People whose family member(s) friend(s) have died from COVID-19 or other causes have been deeply affected by the physical and social restrictions imposed during the pandemic. These limitations have affected end-of-life care and support for the bereaved. The purpose of this review is to identify: the published studies of evaluated programs about interventions for people who have experienced bereavement during the COVID-19 pandemic, and to develop recommendations for researchers and policy makers. Using scoping review methodology, a literature review was undertaken for articles published from January 1, 2020 through February 28, 2023 to identify interventions shown to be beneficial to people who have experienced the death of loved ones during the COVID-19 pandemic. The search yielded 1588 articles of which three studies met the criteria of utilizing a pre and post-test design with only one of these, a randomized controlled trial. The interventions included in this review demonstrate preliminary efficacy.
Background Cultural sensitivity (CS) training is vital to pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) curricula. This study aimed to explore CS in Yale PEM fellows and emergency medicine (EM) residents at Indus Hospital and Health Network (IHHN) in Pakistan through distance simulation activities. Methods This mixed‐methods analysis of an educational intervention was conducted at Yale University in collaboration with IHHN. We approached seven U.S. PEM fellows and 22 Pakistani EM residents. We performed a baseline CS assessment using the Clinical Cultural Competency Questionnaire (CCCQ). Afterward, the U.S. PEM fellows facilitated the Pakistani EM residents through six distance simulation sessions. Qualitative data were collected through online focus groups. The CCCQ was analyzed using descriptive statistics, and content analysis was used to analyze the data from the focus groups. Results Seven U.S. PEM fellows and 18 of 22 Pakistani EM residents responded to the CCCQ at the beginning of the module. The mean (±SD) CCCQ domain scores for the U.S. PEM fellows versus the Pakistani EM residents were 2.56 (±0.37) versus 2.87 (±0.72) for knowledge, 3.02 (±0.41) versus 3.33 (±0.71) for skill, 2.86 (±0.32) versus 3.17 (±0.73) for encounter/situation, and 3.80 (±0.30) versus 3.47 (±0.47) for attitude (each out of 5 points). Our qualitative data analysis showed that intercultural interactions were valuable. There is a common language of medicine among the U.S. PEM fellows and Pakistani EM residents. The data also highlighted a power distance between the facilitators and learners, as the United States was seen as the standard of “how to practice PEM.” The challenges identified were time differences, cultural practices such as prayer times, the internet, and technology. The use of local language during debriefing was perceived to enhance engagement. Conclusion The distance simulation involving U.S. PEM fellows and Pakistani EM residents was an effective approach in assessing various aspects of intercultural education, such as language barriers, technical challenges, and religious considerations.
Background Distance simulation is defined as simulation experiences in which participants and/or facilitators are separated from each other by geographic distance and/or time. The use of distance simulation as an education technique expanded rapidly with the recent COVID-19 pandemic, with a concomitant increase in scholarly work. Methods A scoping review was performed to review and characterize the distance simulation literature. With the assistance of an informationist, the literature was systematically searched. Each abstract was reviewed by two researchers and disagreements were addressed by consensus. Risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias 2 (RoB 2) and Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies of Interventions (ROBINS-I) tools. Results Six thousand nine hundred sixty-nine abstracts were screened, ultimately leading to 124 papers in the final dataset for extraction. A variety of simulation modalities, contexts, and distance simulation technologies were identified, with activities covering a range of content areas. Only 72 papers presented outcomes and sufficient detail to be analyzed for risk of bias. Most studies had moderate to high risk of bias, most commonly related to confounding factors, intervention classification, or measurement of outcomes. Conclusions Most of the papers reviewed during the more than 20-year time period captured in this study presented early work or low-level outcomes. More standardization around reporting is needed to facilitate a clear and shared understanding of future distance simulation research. As the broader simulation community gains more experience with distance simulation, more studies are needed to inform when and how it should be used.
The pharmaceutical industry promotes prescribing through the cultivation of key opinion leaders. Advanced practice nurses (APNs) are a growing and influential group of prescribers across generalist and specialty practice. Public reporting of industry payments to APNs allows for exploration of their influence within practice settings. To understand the characteristics of APNs with top industry payments including their positions of influence and other payment recipients at the same address. Cross-sectional study of US national Open Payments reports of industry payments made between January 1, 2021, and December 31, 2021. APNs who received > $50,000 USD in industry payments for speaking, consulting, and honoraria (“personal fees”). Description of top APN recipients’ practice setting type, clinical specialty, presence of other payment recipients, value of payments attributed to the same address, and top manufacturers and therapeutic categories associated with payments to top APN recipients. Structured content analysis of public-facing websites for evidence of APNs’ clinical, research, and teaching leadership. A total of 99 APNs received > $50,000 USD in aggregate personal fees and a median $74,080 USD (IQR $57,303–101,702) in aggregate payments. They shared a practice setting with a median of 1 (IQR 0–5) physician and 0 (IQR 0–3) other APN payment recipients and were often the only (39%, 42/109) or the dominant (45%, 30/67) payment recipient in their practice setting. In total, 36% held clinical leadership positions, 25% led scientific research, and 18% had university appointments. Forty-two percent (37/88) owned a clinical practice, including cosmetic clinics (51%, 19/37) and mental/behavioral health clinics (24%, 9/37). Top APN payment recipients attracted high-value payments in practice settings and specialities associated with high-cost drug development; however, there may be little oversight of APNs’ industry relationships. Policy development related to industry relationships must be inclusive of and responsive to the activities of interprofessional providers.
We evaluated the use of text-to-image models (Microsoft’s Bing Image creator (powered by DALL·E) and Shutterstock’s AI image generator) to generate realistic images of human faces and their associated pathology, which may be useful for medical education, given they may overcome issues of patient privacy and requirement for consent. These models have potential to augment rare medical image datasets for medical education, as well as provide greater inclusivity and representation of diverse populations.
Purpose Behavioral intervention targeting speech, language, and communication concerns is an established therapeutic approach for patients with communication concerns across a range of acquired neurogenic disorders. The multidimensional factors that contribute to a person's self-identified communication challenges and strengths in their daily communication needs must be considered to provide functional and person-centered care. While assessments grounded in clinician observation or client self-report exist, there is a direct need for a screening tool that comprehensively evaluates the roles of modality (verbal, text, gesture) and environment (in-person, virtual) on self-reported success across communicative demands. In this study, we describe a preliminary approach to monitoring the progression of receptive and expressive communication skills in people with chronic poststroke aphasia in the context of communication practices of the 21st century, culminating in the development and exploratory implementation of a novel clinical instrument: the Communication Success Screener (COMSS). Method Thirty-three participants with aphasia due to stroke were recruited to complete and evaluate the COMSS via an online survey. Quantitative responses and open-ended participant feedback were collected to validate and propose adaptations to the COMSS. Group-level analyses and case presentations were used to highlight COMSS features and outcomes. Results Participant responses to the COMSS questionnaire suggest that this screening tool creates differentiated communicative success profiles based on self-report. Participant feedback also indicated that the COMSS appropriately evaluates self-reported success across modalities of verbal, text, and gesture in the context of in-person and virtual environments. Conclusions The communication concerns experienced by people with aphasia are often heterogeneous and vary as a function of their daily activities of living, preferred language modalities, and environmental supports. We present preliminary feasibility analyses of the COMSS as a potential tool to support the monitoring of functional change by evaluating self-reported communicative success across form, modality, environment, and task demand. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.24521044
Maâmora is a cork oak forest in Morocco known for its production of sweet acorns. Genetic diversity and relationships were evaluated in 240 individuals from five Cantons. The nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) primers used in this study generated 368 polymorphic fragments and showed 100% polymorphism. A moderate level of genetic diversity (I = 0.28, He = 0.173) was observed. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the highest level of diversity occurred within the populations (75%). A genetic structure was obtained using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) analyses. 39 alleles were generated with a mean of 557 alleles per locus using seven simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers to establish DNA-fingerprinting for genotyping of 47 “Plus’’ tree systematically characterized. The analysis of diversity revealed significant polymorphism (94%) and allelic richness with high observed heterozygosity, which was confirmed by the negative value of Fis (− 0319). Nm is equal to 10.23, and Gst and Fst are equal to 0.022 and 0.052, respectively, revealing low inter-population variability. Genetic typing of the entire collection of “Plus” trees has identify 47 different genotypes. Eight unique alleles and 16 genotypes with specific markers were identified in this study. These results could be used to select the genotypes of interest for the multiplication of seedlings for reforestation and breeding programs.
A sense of belonging in school is fostered when students feel included. School nurses can establish an inclusive school atmosphere where students feel safe, supported, accepted, and valued. The language choices of school nurses play a key role in fostering such an environment. Through consciously using language that promotes respect, acceptance, justice, and equity, nurses can support student well-being. Nurses may be using embedded terminologies and outdated language that promotes exclusion but can learn and model inclusive language practices such as cultural humility, calling in, and respecting pronouns. Making intentional choices to embrace and employ these practices is imperative to supporting student health today.
Purpose of Study The postacute landscape has been challenged since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic by staffing shortages and a decline in postacute bed availability. As a result, patients in acute care hospitals are experiencing longer lengths of stay (LOS) and case managers (CMs) are managing increasingly complex discharge plans. This project involved the design and implementation of a modified Early Screen for Discharge Planning (ESDP) tool to support prioritizing patients with complex discharge needs, with the primary outcome of decreasing LOS. Primary Practice Setting The project took place in a community teaching hospital, part of a large academic health system in the Northeast, United States. Methodology and Participants The project was designed as a prospective controlled study (between September 1 and November 30, 2021) with defined intervention and control cohorts, involving a modified ESDP electronic health record–based score including self-rated walking limitation, age, prior living status, and mobility level of assist. A modified ESDP score of 10 and greater indicated that patients would benefit from ongoing CM support, whereas those with an ESDP score of less than 10 were unlikely to have discharge planning needs. Participants were adult patients on medical and surgical inpatient units. Results The project included 718 patients, 376 and 342 in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. The modified ESDP performed comparably with the standard ESDP (14% discrepancy, with all patients appropriately identified for CM services). Implementation of the modified ESDP led to 53.5% of patients screening out of CM services, thereby increasing the time CMs were able to spend on complex discharge planning and was associated with a trend in LOS reduction (0.55 days). Implications for Case Management Practice The findings of this project demonstrate that implementation of a modified ESDP can improve CM efficiency and improve hospital throughput. Given the unprecedented capacity challenges in both the acute and postacute settings, there is a need to implement CM workflow strategies that will optimize the effectiveness of critical resources, while ensuring that patients' complex discharge needs are met.
To emphasize to learners how factors outside individual control impact health, scholars introduced the concept of structural competency. Structural competency refers to the development of analytical skills that reveal the larger societal context beyond the patient-clinician interaction that shapes health outcomes. The growing adoption of structural competency curricula, however, has revealed that prelicensure and early career health professionals can feel overwhelmed by the mismatch between the wide scale of entrenched problems and the limited scope of their therapeutic skills. In this Reflections paper, I draw on theories from Giddens, Bourdieu, and Foucault to restore a role for individual agency in promoting health. Conceiving of structure and agency as mutually constituting suggests that structures are human-made and can be vulnerable to challenge. Structures, however, disperse power to such an extent that people internalize their rules and discipline themselves to follow them without explicit enforcement. It is precisely in those local sites of power that health professions learners and educators can intervene to interrupt the reproduction of structures harmful to health. As I demonstrate with an example from a reproductive health emergency, being structurally competent may also include contesting agreed upon norms at the level of the learning and clinical environments rather than only macro-level societal forces. Rewriting norms within health professions education and clinical practice is not necessarily a simpler task, but it provides learners and educators with more accessible targets for action.
Background Neck pain is the fourth leading cause of years lost to disability in children warranting a comprehensive assessment of neck pain and its impact on activities and participation. Hence, the purpose of this study was to develop a new measure (i.e., Activities and Participation Children and Adolescents -neck [APCAN]) specific to evaluating activity limitation and participation restrictions in children and adolescents and to establish its content validity. Methods Development and content validation of the APCAN was completed in four steps: (1) item development, (2) item evaluation by content experts, (3) content validity calculation, and (4) cognitive testing via interviews to ensure readability and comprehension of the items on the APCAN. Results An initial pool of 52 items was created that was revised to 20 items after modified Delphi process and cognitive interviews. Each item was rated on a 0–10 numeric rating scale (0 = not difficult at all, 10 = extremely difficult) with higher scores indicating higher perceived disability secondary to neck pain. All 20 items retained the content validity ratio critical value and the overall content validity index was 0.88 indicating excellent content validity. Conclusion The APCAN provides an easy to use, comprehensive assessment of functional limitations associated with neck pain in children.
Introduction Academic medical centres (AMCs) have the tripartite mission of performing research to advance healthcare delivery, educating future clinicians and providing healthcare services. This study investigates the criteria associated with being promoted in a Singaporean AMC. Methods Using a dataset of 255 candidates for promotion at the studied AMC, we employ logistic regression to determine if these factors are associated with the likelihood of promotion. Further, we use interaction effects to test if the relationship between the H-index and likelihood of promotion differs across the academic levels of the candidates. Results The logistic regression results based on the best of our three tested models suggest that the H-index is positively associated with promotion for those applying to become clinical associate professors (OR=1.43, p=0.01). Moreover, candidates who provide well-developed education portfolios (OR=3.61, p=0.02) and who have held service/leadership roles (OR=6.72, p<0.001) are more likely to be promoted. Conclusions This study affirms the correlation between promotion and the advancement criteria outlined by the AMC. This is important for transparency and trust between the AMC and its faculty in their applications for promotion and success in an academic career. Further, our study is one of the few empirical studies linking promotion criteria to promotion outcomes.
Provoked by decades of grassroots activism, anti-ableist work is underway to advance disability rights. Intellectual disability (ID) researchers can integrate these social changes into their work by interrogating and transforming the beliefs and practices that underpin ID research. We share actionable ideas to foster anti-ableism and allyship in ID research. These include: (1) Learn from and nurture long-term, mutual relationships with people with ID; (2) Amplify the voices of people with ID in institutional structures that influence research; (3) Infuse anti-ableist frameworks into our own research; and (4) Embody a career-long commitment to disability rights, reflexive practice, and growth.
Purpose The teaching profession is a high–voice use occupation at elevated risk for developing voice disorders. Continued research on teachers' vocal demands is necessary to advocate for and establish vocal health programs. This study quantified ambulatory vocal dose measures for teachers during both on- and off-work periods, comparing their occupational voice use to that in other studies that have reported percent phonation ranging from 17% to 30%. Method Participants included 26 full-time, female school teachers between 23 and 55 years of age across multiple grades and subjects, including individuals with and without a voice disorder. Ambulatory voice data were collected from weeklong voice monitoring that recorded phonatory activity through anterior neck-surface vibration. Three vocal dose measures—time, cycle, and distance doses—were computed for each participant for three time periods: on-work weekdays, off-work weekdays, and off-work weekend days. Results The teachers' average percent phonation was 16.2% on-work weekdays, 8.4% off-work weekdays, and 8.0% off-work weekend days. No statistically significant differences for vocal dose measures were found between off-work weekdays and weekend days. Overall, all vocal dose measures were approximately 2 times higher during work relative to off-work time periods. Conclusions This study provides values for vocal dose measures for school teachers using ambulatory voice-monitoring technology. The vocal demands of this particular teacher sample and voice activity detection algorithm are potential factors contributing to percent phonation values on the lower end of the range reported in the literature. Future work is needed to continue to understand occupational voice use and its associated risks related to voice health, with the ultimate goal of preventing and managing voice disorders in individuals engaged in high-risk occupations.
Importance: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Occupational therapy practitioners ensure maximum participation and performance in valued occupations for stroke survivors and their caregivers. Objective: These Practice Guidelines are meant to support occupational therapy practitioners’ clinical decision making when working with people after stroke and their caregivers. Method: Clinical recommendations were reviewed from three systematic review questions on interventions to improve performance and participation in daily activities and occupations and from one question on maintaining the caregiving role for caregivers of people after stroke. Results: The systematic reviews included 168 studies, 24 Level 1a, 90 Level 1b, and 54 Level 2b. These studies were used as the basis for the clinical recommendations in these Practice Guidelines and have strong or moderate supporting evidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Interventions with strong strength of evidence for improving performance in activities of daily living and functional mobility include mirror therapy, task-oriented training, mental imagery, balance training, self-management strategies, and a multidisciplinary three-stages-of-care rehabilitation program. Constraint-induced therapy has strong strength of evidence for improving performance of instrumental activities of daily living. Moderate strength of evidence supported cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) to address balance self-efficacy, long-term group intervention to improve mobility in the community, and a wearable upper extremity sensory device paired with training games in inpatient rehabilitation to improve social participation. Practitioners should incorporate problem-solving therapy in combination with CBT or with education and a family support organizer program. What This Article Adds: These Practice Guidelines provide a summary of strong and moderate evidence for effective interventions for people with stroke and for their caregivers.
While nonpharmacologic treatments are increasingly endorsed as first-line therapy for low back pain (LBP) in clinical practice guidelines, it is unclear if use of these treatments is increasing or equitable. Examine national trends in chiropractic care and physical rehabilitation (occupational/physical therapy (OT/PT)) use among adults with LBP. Serial cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey, 2002 to 2018. 146,087 adults reporting LBP in prior 3 months. We evaluated the association of survey year with chiropractic care or OT/PT use in prior 12 months. Logistic regression with multilevel linear splines was used to determine if chiropractic care or OT/PT use increased after the introduction of clinical guidelines. We also examined trends in use by age, sex, race, and ethnicity. When trends were similar over time, we present differences by these demographic characteristics as unadjusted ORs using data from all respondents. Between 2002 and 2018, less than one-third of adults with LBP reported use of either chiropractic care or OT/PT. Rates did not change until 2016 when uptake increased with the introduction of clinical guidelines (2016–2018 vs 2002–2015, OR = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.10–1.19). Trends did not differ significantly by sex, race, or ethnicity (p for interactions > 0.05). Racial and ethnic disparities in chiropractic care or OT/PT use were identified and persisted over time. For example, compared to non-Hispanic adults, either chiropractic care or OT/PT use was lower among Hispanic adults (combined OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.65–0.73). By contrast, compared to White adults, Black adults had similar OT/PT use (OR = 0.98; 95% CI: 0.94–1.03) but lower for chiropractic care use (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.47–0.53). Although use of chiropractic care or OT/PT for LBP increased after the introduction of clinical guidelines in 2016, only about a third of US adults with LBP reported using these services between 2016 and 2018 and disparities in use have not improved.
Introduction: Chronic conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, vestibular disorders, chronic pain, arthritis, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and heart disease are leading causes of disability among middle-aged and older adults. While evidence-based treatment can optimize clinical outcomes, few people with chronic conditions engage in the recommended levels of exercise for clinical improvement and successful management of their condition. Rehabilitation technologies that can augment therapeutic care-i.e., exoskeletons, virtual/augmented reality, and remote monitoring-offer the opportunity to bring evidence-based rehabilitation into homes. Successful integration of rehabilitation techniques at home could help recovery and access and foster long term self-management. However, widespread uptake of technology in rehabilitation is still limited, leaving many technologies developed but not adopted. Methods: In this narrative review, clinical need, efficacy, and obstacles and suggestions for implementation are discussed. The use of three technologies is reviewed in the management of the most prevalent chronic diseases that utilize rehabilitation services, including common neurological, musculoskeletal, metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiac conditions. The technologies are (i) exoskeletons, (ii) virtual and augmented reality, and (iii) remote monitoring. Results: Effectiveness evidence backing the use of technology in rehabilitation is growing but remains limited by high heterogeneity, lack of long-term outcomes, and lack of adoption outcomes. Conclusion: While rehabilitation technologies bring opportunities to bridge the gap between clinics and homes, there are many challenges with adoption. Hybrid effectiveness and implementation trials are a possible path to successful technology development and adoption.
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