Pakistan is vulnerable and most affected by adverse impacts of climate change. The study examines the impact of climate change on Pakistan during the year 2022, resulting into unprecedented heatwave and drought in summers followed by the abnormal rains and floods during monsoon season. Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan’s economy, which has been devastated by both drought and floods. While the flood water is gradually receding, the stagnant contaminated water is causing several health risks for the inhabitants. This research argues that water security is the emerging national security challenge for Pakistan. The article investigates the status of water availability vis-a-vis the burgeoning population, agriculture, and other uses of water. Impact of abnormal melting of glaciers, nonavailability of dams for storage of rainwater, and lack of smart means for agriculture water have been examined to empirically validate the arguments.
Intensive mothering ideology, which requires mothers’ full dedication to their children, is the dominant mothering culture worldwide. Under this ideology, mothers are responsible for children’s education, and seek educational information for the betterment of their children’s future. Previous studies found that exposure to this educational information is associated with mothers’ social comparison, competition, and consumption. This paper thus considered comparison, competition, and consumption as the 3Cs of contemporary motherhood, and explored these factors in a neoliberal educational context. Specifically, this paper examined how mothers’ educational information acquisition leads to the 3Cs of contemporary motherhood regarding children’s academic performance. Two-wave data were collected from mothers of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders in the United States and Singapore. While the Asian educational environment is more competitive, US mothering culture also emphasizes mothers’ commitment to education, and this paper tested whether the model is invariant across the two groups. Findings from multigroup modeling analyses revealed similar models for both groups. Mothers’ exposure to educational information positively predicted social comparison. However, comparison of abilities was positively associated with competition, and comparison of opinions was negatively associated with competition, consistent with social comparison theory. Competition then positively predicted consumption intention. These results demonstrate quantitatively how responsibilization of mothers regarding children’s education under intensive mothering ideology influences mothers’ consumption intentions around education investment. The invariance of the model across the two groups suggests that motherhood competition, despite cultural differences, operates similarly in both countries.
Faced with the ongoing diversification and commercial success of highly immersive media technologies (e.g., VR headsets), both content producers and scientific scholars have become highly invested in understanding the psychological consequences of experiencing media in these new and lifelike ways. While many studies underscore positive effects of high media immersivity—such as increased enjoyment or persuasive success—others warn about the intense cognitive load that technologies such as VR might put on their users. In a laboratory experiment with N = 121 participants, we compare the cognitive load experienced while watching a 360° video on a laptop screen or via an immersive VR head-mounted display. Furthermore, we scrutinize two prominent explanations for the additional cognitive load in immersive media settings, i.e., the role of spatial presence and cybersickness. As expected, the VR condition results in higher cognitive load, spatial presence, and cybersickness than the 2D condition. However, by means of a parallel mediation model, we observe that only cybersickness emerges as a meaningful mediator of participants' strained cognitive capacity; spatial presence, on the other hand, remains statistically irrelevant in this regard. We discuss our findings considering implications for media producers and future research.
This study explored the effect of chatbot emotional disclosure on user satisfaction and reuse intention for a chatbot counseling service. It also examined the independent and sequential mediation roles of user emotional disclosure intention and perceived intimacy with a chatbot on the relationship between chatbot emotional disclosure, user satisfaction, and reuse intention for chatbot counseling. In total, 348 American adults were recruited to participate in a mental health counseling session with either of the two types of artificial intelligence-powered mental health counseling chatbots. These included a chatbot disclosing factual information only or a chatbot disclosing humanlike emotions. The results revealed that chatbot emotional disclosure significantly increased user satisfaction and reuse intention for a chatbot counseling service. The results further revealed that user emotional disclosure intention and perceived intimacy with a chatbot independently and serially mediates the effect of chatbot emotional disclosure on user satisfaction and chatbot counseling service reuse intention. The results indicate positive effects of artificial emotions and their disclosure in the context of chatbot moderated mental health counseling. Practical implications and psychological mechanisms are discussed.
Background Large efforts have been made to erase the stigma of mental illness, but it is unclear whether they have succeeded on a population level. We examine how attitudes toward people with depression or schizophrenia have evolved in Germany since 1990, and whether there are different developments for both disorders. Methods Using data from the three decades, four wave repeated cross-sectional representative population study in the “old” (western) states in Germany with surveys in 1990 ( n = 2,044), 2001 ( n = 4,005), 2011 ( n = 1,984), and 2020 ( n = 2,449), we calculate time-trends for social distance and emotional reactions toward someone with major depression or acute schizophrenia. Results Social distance worsened in six out of seven situations for schizophrenia, whereas improving in two out of seven situations for depression. Emotions related to fear and uneasiness increased for schizophrenia, whereas tending to decrease for depression. Pro-social reactions like the desire to help increased for depression, but decreased for schizophrenia. Initially observed differences, favoring depression over schizophrenia, widened over the 30-year study period. For schizophrenia, the biggest negative changes occurred between 1990 and 2001, whereas some improvements with regard to depression occurred more recently. Conclusion Contrary to expectations, stigma has become more severe regarding acute schizophrenia in Germany over the last 30 years, whereas only slightly improving for depression. The apparent normalization of mental health problems seems not to directly translate into improving attitudes toward people with severe mental illness. Re-focusing of anti-stigma efforts on people with severe mental illness seems necessary.
The imminent threat to food security requires immediate intervention toward ensuring societal sustainability especially in combating the pandemic. The rapid spread of COVID-19 cases has caused concern for food security. A recent outlook report produced by Food Agricultural Organization and World Food Programme (FAO-WTP) highlights that there are at least 20 countries that are faced with a looming threat of food availability between the period of March-July 2021. Other factors that pose a significant threat to food security include climate change and natural disasters which could significantly reduce the yield. It is hence imperative to gain an in-depth understanding of factors that influence farmers' choices in innovation adoption for increased yield. A line of research has been conducted across the globe on new technology adoption and effect of innovation that aims to increase productivity and yield. This study examined the key factors, that lead farmers to the adoption of new technology and innovation, reported in studies over the past 15 years. PRISMA-P (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols) was employed based on the SCOPUS and Web of Science database. In creating the main dataset, a protocol was developed in advance to document the analysis method. Several inclusion (eligibility) and exclusion criteria were set to select related articles from a total of 2,136 papers. The thematic and content analyses were subsequently performed on 392 research articles. The findings indicate 4 over-arching segments, and 12 major determinants, that comprise 62 associate determinants. The paper concludes with the identification of critical factors for innovation adoption amongst farmers.
The deprivation of offline communication necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic raises questions about whether and how external social resources and internal ability lead individuals to maintain their well-being. However, most research on the two factors, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, has been based on cross-sectional survey data during the early lockdowns and focused on each factor separately. Combining the two lines of research, this study investigates how individuals' communication networks and resilience interacted with each other and influenced individual well-being at two time points during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the two-wave online panel survey data gathered from 708 Korean adults, this study suggests that individual well-being depends on strong ties and emotional support, and that their offline support influences their well-being differently depending on their level of resilience. Implications for understanding the transformed roles of communication networks and the complex dynamics of offline support together with individual resilience on individual well-being are discussed.
We examine the effect of studying business on the beliefs and values of students and study the role of economics in influencing this effect. We observe significant differences between business students and students from other disciplines, among which economics, at the start of their first year. We also discover that some of these differences persist or are reinforced at the end of the year. Furthermore, we find changes in beliefs and values of business students that take only one year to manifest. Above all, while we observe that some values and beliefs of business students change over time, we observe no such changes for economics students. This suggests that the effect of studying business is not entirely driven by exposure to economics in business studies.
Background Considering the vaccine hesitancy recorded among healthcare workers (HCW) during the 2009/10 influenza pandemic, we aimed to examine the COVID-19 vaccination intent of HCW at one of the largest hospitals in Germany and to identify associated factors. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional anonymous survey at LMU University Hospital in Munich, Germany, between February 25 and March 20, 2021. Data was collected on COVID-19 vaccination intent as main outcome and on potential associated factors. Results In total, 2555 HCW completed the survey; 48,3% (n = 1325) of them had already received at least one COVID-19 vaccine dose. Of those not yet vaccinated 51,7% (n = 1320), 83,6% (n = 1104) reported intention to get vaccinated, while 10,2% (n = 134) were undecided and further 6,2% (n = 82) reported refusal. Disagreeing that everyone should receive the generally recommended vaccines was associated with refusal (RR = 529,500, p = 0,000) while being vaccinated against influenza in the 2020/21 season was linked with lower likelihood of refusal or indecisiveness (RR = 0,124, p = 0,000; RR = 0,182, p = 0,000). Low or partial conviction of the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines were linked to refusal (effectiveness; RR = 485,471, p = 0,000; RR = 9,247, p = 0,000; safety: RR = 116,829, p = 0,000; RR = 5,423, p = 0,025). Feeling ill informed about COVID-19 vaccines was associated with refusal and indecisiveness (RR = 25,900, p = 0,000; RR = 21,104, p = 0,000). Conclusions At the beginning of the vaccination campaign in Germany, a small proportion of HCW at LMU University hospital was hesitant on receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. Factors associated with refusal or indecisiveness were a sceptical attitude towards vaccines in general as well as feeling ill informed about COVID-19 vaccines, especially regarding their effectiveness and safety. Having received an influenza vaccine was associated with COVID-19 vaccination intent. Key messages • The presented results provide insight into the reasons for hesitancy of HCW against COVID-19 vaccines, indicating a pattern-like behaviour in the acceptance of novel vaccines by HCW. • The evidence from our analysis can help inform the communication aims and emphases of vaccination campaigns among HCW within similar organizational contexts or in future outbreak scenarios.
Bees play a vital role as pollinators worldwide and have influenced how flower colour signals have evolved. The Western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Apini), and the Buff-tailed bumble bee, Bombus terrestris (Bombini) are well-studied model species with regard to their sensory physiology and pollination capacity, although currently far less is known about stingless bees (Meliponini) that are common in pantropical regions. We conducted comparative experiments with two highly eusocial bee species, the Western honey bee, A. mellifera, and the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, to understand their colour preferences considering fine-scaled stimuli specifically designed for testing bee colour vision. We employed stimuli made of pigment powders to allow manipulation of single colour parameters including spectral purity (saturation) or colour intensity (brightness) of a blue colour (hue) for which both species have previously shown innate preferences. Both A. mel-lifera and T. carbonaria demonstrated a significant preference for spectrally purer colour stimuli, although this preference is more pronounced in honey bees than in stingless bees. When all other colour cues were tightly controlled, honey bees receiving absolute conditioning demonstrated a capacity to learn a high-intensity stimulus significant from chance expectation demonstrating some capacity of plasticity for this dimension of colour perception. However, honey bees failed to learn low-intensity stimuli, and T. carbonaria was insensitive to stimulus intensity as a cue. These comparative findings suggest that there may be some common roots underpinning colour perception in bee pollinators and how they interact with flowers, although species-specific differences do exist.
Pre-sentence reports (PSRs) provide important information about an individual’s background and circumstances to assist judicial officers in the sentencing process. The present study analyzed PSRs for 63 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people sentenced by either an Indigenous sentencing court or a mainstream court in the Australian State of Victoria. Using natural language processing techniques, our analyses revealed few differences between PSRs conducted for each court. However, PSRs were found to predominantly feature key words that are risk-based, with mainstream court PSRs more negatively worded than the Indigenous sentencing court’s PSRs. This may have been due to the inclusion of results from a risk and need assessment tool. Pro-social factors did comprise more than one third of extracted keywords, although the number of strength-based culture-related keywords, in particular, was low across PSRs in both courts. It is possible that courts may not be receiving all the information needed to promote individualized justice.
City image reflects a city’s comprehensive competitiveness and is also an important indicator of a city’s spiritual civilization and urbanization process. A good city image is an intangible asset of a city, which can contribute to the political, economic, cultural, and social construction of a city and create more value for the city. This paper mainly discusses the research status and research methods of urban image at home and abroad. Based on the calculation method of wedge diffraction in geometrical optics, various heuristic uniform diffraction formulas of lossy wedge are compared and analyzed, and a better heuristic formula of uniform diffraction of lossy wedge is given. Finally, the selection of important channel parameters in the propagation channel is discussed, and a method for predicting the statistical parameters of the propagation channel of urban images based on the results of ray tracing is proposed. Then, the channel parameters are analyzed by using statistical parameters, and the channel parameters of the city image propagation model are analyzed.
An effective reputation evaluation mechanism is an essential guarantee for the crowdsourcing mode's healthy, orderly, and rapid development. Aiming at the problems of unsound reputation evaluation mechanism, single reputation evaluation index, and poor discrimination ability of crowdsourcing platforms a “dimension reduction feature subset” method for selecting the best reputation evaluation index combination of crowdsourcing participants is proposed. This method first selects the best dimensionality reduction method by empirical method, then uses the classifier as the evaluation function of feature selection, and uses the sequential backward selection strategy (SBS) to select the feature subset and reputation evaluation algorithm with the best classification performance. The experimental results show that the reputation evaluation method of crowdsourcing participants based on ReliefF-SVM has the best performance in terms of accuracy, F1 measure, and stability and can select a comprehensive, objective, and effective evaluation index combination to distinguish the reputation status of crowdsourcing participants.
News propagation originates from a person/location, dwelling with an event that grabs significance. News data propagation relies on telecommunication and big data for precise content distribution and mitigation of false news. Considering these factors, the event-dependent data propagation technique (EDPT) was introduced to improve the data precision. These data refer to the news information originating and propagating from digital media. The data analysis considers the external factors for fake information and precise projection medium for preventing multiviewed false circulations. In this technique, the liability of the information is analyzed using a linear pattern support vector classifier. The data modification and propagation changes are classified based on liability information across the circulation time. The SVM classifier identifies these two factors with close liability validation, preventing false data. The data accumulation and analysis rates for the abovementioned classifications are performed in the propagation process using the classifier hyperplane. This plane is updated from the previous propagation point from which the events are identified. The proposed technique’s performance is analyzed using propagation accuracy, precision, false rate, time, and rate.
Sports competition is one of the most popular programs for many audiences. Tracking the players in sports game videos from broadcasts is a nontrivial challenge for computer vision researchers. In sports videos, the direction of an athlete’s movement changes quickly and unpredictably. Mutual occlusion between athletes is also more frequent in team competitions. However, the rich temporal contexts among the adjacent frames have been excluded from consideration. To address this dilemma, we propose an online transformer-based learnable framework in an end-to-end fashion. We use a transformer architecture to extract the temporal contexts between the successive frames and add them to the network training, which is robust to occlusion and complex direction changes in multiplayer tracking. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on three sports video datasets by comparing them with recently advanced multiplayer trackers.
Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSN) plays a central role in modern artificial intelligence-based systems, as they corresponds to the part that senses data and equal human senses in their work. The parts responsible for converting the environmental signal into a digital signal are the sensors. The higher the quality of the sensors, the greater the readability. Because of this fame, the wireless sensor network has become a research field for a lot of research that has worked to develop both the work and performance of wireless sensor networks through the use of artificial intelligence algorithms. This research paper discusses the effect of using beehive algorithms, which is one of the swarm intelligence algorithms within natural computing. This paper discusses the process of creating a three-dimensional simulation model to simulate the MWSN system based on BCO, as well as a simulation model for the network itself. The simulation was tested for the new system and the communication performance of MWSN was improved by adding AI to the working principle of each component of the system. The simulation results were compared with similar protocols to show the extent of the impact of the BCO algorithm on the overall performance of the network. It was found that the use of the BCO algorithm gives MWSN more efficiency in many ways, depending on the indicators of the efficiency of wireless networks. The model was named IAANET for short, which means Intelligent Aerial Ad-hoc Network because the aerial components within MWSN is the optimization target.
This article re-evaluates some of the previous assumptions made related to the communication practices and information management in Ukraine since before the Euromaidan revolution in 2013. We highlight two points where previous knowledge about nation branding and nation building must be rethought in light of the latest developments Firstly, nation branding is no longer exclusively an activity that is directed to an audience of foreign investors and tourists, but also toward the international field of politics. Simultaneously, it is also clearly directed toward a domestic audience—the citizens of Ukraine. Secondly, this means that there may no longer be any sharp distinction between nation building and nation branding—at least not in times of an ongoing armed conflict.
The phenomenon of fake news is becomes a negative environment in the sharing of facts or vice versa. The development of communication platforms, namely social media, has become a medium for fake news creators or fake news presenters to be active in this activity. Society is usually exposed to the spread of fake news in the use of social media whether it is related to the country or abroad. Audiences such as students are not immune to the effects of the spread of fake news. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the knowledge and perception of students related to the spread of fake news in N.E.W.S.E.E.D, and also explore the effects of the spread of fake news in N.E.W.S.E.E.D to students. This study uses a qualitative method through in-depth interviews using a structured interview protocol. A total of eight informants were identified through purposive sampling from various program’ backgrounds. Responses were recorded electronically and transcribed back by the researcher. The data was analyzed using thematic analysis through NVIVO software. From the transcription analysis of the research data, it shows the perception of students towards the spread of fake news at N.E.W.S.E.E.D shows a negative and unfavorable view towards the spread of fake news. Next, for the effect of the spread of fake news at N.E.W.S.E.E.D, it is a change in students' thinking patterns. The change in thinking patterns is aimed at easily believing and being influenced by fake news. The results of the study show that fake news has a bad effect on the students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM).
Advertising creativity is the product of creative activities in modern advertising operations, and it is an extremely effective and creative way of communicating advertising information. A film and television advertisement without novelty and creativity, no matter how much funds are invested, only consumes financial resources and even causes the audience to be bored. At present, there are some problems in the creativity of film and television advertisements, such as random combination, lack of core ideas and soul, and high cost of good creativity. With the rapid development of communication technology, traditional media interaction methods can no longer meet people’s needs, and digital media interaction technology has emerged. This technology greatly enhances the dissemination and interaction of the media and has been widely used in the creation of film and television advertisements. Therefore, this paper uses digital media interaction technology to improve the creative effect of film and television advertising so as to promote consumers to make decisions, complete the purchase behavior, and shorten the entire link from advertising notification to action conversion. This article aims to find the possibility for the application of digital media interaction technology in the creation of film and television advertisements and to promote the creation of film and television advertisements to develop in a new direction. Experiments show that under the background of digital media interaction technology, users’ favorite degree of film and television advertisements has increased by 9%, reaching 90%. This further shows that after a series of digital media interactions, film and television advertisements can often capture the hearts of the audience more accurately, and then provide users with just-right services.
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