass spectroscopy), interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra, circular dichroism (CD) experiments, and comparisons with published and theoretical data. The metabolites were tested for their cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects in vitro where weak to moderate biological effects were observed against HeLa cells (KB 3.1), Mucor hiemalis and Bacillus subtilis .
Endophytic fungi isolated from medicinal ferns serve as significant natural resources for drug precursors or bioactive metabolites. During our survey on the diversity of endophytic fungi from Dicranopteris species (a genus of medicinal ferns) in Guizhou, Apoiospora was observed as a dominant fungal group. In this study, seven Apiospora strains, representing four new species, were obtained from the healthy plant tissues of three Dicranopteris species—D. ampla, D. linearis, and D. pedata. The four new species, namely Apiospora aseptata, A. dematiacea, A. dicranopteridis, and A. globosa, were described in detail with color photographs and subjected to phylogenetic analyses using combined LSU, ITS, TEF1-α, and TUB2 sequence data. This study also documented three new hosts for Apiospora species.
Studying the taxonomy, diversity and host preference of leaf litter inhabiting microfungi contributes towards elucidating hidden taxa, their host affinities and recovering novel life modes dwelling inside forest ecosystems. Leaf litter-inhabiting microfungi also play a crucial role in forest ecosystems through decomposition and nutrient recycling. This study resulted in the introduction of saprobic Didymellaceae microfungi from Doi Tung Forest Reserve, Chiang Rai, northern Thailand. Fungal isolates were characterised based on morphology and molecular phylogeny of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS, LSU) and protein-coding genes (tub2, rpb2). Allophoma tropica and Remotididymella ageratinae are recorded from dead leaves of Nayariophyton zizyphifolium (Malvaceae), and Didymella coffeae-arabicae from Dalbergia cultrata and Afzelia xylocarpa (Fabaceae). This study also reports the sexual morph of Allophoma tropica and Didymella coffeae-arabicae and provides molecular evidence for the first reports of sexual morphs from Thailand.
The food waste was very difficult to treat in a proper way since its high-organic matter. The novel biohythane (H2 + CH4) production from high-strength industry food waste hydrolysate in two steps anaerobic well mixed batch bioreactor was carried out in this study using cultivated microflora. The temperature was controlled at 37 °C and initial substrate concentration of industrial food waste hydrolysate varied from 60, 80, 100, and 120 g COD/L, respectively. The pH, TS, VS, and SCOD were analyzed from the influent and effluent samples. These analytical parameters showed the correlations between the biogas production rates and yields in the batch fermentation system. This study was the first time to use the industry food waste hydrolysate which was collected from the subcritical water hydrolysis process. In this study, the optimal biohydrogen and biomethane yield production by using suspended cells were 0.65 mL H2/g COD and 203.72 mL CH4/g COD where the initial substrate concentrations of total COD and SCOD were 60 g/L and 39.80 g/L, respectively. The optimal of the biohydrogen and biomethane yields production by using suspended cells were 0.65 mL H2/g COD and 203.72 mL CH4/g COD where the initial substrate concentrations of total COD and SCOD were 60 g/L and 39.80 g/L, respectively. The results of this study supported that the cultivation of inoculum in a suspended cell type can have a higher tolerance for the biohydrogen and biomethane production in a high-strength initial substrate concentration of 60 g COD/L.
Apiospora, an ascomycetous genus in Apiosporaceae, comprises saprobes, endophytes, and pathogens of humans and plants. They have a cosmopolitan distribution with a wide range of hosts reported from Asia. In the present study, we collected and isolated Apiospora species from Wurfbainia villosa and grasses in Guangdong and Yunnan provinces in China. Multi-locus phylogeny based on the internal transcribed spacer, the large subunit nuclear rDNA, the partial translation elongation factor 1-α, and β-tubulin was performed to clarify the phylogenetic affinities of the Apiospora species. Based on the distinctive morphological characteristics and molecular evidence, Ap. endophytica, Ap. guangdongensis, Ap. wurfbainiae, and Ap. yunnanensis are proposed. Descriptions, illustrations, and notes for the newly discovered species are provided and compared with closely related Apiospora species. An updated phylogeny of Apiospora is presented, along with a discussion on the phylogenetic affinities of ambiguous taxa.
This was the first study to use local Southern Thai ingredients, namely, nipa palm syrup (NS) and nipa palm vinegar (NV), in the formulation of natural deep eutectic solvent (NADES) for the recovery of bioactive curcumin from turmeric. Five NADES formulations (A to E) were obtained by varying concentration of liquid media (NS, NV, and water) and characterized using FTIR. When compared to other formulations and 80% methanol, the NADES D with a NS to NV to water ratio of 1:5:5 (w/w/w) recovered the most curcumin content (p < 0.05). The extraction conditions of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) with selected NADES were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximize curcumin recovery. NADES D achieved the highest curcumin content (43.04 mg/g) from turmeric at a solvent ratio of 1:10, microwave power of 1000 W, and extraction time of 51 s. The NADES D-based curcumin extract outperformed all antioxidant activities (DPPH∙ scavenging activity and FRAP). The NADES D–based extract is non-toxic to RAW264.7 cells at up to 62.50 µg/mL. As a result, NADES-based NS and NV are a viable green solvent for obtaining bioactive compounds, particularly curcumin from turmeric.
Tryptophol (TOH), a fungal quorum-sensing molecule, that possesses anti-fungal activities for controlling the growth of human pathogenic fungi. In the present study, we developed TOH-containing emulgel formulations and examined the antifungal activities and potential use as topical treatments on the skin. The results showed that TOH-containing emulgel at 1000 μM has excellent physical characteristics as homogenous, stability, and inhibits the growth of 30 species of human pathogenic fungi in vitro. TOH-containing emulgel did not cause skin irritation in mouse model of irritation and in healthy human volunteers. Moreover, an increase in skin hydration and a decrease in trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL) were observed after TOH-containing emulgel treatment on human skin. Our findings indicated that TOH-containing emulgel can be utilize as an antifungal agent for topical treatment against fungal infections on the skin.
Chemical investigation for the mycelial extract of a saprotrophic fungus Lachnum sp. IW157 growing on the common reed grass Phragmites communis afforded the identification of two polyketide metabolites diaporphasines E (1) and F (2). Chemical structures of isolated compounds were unambiguously elucidated based on extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectral analyses in addition to their high-resolution mass spectrometry. The isolated compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity and antimicrobial and biofilm inhibitory activities. While compound 1 revealed potent cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines L929 and KB3.1 with IC 50 values of 0.9 and 3.7 μM, respectively, compound 2 exhibited moderate effects on the formation of S. aureus biofilms at 31.25 μg/ mL.
Species in the Botryosphaeriaceae are common plant pathogens, endophytes, and saprobes found on a variety of mainly woody hosts. Botryosphaeriaceae is a high-profile fungal family whose genera have been subjected to continuous revisions in recent years. Surveys conducted during 2019 and 2020 on several decaying woody hosts (from dead arial twigs, branches, stems, bark, and seed pods) in China and Thailand revealed a high diversity of Botryosphaeriaceae fungi. Identification of 16 Botryosphaeriaceae isolates was carried out based on both morphological characteristics and phylo-genetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, tef1-α, and tub2 sequence data. Four novel species (Dothiorella ovata, Do. rosacearum, Do. septata, and Lasiodiplodia delonicis) and seven previously known species (Botryosphaeria fujianensis, Diplodia mutila, Di. seriata, L. crassispora, L. mahajangana, Macrophomina euphorbiicola and Sphaeropsis eucalypticola) were identified while new hosts and geographical records were reported. This study indicates that the fungal family Botryosphaeriaceae seems to be common and widespread on a broad range of hosts in China and Thailand.
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