Lublin University of Technology
Recent publications
New conductive materials for tissue engineering are needed for the development of regenerative strategies for nervous, muscular, and heart tissues. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is used to obtain biocompatible and biodegradable nanofiber scaffolds by electrospinning. MXenes, a large class of biocompatible 2D nanomaterials, can make polymer scaffolds conductive and hydrophilic. However, an understanding of how their physical properties affect potential biomedical applications is still lacking. We immobilized Ti3C2Tx MXene in several layers on the electrospun PCL membranes and used positron annihilation analysis combined with other techniques to elucidate the defect structure and porosity of nanofiber scaffolds. The polymer base was characterized by the presence of nanopores. The MXene surface layers had abundant vacancies at temperatures of 305-355 K, and a voltage resonance at 8 × 104 Hz with the relaxation time of 6.5 × 106 s was found in the 20-355 K temperature interval. The appearance of a long-lived component of the positron lifetime was observed, which was dependent on the annealing temperature. The study of conductivity of the composite scaffolds in a wide temperature range, including its inductive and capacity components, showed the possibility of the use of MXene-coated PCL membranes as conductive biomaterials. The electronic structure of MXene and the defects formed in its layers were correlated with the biological properties of the scaffolds in vitro and in bacterial adhesion tests. Double and triple MXene coatings formed an appropriate environment for cell attachment and proliferation with mild antibacterial effects. A combination of structural, chemical, electrical, and biological properties of the PCL-MXene composite demonstrated its advantage over the existing conductive scaffolds for tissue engineering.
This paper presents a test stand for testing alternating current electrical parameters of Cu–SiO2 multilayer nanocomposite structures obtained by the dual-source non-reactive magnetron sputtering method (resistance, capacitance, phase shift angle, and dielectric loss angle tangent δ). In order to confirm the dielectric nature of the test structure, measurements in the temperature range from room temperature to 373 K were carried out. The alternating current frequencies in which the measurements were made ranged from 4 Hz to 7.92 MHz. To improve the implementation of measurement processes, a program was written to control the impedance meter in the MATLAB environment. Structural studies by SEM were conducted to determine the effect of annealing on multilayer nanocomposite structures. Based on the static analysis of the 4-point method of measurements, the standard uncertainty of type A was determined, and taking into account the manufacturer’s recommendations regarding the technical specification, the measurement uncertainty of type B.
This study evaluates the effect of aging in artificial saliva and thermal shocks on the microhardness of the bulk-fill composite compared to the nanohybrid composite. Two commercial composites, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE) (Z550) and Filtek Bulk-Fill (3M ESPE) (B-F), were tested. The samples were exposed to artificial saliva (AS) for one month (control group). Then, 50% of the samples from each composite were subjected to thermal cycling (temperature range: 5–55 °C, cycle time: 30 s, number of cycles: 10,000) and another 50% were put back into the laboratory incubator for another 25 months of aging in artificial saliva. The samples’ microhardness was measured using the Knoop method after each stage of conditioning (after 1 month, after 10,000 thermocycles, after another 25 months of aging). The two composites in the control group differed considerably in hardness (HK = 89 for Z550, HK = 61 for B-F). After thermocycling, the microhardness decrease was for Z550 approximately 22–24% and for B-F approximately 12–15%. Hardness after 26 months of aging decreased for Z550 (approximately 3–5%) and B-F (15–17%). B-F had a significantly lower initial hardness than Z550, but it showed an approximately 10% lower relative reduction in hardness.
The automotive sector has been experiencing a rapid development in recent times. Modern trends aim at the progress of so-called sustainable, eco-friendly vehicles, in many cases associated with advanced technologies and assistance systems. It is increasingly common to see cars with electric, hybrid, gas or hydrogen propulsion systems. Such approaches can create a transformation of manufacturing processes towards the growth of new types and fields of technologies and systems in the automotive industry. The manuscript discusses the subject of vehicles with various types of power supply, i.e., propulsion system. The investigation was executed with different respondent groups whereby the analysis was performed predominantly by using two merging criteria such as place of residence and gender of respondents. Following the research conducted, we state that given a variety of variables, the majority of the respondents are convinced that, prospectively, electric and hybrid vehicles in all probability will be the prevailing types of vehicles occurring on the roads of the Czech Republic. However, it is also important to analyze the situation of the current access to energy resources for manufacturing of both kinds of vehicles and, above all, their utilization. Thus, the preferences of drivers are key issues, but it is also necessary to take into consideration the production capacity and investment profitability regarding the purchase of vehicles with modern types of propulsion system.
This paper deals with the experimental and numerical analysis of three-point bending phenomenon on beam composite profiles. Flat rectangular test specimens made of carbon–epoxy composite, characterised by symmetric [0/90/0/90]s laminate ply lay-up, were used in this study. Experimental testing was carried out with a COMETECH universal testing machine, using special three-point bending heads. In addition, macroscopic evaluation was performed experimentally using a KEYENCE Digital Microscope with a mobile head recording real-time images. Parallel to the experimental studies, numerical simulations were performed using the finite element method in ABAQUS software. The application of the above-mentioned interdisciplinary research techniques allowed for a thorough analysis of the phenomenon of failure of the composite material subjected to bending. The obtained research results provided a better understanding of the failure mechanism of the composite material.
Components produced by additive manufacturing (AM) via direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) have typical as-fabricated surface defects. As a result, surface properties of AM products should be modified to increase their strength, anti-wear behavior, and at the same time ensure their high corrosion resistance. Surface modification via shot peening (SP) is considered suitable for AM of engineering devices made of 17-4PH (X5CrNiCuNb16-4) stainless steel. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of three types of peening media (CrNi steel shot, glass, and ceramic beads) on the corrosion resistance of specimens of DMLS 17-4PH stainless steel. Results demonstrated that SP caused steel microstructure refinement and induced both martensite (α) formation and retained austenite (γ) reduction. 17-4PH specimens peened showed the increase in surface hardness of 255, 281, and 260 HV0.2 for ceramic, glass, and steel, respectively. DMLS 17-4PH specimens modified by SP exhibited different surface morphology, hardness, and microstructure and thus, these properties affect corrosion performance. The results implied that steel shot peened with steel shot showed the highest resistance to corrosion processes (Icorr = 0.019 μA/cm2), slightly worse with glass (Icorr = 0.227 μA/cm2) and ceramics (Icorr = 0.660 μA/cm2) peened. In the case of ceramic and glass beads, it was possible to confirm the presence of the above-mentioned particles in the surface layer after SP.
In the present article, a finite domain is considered to find the numerical solution of a two‐dimensional nonlinear fractional‐order partial differential equation (FPDE) with Riesz space fractional derivative (RSFD). Here two types of FPDE–RSFD are considered, the first one is a two‐dimensional nonlinear Riesz space‐fractional reaction–diffusion equation (RSFRDE) and the second one is a two‐dimensional nonlinear Riesz space‐fractional reaction‐advection‐diffusion equation (RSFRADE). SFRDE is obtained by simply replacing second‐order derivative term of the standard nonlinear diffusion equation by the Riesz fractional derivative of order (β+1)∈(1,2)${(\beta +1)}\in (1,2)$ whereas the SFRADE is obtained by replacing the first‐order and second‐order space derivatives from the standard order advection–dispersion equation with the Riesz fractional derivatives of order β∈(0,1)$\beta \in (0,1)$. A numerical method is provided to deal with the RSFD with the weighted and shifted Grünwald–Letnikov (WSGD) approximations, for the spatial discretization. The SFRDE and SFRADE are transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which have been solved using a fast compact implicit integration factor (FcIIF) with nonuniform time meshes. Finally, the demonstration of the validation and effectiveness of the numerical method is given by considering some existing models.
Stellites are a group of Co-Cr-C-W/Mo-containing alloys showing outstanding behavior under cavitation erosion (CE) operational conditions. The process of ion implantation can improve the CE resistance of metal alloys. This work presents the elaborated original phenomenological model of CE of nitrogen ion implanted HIP-consolidated (Hot Isostatically Pressed) cobalt alloy grade Stellite 6. The ultrasonic vibratory test rig was used for CE testing. The nitrogen ion implantation with 120 keV and fluence of 5 × 1016 N+/cm−2 improves HIPed Stellite 6 cavitation erosion resistance two times. Ion-implanted HIPed Stellite 6 has more than ten times higher CE resistance than the reference AISI 304 stainless steel sample. Comparative analysis of AFM, SEM and XRD results done at different test intervals reveals the kinetic of CE process. The model includes the surface roughness development and clarifies the meaning of cobalt-based matrix phase transformations under the nitrogen ion implantation and cavitation loads. Ion implantation modifies the cavitation erosion mechanisms of HIPed Stellite 6. The CE of unimplanted alloy starts on material loss initiated at the carbides/matrix interfaces. Deterioration starts with cobalt matrix plastic deformation, weakening the carbides restraint in the metallic matrix. Then, the cobalt-based matrix and further hard carbides are removed. Finally, a deformed cobalt matrix undergoes cracking, accelerating material removal and formation of pits and craters’ growth. The nitrogen ion implantation facilitates ɛ (hcp—hexagonal close-packed)) → γ (fcc—face-centered cubic) phase transformation, which further is reversed due to cavitation loads, i.e., CE induces the γ → ɛ martensitic phase transformation of the cobalt-based matrix. This phenomenon successfully limits carbide removal by consuming the cavitation loads for martensitic transformation at the initial stages of erosion. The CE incubation stage for ion implanted HIPed Stellite 6 lasts longer than for unimplanted due to the higher initial content of γ phase. Moreover, this phase slows the erosion rate by restraining carbides in cobalt-based matrix, facilitating strain-induced martensitic transformation and preventing the surface from severe material loss.
The travelling salesman problem (TSP) is one of combinatorial optimization problems of huge importance to practical applications. However, the TSP in its “pure” form may lack some essential issues for a decision maker—e.g., time-dependent travelling conditions. Among those shortcomings, there is also a lack of possibility of not visiting some nodes in the network—e.g., thanks to the existence of some more cost-efficient means of transportation. In this article, an extension of the TSP in which some nodes can be skipped at the cost of penalties for skipping those nodes is presented under a new name and in a new mathematical formulation. Such an extension can be applied as a model for transportation cost reduction due to the possibility of outsourcing deliveries to some nodes in a TSP route. An integer linear programming formulation of such a problem based on the Gavish–Graves-flow-based TSP formulation is introduced. This formulation makes it possible to solve the considered problem by using any integer linear programming optimization software. Numerical examples and opportunities for further research are presented.
Previously published articles on anchors have mainly focused on determining the pullout force of the anchor (depending on the strength parameters of the concrete), the geometric parameters of the anchor head, and the effective anchor depth. The extent (volume) of the so-called failure cone has often addressed as a secondary matter, serving only to approximate the size of the zone of potential failure of the medium in which the anchor is installed. For the authors of these presented research results, from the perspective of evaluating the proposed stripping technology, an important aspect was the determination of the extent and volume of the stripping, as well as the determination of why the defragmentation of the cone of failure favors the removal of the stripping products. Therefore, it is reasonable to conduct research on the proposed topic. Thus far, the authors have shown that the ratio of the radius of the base of the destruction cone to the anchorage depth is significantly larger than in concrete (~1.5) and ranges from 3.9–4.2. The purpose of the presented research was to determine the influence of rock strength parameters on the mechanism of failure cone formation, including, in particular, the potential for defragmentation. The analysis was conducted with the finite element method (FEM) using the ABAQUS program. The scope of the analysis included two categories of rocks, i.e., those with low compressive strength (100 MPa). Due to the limitations of the proposed stripping method, the analysis was conducted for an effective anchoring depth limited to 100 mm. It was shown that for anchorage depths
The niacin skin flush test (NSFT) is a simple method used to assess the content of fatty acids in cell membranes and is a possible indicator of factors hidden behind various outcomes in patients. The purpose of this paper is to determine the potential usefulness of NSFT in mental disorder diagnostics along with the determination of factors that may affect its results. The authors reviewed articles from 1977 onwards, focusing on the history, variety of methodologies, influencing factors, and proposed mechanisms underlying its performance. Research indicated that NSFT could be applicable in early intervention, staging in psychiatry, and the search for new therapeutic methods and drugs based on the mechanisms of NSFT action. The NSFT can contribute to defining an individualized diet for patients and prevent the development of damaging disease effects at an early stage. There is promising evidence for supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have a beneficial influence on the metabolic profile and are effective even in the subclinical phase of the disease. NSFT can contribute to the new classification of diseases and a better understanding of certain mental disorders' pathophysiology. However, there is a need to establish a validated method for assessing the NSFT results.
This paper mainly considers the problem of generalizing a certain class of analytic functions by means of a class of difference operators. We consider some relations between starlike or convex functions and functions belonging to such classes. Some other useful properties of these classes are also considered.
The purpose of the theoretical considerations and research conducted was to indicate the instruments with which the quality of a dataset can be verified for the segmentation of observations occurring in the dataset. The paper proposes a novel way to deal with mixed datasets containing categorical and continuous attributes in a customer segmentation task. The categorical variables were embedded using an innovative unsupervised model based on an autoencoder. The customers were then divided into groups using different clustering algorithms, based on similarity matrices. In addition to the classic k-means method and the more modern DBSCAN, three graph algorithms were used: the Louvain algorithm, the greedy algorithm and the label propagation algorithm. The research was conducted on two datasets: one containing on retail customers and the other containing wholesale customers. The Calinski–Harabasz index, Davies–Bouldins index, NMI index, Fowlkes–Mallows index and silhouette score were used to assess the quality of the clustering. It was noted that the modularity parameter for graph methods was a good indicator of whether a given set could be meaningfully divided into groups.
Human Action Recognition is a challenging task used in many applications. It interacts with many aspects of Computer Vision, Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Image Processing in order to understand human behaviours as well as identify them. It makes a significant contribution to sport analysis, by indicating players’ performance level and training evaluation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate how the content of three-dimensional data influences on classification accuracy of four basic tennis strokes: forehand, backhand, volley forehand, and volley backhand. An entire player’s silhouette and its combination with a tennis racket were taken into consideration as input to the classifier. Three-dimensional data were recorded using the motion capture system (Vicon Oxford, UK). The Plug-in Gait model consisting of 39 retro-reflective markers was used for the player’s body acquisition. A seven-marker model was created for tennis racket capturing. The racket is represented in the form of a rigid body; therefore, all points associated with it changed their coordinates simultaneously. The Attention Temporal Graph Convolutional Network was applied for these sophisticated data. The highest accuracy, up to 93%, was achieved for the data of the whole player’s silhouette together with a tennis racket. The obtained results indicated that for dynamic movements, such as tennis strokes, it is necessary to analyze the position of the whole body of the player as well as the racket position.
In this study, 10–50% of porcelain tile polishing residue (PPR) was used as an additive or as partial replacement of cement in concrete. The cement consumption was kept constant by correcting the amount of sand for each mixture. Concrete workability (slump) was reduced by up to 88.72% when PPR replaced the cement by up to 30%, while it was reduced by only 4.10% when PPR was added to the concrete at the same levels. Compressive strength at 28 days increased up to 92.22% with 50% PPR as additive, reducing the equivalent emission of CO2 per m³ of concrete up to 38.18%. PPR incorporation reduced the water permeability of concrete by up to 30.70% and 17.54% when used in addition and in cement replacement, respectively. Overall, PPR as an additive up to 50% and in cement with substitution levels up to 10–40% presented themselves as viable solutions for developing more resistant and durable concretes than the reference mixture (without incorporation of PPR).
Nowadays, the observed trend in road materials technology covers the study of environmentally-friendly modifiers. Therefore, the possibility of modifying bitumen with chitosan and its mixtures with epichlorohydrin was evaluated. The studies were carried out for four different percentages of biopolymer (1.0%, 2.5%, 4.0% and 5.5%) and two percentages (1% and 2%) of crosslinking agents and included the assessment of their influence on the basic binder properties, surface free energy parameters and chemical structure. The results indicate that the appropriately selected quantitative chitosan/epichlorohydrin ratio leads to their crosslinking inside the bitumen causing a softening effect. The study also shows the possible benefits of using biopolymer-modified binders in the production of asphalt mixtures by the enhancement of surface-free energy parameters and reduction of the dynamic viscosity. Chitosan is an environmentally-friendly biodegradable biopolymer, and its chemical crosslinking has a positive effect on the properties of modified bitumen.
The development of power grid infrastructure and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have intensified work, carried out by researchers and electrical equipment manufacturers, to develop innovative gas-insulated, environmentally neutral devices. The emergence of new designs of circuit breakers and disconnectors, in which the resulting electric arc is extinguished in a vacuum environment, requires the development of appropriate techniques for diagnosing the chambers responsible for the dielectric parameters of the device. The following article presents an overview of the directions of development of diagnostic methods for medium-voltage vacuum switching equipment, which can potentially be used to develop a real-time pressure monitoring system that can be applied to vacuum switching equipment used in electrical infrastructure.
This paper discusses the issue of evaluating the durability and reliability of organic coatings applied on the outer surfaces of roofing sheets. Two sheets, i.e., ZA200 and S220GD, were selected as research objects. Metal surfaces of these sheets are protected with multilayer organic coatings to protect them against weather conditions, assembly, and operational damages. The durability of these coatings was tested by evaluating their resistance to tribological wear using the ball-on-disc method. The testing was conducted in reversible gear according to a sinuous trajectory at a 3 Hz frequency. The test load was 5 N. When the coating was scratched, the metallic counter sample touched the metallic surface of the roofing sheet, which indicated a significant drop in electrical resistance. It is assumed that the number of performed cycles specifies the durability of the coating. Weibull analysis was applied to examine the findings. The reliability of the tested coatings was evaluated. The tests have confirmed that the structure of the coating is essential for the durability and reliability of products. The research and analysis included in this paper present important findings.
The article presents the results of the application of an ontological approach to the description of the structure and content of the educational programme, and its subsequent analysis for the consistency of prerequisites and learning outcomes of courses. The practical result of the work is an ontology approach implemented in the Protégé 5.5.0 editor, which reflects the studied disciplines in terms of the skills they form and the entrance requirements (prerequisites) for the qualification of the student. The curriculum model includes sequences of semesters and courses of study (academic year) related by time relationships. The developed ontology approach is filled with data from the educational programme “Software Engineering”. The authors have earned queries in DL Query and SPARQL languages, which, using logical inference procedures, make it possible to analyse an educational programme for consistency of disciplines in terms of input requirements and the skills of the learner formed during the training period. The developed ontology and rules of logical inference can be used as a part of the educational process management information systems and educational programme designers, for the intellectual analysis of programme integrity and the consistency of learning prerequisites and outcomes in disciplines.
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1,326 members
Grzegorz Litak
  • Department of Automation
Gabriel Borowski
  • Environmental Engineering Faculty
Paweł Karczmarek
  • Institute of Computer Science
Joanna Szulżyk-Cieplak
  • Fundamentals Technology
Krzysztof Czarnocki
  • Department of Information Systems Engineering
Nadbystrzycka 38 A, 20-618, Lublin, Poland
Head of institution
Rector Prof. Zbigniew Pater Ph.D., D. Sc. (Eng.)
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