Loyola Marymount University
  • Los Angeles, CA, United States
Recent publications
Background: Exposure to adversity, trauma, and negative family environments can prematurely shorten telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes. Conversely, some evidence indicates that positive environments and psychosocial interventions can buffer the shortening of telomere length (TL). However, most work has examined individual aspects of the family environment as predictive of TL with little work investigating multiple risk and protective factors. Further, most research has not examined parent TL relative to child TL despite its heritability. Objective: In the current study, we examined interparental conflict, positive parenting, alcohol use, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and a family-based intervention as predictive of parent TL. We also examined interparental conflict, positive parenting, ACEs, and a family-based intervention as predictive of child TL. Method: Parents and adolescents from a sample of divorced families participated in either a 10-session family-based intervention, the New Beginnings Programme (NBP), or a 2-week active control condition. Approximately six years after the intervention, a subsample of parents (n = 45) and adolescents (n = 41) were assessed for TL. Parents reported on interparental conflict, ACEs, and alcohol use. Children reported on interparental conflict, positive parenting, and ACEs. In separate models, these constructs and the NBP intervention condition were examined as predictors of parent TL and child TL. Results: Findings indicated that the family-based intervention was associated with longer TL in parents. Also, positive parenting was associated with longer TL in children. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for the role of the family and family-based preventive interventions in buffering parent and child biological stress. Highlights: Across multiple indices of psychosocial functioning, we found a family-based intervention associated with longer telomere length in parents and positive parenting associated with longer telomere length in children.
This paper explores how Japan's aging population impacts the politics of monetary policy. Previous research suggests that the elderly have a variety of distinct policy preferences. Given that elderly voters also have higher voting rates, the rapid greying of the population could have significant effects on distributive struggles over economic policy across much of the developed world. In Japan, aging is advancing rapidly, and the central bank has engaged in massive monetary stimulus to induce inflation, which existing work suggests the elderly should oppose. Analyzing results from three surveys, this paper has three central findings: (1) the elderly tend to have higher inflation aversion, (2) the elderly display some opposition to quantitative easing (QE), and (3) despite such policy preferences, the concentration of elderly in electoral districts has no significant effect on the preferences either of legislative incumbents or candidates. The third finding is attributable to the fact that elderly opposition to QE is moderated by their partisan identification. Elderly Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) voters have systematically lower opposition to QE, likely reflecting that these voters have aligned their preferences with the LDP's policies.
Over the past several decades, scholars have highlighted the obligations and opportunities for marketing as a discipline to play a role in creating a better world-or risk becoming irrelevant for the largest problems facing consumers and society. This paper provides a framework to enhance the relevance and rigor of research in marketing that not only contributes new knowledge to science, but also makes a positive difference in the world. To make such impact, we urge authors and reviewers to foster cross-fertilization from different theoretical and methodological silos, to bolster robustness through multiple methods, and to expand the domain of research to explore different populations and cultures. In doing so, we hope to encourage further consideration of the role of marketing scholarship in providing a novel lens into potential solutions for societal concerns.
This forum examines whether scholars’ access to networks in the international studies profession is gendered and if so, the consequences of those networks for personal and professional success. Academic networks that encompass both professional and personal connections have been proposed as one solution to chilly climate issues because they provide a dual function of enhancing scholarly productivity and inclusion in the profession. The articles in the forum consider both professional (e.g., citation) and personal (e.g., mentorship, friendship) networks, as well as traditional (e.g., invited talks) and nontraditional (e.g., social media) networks. The authors show that biases that arise through the gendered nature of academic networks can be mitigated through social media, mentoring, and friendship networks. However, we must also be cognizant of other factors that create barriers for women in the profession (e.g., university prestige, parenthood, COVID-19).
This study examines autistic and non-autistic college students’ experiences of discrimination and harassment and identifies protective and risk factors. A nationwide survey was used to match autistic students (N = 290) and non-autistic students (N = 290) on co-occurring diagnoses and demographic characteristics. Multiple regression and interaction analysis revealed that faculty support was protective against discrimination and harassment regardless of autism status. Habits of mind was particularly protective for autistic students against harassment. Any student who engaged in school-facilitated events was more likely to experience discrimination and harassment, but the risk was heightened for autistic students. Findings highlight the importance of faculty support in fostering positive interpersonal experiences on campus, and demonstrate the need to address deeper college campus issues with respect to neurodiversity.
For decades, avian endocrinology has been informed by male perspectives and male-focused research, leaving significant gaps in our understanding of female birds. Male birds have been favored as research subjects because their reproductive behaviors are considered more conspicuous and their reproductive physiology is presumably less complex than female birds. However, female birds should not be ignored, as female reproductive behavior and physiology are essential for the propagation of all avian species. Endocrine research in female birds has made much progress in the last 20 years, but a substantial disparity in knowledge between male and female endocrinology persists. In this perspective piece, we provide examples of why ornithology has neglected female endocrinology, and we propose considerations for field and laboratory techniques to facilitate future studies. We highlight recent advances that showcase the importance of female avian endocrinology, and we challenge historic applications of an oversimplified, male-biased lens. We further provide examples of species for which avian behavior differs from the stereotypically described behaviors of male and female birds, warning investigators of the pitfalls in approaching endocrinology with a binary bias. We hope this piece will inspire investigators to engage in more comprehensive studies with female birds, to close the knowledge gap between the sexes, and to look beyond the binary when drawing conclusions about what is ‘male’ versus ‘female’ biology.
This paper examines how missed income due to illness impacts household fragility. Specifically, it shows that paid sick leave laws, which provide households insurance against illness‐related income shocks, reduce consumer bankruptcy. Using a panel dataset at the county‐quarter level, this paper exploits the geographic and temporal variation in the adoption of paid sick leave laws to implement a difference‐in‐differences and event study analysis. It finds that paid sick leave laws reduce consumer bankruptcy filings by approximately 11%; this effect is seen within three quarters of the law's implementation and remains constant in magnitude and significance thereafter. As paid sick leave laws may come at a cost to businesses, this paper also examines the impact of such laws on business bankruptcy filings—it shows that paid sick leave laws have little to no impact on business bankruptcy filings.
Sri Aurobindo broke away from the shackles of the colonial mindset, using his knowledge of Western philosophy combined with Yogic insight to subvert conventional power structures. As a revolutionary, he set forth an anti-racist agenda. As a philosopher, he saw the need for self-change. By offering a spiritual practice based on self-discovery, Sri Aurobindo inspired thousands to interrogate notions of self and discover self power (aiśvarya) and self-rule (sva-rāj). This essay shows the ongoing relevance of Sri Aurobindo's vision and his formative role in the development of Yoga as taught by Gurāṇi Añjali Inti as well as the mission of the California Institute for Integral Studies.KeywordsIntegral YogaSelf-ruleSri AurobindoGurāṇi Añjali IntiJames Lawson
Background: Fosaprepitant [Emend®], a neurokinin type-1 [NK-1] receptor antagonist, is a highly effective for the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting [PONV] after general anesthesia; it is particularly effective in patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures. Based on the widespread distribution of NK-1 receptors in the central and peripheral nervous systems, we sought to determine whether fosaprepitant administration would interfere with commonly used intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring modalities during general anesthesia. Methods: Eleven patients having propofol-based general anesthesia for interventional neuroradiology procedures were administered 150 mg fosaprepitant intravenously after baseline electroencephalogram [EEG], transcranial motor evoked potential [TcMEP], and somatosensory evoked potential [SSEP] recordings were obtained. Recordings of these neuromonitoring modalities at 30, 60, and 90 min after fosaprepitant administration were compared to baseline. Results: Fosaprepitant did not have a significant effect on SSEP/TcMEP amplitudes or latencies, or on TcMEP morphology. There were also no changes in EEG voltage, frequency, or symmetry. Conclusion: Fosaprepitant does not appear to markedly interfere with SSEP, TcMEP, or EEG neuromonitoring modalities during propofol-based general anesthesia.
This short piece serves as introduction to the Special Issue of a triple panel at the 2022 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry (ICQI), entitled “Masking/Truth.”
Using a critical events theoretic analytic lens, we argue that the Covid-19 pandemic had the disruptive power to shake the foundation of sports fanship, much as it affected all aspects of contemporary life across the globe. We conducted a survey of 613 adults in the United States, all of whom self-identified as sports fans. Sports fanship avidity dipped during the height of the pandemic when games, matches, and seasons were cancelled or conducted in protective bubbles without fans in the stands. That dip was temporary. With sports back in full-throttle mode, fanship avidity returned to pre-pandemic levels. Those who identified as strong fans appeared to cherish its return, some even more avid than before. The impact of the pandemic on sports fanship was most acute among those who were not ardent sports fans to begin with—and its impact appears to have extended over time.
The circular economy stands at a crossroads between true systemic change and rebranded business-as-usual. It will either evolve to become functional—optimizing technical capabilities to mimic resilient ecosystems—or dysfunctional—reinforcing current destructive, destabilizing structures and incentives despite appearing to make marginal progress. This paper offers a unique critique of the circular economy: we argue that the circular economy is set up for failure precisely because it is required to conform to our current socio-econo-political system—that is, a market system. We identify four core characteristics of market systems: private property, competition, a market for labor, and value determined by price. Together, these characteristics create incentives that are antithetical to a functional circular economy: a requirement for infinite growth, short product lifetimes and limited material circularity, technically suboptimal products and systems, ineffective reverse logistics networks, and misplaced priorities from distorted notions of value. We then show that the fundamental organizing principle of market systems is market efficiency, which is based on a false assumption of scarcity. In contrast, we suggest a competing worldview of sustainable abundance based on a principle of technical efficiency, which optimizes technical and environmental outcomes. Using this lens, we suggest alternatives to the core market characteristics, including an ecology of complementary currencies, a new understanding of private property, an adjusted balance of competition and cooperation, labor market alternatives, a reevaluation of true value, and lessons from Indigenous peoples. If—and only if—we embrace technical efficiency over market efficiency, we can unshackle the circular economy to create meaningful system change and a future of sustainable abundance.
Business students have long been noted for their differential proclivity to engage in academic misconduct. Unfortunately, the potential for misconduct has been exacerbated in recent years by rapid advances in technology, easy access to information, competitive pressures, and the proliferation of websites that provide students access to information that allows them to directly circumvent the learning process. Using a convenience sample of 631 students matriculating in various business majors at four U.S. universities and structural equations modeling procedures, this study assesses the effects of psychological factors on business students’ propensities to utilize the services of homework assistance websites. Specifically, we examine how “Dark Triad” personality traits (i.e., narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy) interact with Fraud Diamond elements to influence student decisions to engage the services of these websites. We find that each Dark Triad trait exerts a significant influence on at least one of the Fraud Diamond elements, which in turn have a significant direct or indirect positive association with students’ reported intentions to utilize, and reported utilization of, these websites.
Are men and women more similar or different in their interests in careers? This question has propelled decades of research into the association between gender and vocational interests. However, our understanding of this question in an international context remains limited. In this study, we examined gender differences in vocational interests across national and cultural contexts by exploring whether national cultural dimensions would be associated with gender differences in the structure and mean levels of vocational interests in people/things, ideas/data, and prestige. Our findings support similarity in the structure of vocational interests for men and women across 42 countries based on two major models on interests. General trends of gender differences in interests emerge such that in comparison to men, women tend to report a large preference for working with people (versus things; d = 1.04), and smaller preferences for working with ideas (versus data; d = 0.29) and with prestige (d = 0.18). National cultural dimensions appear to moderate gender differences in interests beyond the influences of national gender inequality. Specifically, gender differences in interests in people (versus things) tend to be larger in countries of higher uncertainty avoidance and higher indulgence whereas gender differences in ideas (versus data) tend to be larger in countries of higher indulgence, uncertainty avoidance, and lower power distance. This study highlights how a better conceptualization of the influences of culture can inform vocational psychologists, gender studies researchers, and career counselors’ work with men and women in understanding their vocational interests.
We find evidence of negative returns, greater volatility, higher turnover, and lower liquidity around a tropical cyclone. Before the land warnings are issued, there is significant under-reaction by investors. Throughout the storm, market volatility increases with negative returns. This leverage effect is similarly present in liquidity before and after the storm. The abnormal returns, volatility, and activities are not related to the characteristics of the storm and exist after the weather effect and various determinants have been accounted for. These findings strongly suggest that underlying all the negative market reaction is the prevalent emotional distress, anxiety, and fear among investors evoked by the destructive and deadly forces of the storm. These negative emotions presumably are stronger when faced with stronger storms and may be managed with better preparedness. This is indeed the case given that we find evidence of more significant market reaction to moderate and severe typhoons and in the early years than in recent years.
The Hellenistic Sanctuary of Hekate at Lagina represents the only site at which Hekate received state-sponsored cult at a monumental temple and a privileged place in the local pantheon. Elsewhere in Karia and the wider Greek world, Hekate was associated with magic and the underworld and received personal dedications at doorways and crossroads. This portrayal was echoed in art, where her character manifested in her triple-bodied form. Yet, at Lagina, part of the city of Stratonikeia, she was always represented with a single body. She was the focus of civic cult, in particular during the Hekatesia-Romaia festival, which celebrated the political alliance between Stratonikeia and Rome. Through an analysis of inscriptions, representations of the goddess in sculpture and coins, and the ritual use of the complex, this article concludes that Hekate of Lagina was a syncretic and singular figure who did not exist outside of Stratonikeia, and that her function at Lagina was primarily political, as a civic patron. As a goddess who oversaw life’s transitions and acted as a saviour of her people, she was uniquely suited to the role. The goddess and her sanctuary were used by the local population to create community identities and to negotiate their relationships with the wider world, particularly their imperial rulers.
Marine forests of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera create biogenic habitat spanning the water column, within which hydrodynamic conditions can differ strongly from those outside. Such flow alteration has implications for physical, chemical, and ecological processes across multiple spatial scales. At the forest-wide scale, M. pyrifera has been shown to decrease alongshore current velocities, but relatively little is known about how the attenuation of such currents evolves as new kelp forests emerge and mature. Here, we quantified alongshore current velocities outside and within a temperate rocky reef environment that twice underwent a transition from a barren state to one in which a thick surface canopy was present. We identified a threshold density during forest emergence at which much of the attenuation of alongshore depth-averaged velocity occurs—3 stipes m ⁻² with a surface canopy present. Incremental increases in damping occur as the forest matures, highlighting that relatively young, thin forests can induce substantially reduced flows. Additionally, the presence of a young forest’s subsurface canopy and its subsequent increase in height create a seasonally changing profile of varying velocities through the water column. These results indicate greater complexity in how canopy-forming kelp influence nearshore flow properties than has often been recognized. Importantly, emerging forests can alter the nearshore environment through modulation of current speeds shortly following initial recruitment, with consequences for the transport of larvae, nutrients, and sediment throughout the forest and adjacent habitats.
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2,524 members
Nicholas S Thaler
  • Department of Psychology
David W. Stewart
  • College of Business Administration
James Konow
  • Department of Economics
Trevor Zink
  • College of Business Administration
Abhik Roy
  • College of Communication and Fine Arts
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