The hypoeutectic aluminum alloy (AlSi10Mg) is a well-known candidate material used predominantly for its processability and inherent characteristics in metal-based additive manufacturing. Besides, transition metal carbide, such as niobium carbide (NbC), is added to the AlSi10Mg, enhancing its mechanical properties and preferably its wear resistance to the matrix. However, in additive manufacturing, the mixed powder’s flowability is a prerequisite for determining the final properties of the specimens. In this study, mixed powder flowability analysis was carried out through the regular mixing of AlSi10Mg with a varying weight percentage of NbC conducted in the planetary ball mill with different time, speed, and NbC composition following the Central Composite Design (CCD), with a total of 20 experiments. Here, regular mixing was preferred to retain the morphology of the AlSi10Mg (spherical shape) instead of ball milling, which contributes to the degradation of the powder’s shape and size. Finally, based on the combined analysis of apparent density (AD), tapped density (TD), and static angle of repose (SAoR), the flowability characteristics of the mixed powders (AlSi10Mg + X % NbC) were evaluated. The optimum combination (AlSi10Mg + X% NbC) was attained based on the composite desirability criteria.
Node localization technology can identify and track nodes, making observing data more relevant; for example, information received at the sink node would be useless to the client if node localization data from the sensor region were not included. Localization is described as determining the location of unknown sensor nodes named destination nodes applying the recognized location of anchor nodes based on measurements such as time difference of occurrence, time of occurrence, angle of occurrence, triangulation, and maximum probability. The purpose of node localization is to assign coordinates points to all sensor nodes arbitrarily put in the monitoring region and have an unknown location. Localization of nodes is essential to account for the cause of events that help group sensor querying, routing, and network coverage. In this paper, data transmission among the nodes is done by comparing the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) value with the supervised learning value. If the RSSI value is less than the supervised learning value, the data transmission takes place; else, no transmission. This paper proposes a hybrid localization scheme that effectively uses K‐fold optimization with supervised learning and gives good results for distance error and RSSI/energy efficiency. The proposed scheme can effectively detect the optimal path for data transmission, node localization for the destination, and overall performance enhancement using threshold decision making.
Design and synthesis of metal-free, cost-effective, and ecofriendly nanostructured materials are of great importance for optoelectronic and electrochemical applications. In this study, we have synthesized metal-free sulfur-doped graphitic-carbon nitride ([email protected]3N4) by poly-condensation process. The synthesized [email protected]3N4 was authenticated by various advanced characterization techniques. Further, glassy carbon electrode was modified with [email protected]3N4 which acted as hydrazine sensor. This developed hydrazine sensor exhibited excellent detection limit of 0.98 µM with sensitivity of 1.81 µA µM⁻¹cm⁻². Furthermore, synthesized [email protected]3N4 was also explored as photo-catalyst for the generation of hydrogen (H2) using photo-catalysis process. The [email protected]3N4 exhibited excellent hydrogen production of 6547 µmol g⁻¹ which suggested presence of excellent catalytic properties in [email protected]3N4.
In this current investigation, an attempt has been endeavored to examine the synergistic effect of using a nano-coated hydrophobic condensing glass as well as the integration of evacuated tubes (ETC) on the productivity of the single sloped solar still (SSS). Three numbers of SSS with the analogous configuration had been employed during the experimental trials. However, the first still was used as it is, the second still was equipped with the nano-coated condensing top glass and the third still was integrated with the ETCs in addition to the nano-coated glass. The fumed silica nanoparticles were used for preparing hydrophobic coating over the glass. The investigations were pursued in the southern part of India during the month of February in 2021. The findings evidenced that the use of both nano-coated glass and the ETCs seems to be synergistic in terms of enhancing the performance of the still and it was noted that 28.53% increment in yield was attained with such synergistic combination, comparing to the ordinary SSS. Whereas, the aforesaid increment was 15.49% more comparing to the yield of the still containing only nano-coated glass.
In the present study, we reported the fabrication of barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles using barium nitrate, and titanium (IV) butoxide as Ba and Ti precursors via hydrothermal approach. Further, glassy carbon electrode was modified with BaTiO3 nanoparticles to develop the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor. Linear-sweep voltammetry (LSV), and chronoamperometry were adopted as electrochemical sensing techniques towards the determination of H2O2. The BaTiO3/GCE demonstrated decent sensitivity of 0.41 µA/µMcm² and limit of detection (LoD) of 0.89 µM using LSV method whereas sensitivity of 5.49 µA/µMcm² and LoD of 0.09 µM were obtained using chronoamperometry.
An annular ring microstrip antenna (ARMSA) with metallic drilled holes and a defected ground structure is proposed for ultra-wideband applications. The annular ring microstrip patch antenna is excited by the microstrip line feed. The outer radius of the annular ring was optimized in this paper to choose the resonant frequency corresponding to the highest mode. The inner radius boosts the structure’s gain. A defected conductive strip with an arc in the center increases bandwidth at the lower end, increases gain and suppresses Co and Cross-pole isolation. Incorporating a metallic via array excites and includes several closely spaced lower order modes, increasing the fractional bandwidth to 108%. The gain of the proposed configuration is 10dBi at the resonance frequency. It offers Front to back lobe ratio (FBR) of 34dB and 97% radiation efficiency. The performance of the fabricated prototype agrees well with the simulated one.
Supply chain management (SCM) is a core corporate activity responsible for moving commodities and services from one point to another through various stakeholders. The traditional SCM is based on a centralized approach managed at the central headquarter, and all other sub-offices get instructions from the main office. Some major issues with present SCM systems are security, transactional transparency, traceability, stakeholder involvement, product counterfeiting, additional delays, fraud, and instabilities. Blockchain (BC) emerges as a technology that can manage the data and build trust efficiently and transparently. It can also aid in transaction authorization and verification in the supply chain or payments without a third party. To address the present SCM issues, BC technology is a feasible solution. Motivated by the aforementioned considerations, in this paper, we present a survey on the adoption of BC in SCM. This paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the literature on BC characteristics, implementations, and business consequences in various SCM. This Blockchain-centered study, in particular, discloses the research state and delineates future research directions by studying and analyzing 97 up-to-date publications highlighting BC's supply chain uses. Transparency and traceability, information sharing, product anti-counterfeiting, and building trust are the major aspects propelling BC's implementation in SCM. Further, we analyzed various applications of SCM in which BC can be used as a probable technology to secure all transactions. Then, we have highlighted open issues and research challenges for adopting BC technology in SCM that open the doors for beginners eager to start work in this amazing area.
In this manuscript, an antenna design configured for dual-band circularly polarized (DBCP) characteristics is presented. The proposed design is quite compact (0.63 λ g × 0.63 λ g × 0.04 λ g ) and comprises a mushroom-shaped monopole with a modified ground structure (MGS). In the proposed antenna structure, dual-band CP behavior is generated through a tunable side stub joined orthogonally with the feed patch and reshaping the wide square slot. The impedance bandwidth is measured as 2900 MHz ranging from 1.32 to 4.22 GHz in the lower frequency band (Band 1); however, 980 MHz from 4.78 to 5.76 GHz in the higher frequency band (Band 2). The 3-dB AR bandwidth is measured as 370 MHz (from 3.54 to 3.91 GHz)in the lower frequency band; whereas, it is measured as 650 MHz (from 5.07 to 5.72 GHz) in the higher frequency band. The measured gains spread from 2.5 to 8.3 dBi with a maximum gain of 8.3 dBi in the lower frequency band, whereas 4.8 to 7.05 dBi with a 7.05 dBi maximum gain in the higher frequency band, respectively. The cross-polar rejection is observed greater than 14 dB. Besides, 3-dB half-power beamwidths are seen as 86° & 84°, and 87° & 86° in the x - z and y - z planes for the lower and higher frequency bands, respectively.
Solid acid composite electrolytes RbH2PO4/LaPO4 were prepared with the molar percentage ratio and observed the structural, thermal, and transport properties. The superprotonic phase transition was identified in RbH2PO4 at 250 °C. The outstanding performance of RbH2PO4 was enhanced due to the addition of LaPO4 in the form of conductivity and stability. An enhancement in conductivity of 3–5 orders of magnitude was found at high temperatures compared to low temperatures in composite electrolytes. Thermal characterization showed that by introducing the additives, the dehydration behavior in DSC at higher temperatures shifted to lower. The minimum weight loss of composite indicates stability with LaPO4. Stable protonic conductivity for RbH2PO4 and composites was observed in a hermetically closed chamber and also under highly humidified conditions. The ionic conductivity and thermal stability of RbH2PO4/LaPO4 is the key point of our study that lays the foundation for the study of the solid electrolytes composites mechanism.
The first principle calculation to investigate the structural, optoelectronic, and magnetic properties of the Y2FeSi Heusler alloy (HA) using the Wien2K code has been discussed in detail in the present manuscript. To estimate the physical properties of the HA, PBE-GGA and mBJ exchange–correlation functional were applied. The electronic charge density contour plot represents the dominant ionic character among the atomic configurations of Y2FeSi compound. Density of states (DOS) across the Fermi level (EF) exhibits the prominent role of Fe-3d electronic states along with Y-4d and Si-2p electronic states. Estimated spin polarization (SP ~ 75%) from the DOS profile suggests the metallic nature with magnetic (ferromagnetic having magnetic moment ~ 1.65 µB/cell for the HA) ordering of the compound. Phonon spectra represents the dynamical stability of the Y2FeSi compound. Additionally, the consequence of spin–orbit coupling (SOC) on material’s physical properties was also explored. Band structure (BS) with SOC effect shows additional energy levels across the EF, due to splitting of Y-atoms’ energy levels. A dielectric function was assessed with and without SOC to study the optical properties. Overall, Y2FeSi HA reveals interesting electronic, magnetic, and optical properties that have the potential for application in optical and spintronic devices.
The pyrazole derivatives have been recognized as a unique heterocyclic molecule exerting broad range of biological activities such as analgesic, anti-viral, anti-histaminic, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, insecticides fungicides, anti-depressant, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and estrogen receptor (ER) ligand activity etc. Pyrazoles also find applications in agrochemical and pharmaceutical industry. Pyrazoles have different chemical properties which may be attributed due to the effect of particular N-atoms present in pyrazole molecule. N-Atom present at position-2 having non Huckel lone pair is more reactive towards electrophiles while N-atom present at position-1 is unreactive. However, in the presence of strong base, the proton from N-atom at position-1 is abstracted thereby providing pyrazole anion after deprotonation, which in turn increases reactivity towards the electrophiles. There are wide range of drugs available in the market possessing pyrazole nuclei. The present manuscript is aimed to describe major developments achieved till date towards the synthesis and biological applications of pyrazole/pyrazole derivatives and is likely to be beneficial to the researchers working in the area.
Copper (Cu) is an essential and important trace element for some significant life processes for most organisms. However, an excessive amount of Cu can be highly toxic. The present study was conducted to elucidate the oxidative stress–induced alteration in transcriptional level of autophagy-related genes in the liver and kidney tissue of fish Channa punctatus after treatment with three different sublethal concentrations of CuSO4 for 28 days. All the studied enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers viz. superoxide dismutase-SOD, catalase-CAT, glutathione peroxidase-GPx, glutathione reductase-GR, and glutathione-GSH showed an increase in their activity levels in the treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. Particularly SOD and CAT have shown a significant hike in activity levels. ROS levels in blood cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the treated groups, i.e., Group II-1/20th of 96 h-LC50 (0.2 mg/L), Group III-1/10th of 96 h-LC50 (0.4 mg/L), and Group IV-1/5 h of 96 h-LC50 (0.8 mg/L) of Cu²⁺ in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control (Group I). The upregulation in mRNA levels of autophagy-related genes Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein precursor (Gabarap), and Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer of 16 kDa (GATE16), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5) was observed while mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) showed downregulation in the liver and kidney tissue of fish. The decrease in mTOR and increase in ATG5 gene expression projects autophagic vesicle formation due to oxidative stress. There was significant induction in micronuclei (MN) frequency in all the treated groups. The highest frequency of MN induced by Cu²⁺ was recorded in Group IV after 28 days of the exposure period. Thus, it can be concluded that the available information about Cu²⁺-induced oxidative stress–mediated autophagy in the liver and kidney of fish C. punctatus remains largely unclear to date, so to fill the aforesaid gap, the present study was undertaken, which gives an insight for the mechanisms of autophagy induced by Cu²⁺ in fish. Graphical Abstract
Recently, numerical simulation of lead (Pb)-free perovskite solar cells (LFPSCs) has attracted scientific community and received great attention. All-inorganic cesium antimony iodide (Cs3Sb2I9) which is perovskite-like material has been widely explored as light absorbing layer in the development of LFPSCs. In present work, we have reported the numerical simulation of LFPSCs with device architecture of FTO/TiO2/Cs3Sb2I9/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The thickness of electron-transport layer (ETL), light absorber layer, and hole-transport layer (HTL) were optimized to achieve the highest efficiency. The optimized LFPSCs exhibited excellent efficiency of 12.54% using SCAPS-1D. Further, Cs3Sb2I9 films were obtained and their physiochemical and optical properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning-electron spectroscopy (SEM), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy. Furthermore, LFPSCs device (FTO/TiO2/Cs3Sb2I9/spiro-OMeTAD/Au) was fabricated under controlled humidity (∼30–40%). The fabricated LFPSCs showed good efficiency of 1.07%.
Recently, lead (Pb)-free perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received enormous attention and various Pb-free perovskite and perovskite-like materials have been employed as light absorber for photovoltaic applications. Cesium bismuth iodide (Cs3Bi2I9) is stable and less toxic perovskite-like material. Herein, we have simulated Cs3Bi2I9 based Pb-free PSCs with device architecture of FTO/TiO2/Cs3Bi2I9/spiro-MeOTAD/Au using SCAPS-1D software. The influence of thickness of electron transport layer (ETL), hole transport material (HTM) and light absorber layer (Cs3Bi2I9) were investigated. The best simulated Pb-free PSCs exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 11.54%. Further, we have prepared thin films of Cs3Bi2I9 and physiochemical properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical band gap was determined by employing ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy. We have also fabricated Pb-free PSCs with device structure of FTO/TiO2/Cs3Bi2I9/spiro-MeOTAD/Au. The fabricated Pb-free PSCs device exhibited good open circuit voltage (Voc) of 780 mV with PCE of 1.66%.
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in India and also increasing day by day. Patients need quick access to health information and medical facilities. Moreover, how machine learning and related concepts can be utilized to overpower this prevailing chronic disorder. The chatbots are ideal for all of today's needs as it uses the information of patients and provides them an appropriate solution. A chatbot that will serve as an effective physician, performing basic diagnostics on diabetic patients is proposed in our paper. A combination of K-Neighbors Classifier, Voting Classifier, and Light GBM Classifier for the diabetes prediction model. The accuracy assessment measures used to check the performance of the model are classification accuracy, f1-score, precision, and recall. The developed model shows prediction of diabetic patient and suggest them appropriate action accordingly.
Background: Modern radiotherapy techniques are using advanced algorithms; however, phantoms used for quality assurance have homogeneous density; accordingly, the development of heterogeneous phantom mimicking human body sites is imperative to examine variation between planned and delivered doses. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the accuracy of planned dose by different algorithms using indigenously developed heterogeneous thoracic phantom (HT). Material and methods: In this experimental study, computed tomography (CT) of HT was done, and the density of different parts was measured. The plan was generated on CT images of HCP with 6 and 15 Megavoltage (MV) photon beams using different treatment techniques, including three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Plans were delivered by the linear accelerator, and the dose was measured using the ion chamber (IC) placed in HT; planned and measured doses were compared. Results: Density patterns for different parts of the fabricated phantom, including rib, spine, scapula, lung, chest wall, and heart were 1.849, 1.976, 1.983, 0.173, 0.855, and 0.833 g/cc, respectively. Variation between planned and IC estimated doses with the tolerance (±5%) for all photon energies using different techniques. Acuros-XB (AXB) showed a slightly higher variation between computed and IC estimated doses using HCP compared to the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA). Conclusion: The indigenous heterogeneous phantom can accurately simulate the dosimetric scenario for different algorithms (AXB or AAA) and be also utilized for routine patient-specific QA.
Peak overlap hampers quantification in one-dimensional (1D) ¹H NMR. 2D ¹H -¹³C HSQC spectrum provides resolution superior to 1D ¹H NMR. However, quantifying the components in a complex mixture with HSQC is not straightforward as in 1D ¹H NMR. Quantification using HSQC could open up new avenues for studying metabolism. The variations in ¹H-¹³C scalar couplings, T1, T2, and pulse imperfections contribute to this problem. Although T1 and T2 can be suitably chosen to minimize their deleterious effects, the differential polarization transfer for different resonances owing to large variations in ¹H -¹³C couplings does not allow the cross-peak intensities to be directly correlated to the quantity of metabolites. Existing approaches are time-consuming. We show that spatial encoding of the polarization transfer delays in HSQC using sweep frequency pulses in the presence of a magnetic field gradient allows one to have a transfer of polarization from ¹H to ¹³C insensitive to variations in ¹H -¹³C couplings improving the quantitative aspect of HSQC. Comparisons to other QHSQC and perfected HSQC variants are also provided.
Tomato is one of the most important crops in India. It has a high commercial value and is the second most widely produced crop. Diseases are harmful to crop health and have an impact on plant growth, either directly or indirectly. Plant growth must be monitored to ensure the minimum losses in production. There are numerous types of tomato diseases that deteriorate the quality of the tomatoes. As a result, the early crop treatment is crucial before it affects the entire crop. This paper presents a pre-trained convolutional neural network (CNN) based method for identifying and classifying the leaf diseases in tomato crops using transfer learning. The experiments are carried out on the Plant Village dataset, which includes ten tomato classes: Tomato Bacterial Spot, Early Blight, Late Blight, Leaf Mold, Septoria Leaf Spot, Spider Mites, Target Spot, Mosaic Virus, Yellow Leaf Curl Virus, and Healthy. Various pre-trained CNN models are fine-tuned with transfer learning approach. The tested pre-trained CNN models include DenseNet169, InceptionResNetV2, InceptionV3, VGG-16, VGG-19, DenseNet201, MobileNet, MobileNetV2, and Xception. According to the results, MobileNet outperformed all other models with overall classification accuracy of 96%.
The high temperature of the solar photovoltaic module reduced the power output and efficiency of the solar panel. Water cooling is one of the best options for reducing the temperature of solar panels. In this research paper, an experimental setup of solar panel with water cooling arrangements has been developed and optimized. The measured experimental data and data generated by model equations have been optimized by the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) tool in the Design of Experiment. The optimized responses are the efficiency of solar panels, module temperature (MT) of solar panel, and exergetic efficiency. The main input parameters solar flux, water inlet velocity, and atmospheric temperature varied from 600 W/m ² to 1000 W/m ² , 0.5 to 0.9 m/s, and 25°C to 45°C, respectively. The best set of input parameters after optimization in RSM is 705 W/m ² solar flux, 0.7263 m/s water inlet velocity, and 32.87°C atmospheric temperature on which the values of responses MT, exergetic efficiency and solar panel efficiency are 48.98 °C, 19.18 %, and 18.88 % respectively. The experimental setup of solar panel cooling has been run on these input parameters setting and responses are validated with the predicted value of the RSM and the previous research. The calculated percentage error in MT is 2.41%, solar panel efficiency is 1.62%, and exergetic efficiency is 3.82%.
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