The present study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Compulsive Online Shopping Scale (COSS) in an Iranian population. The total sample of 802 participants (257 females; Mean age = 22.27, SD = 2.83) were selected via convenience sampling from Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the 7-factor structure of the COSS as proposed in the original study. The measurement invariance found in this study suggests that the COSS provides sufficiently unbiased use among males and females. The current findings also support the concurrent validity of the Persian COSS, which exhibited positive and significant associations with loneliness, impulsivity, obsession, internalized symptoms, and Internet use. Furthermore, results confirm the convergent validity of the Persian COSS and showcased acceptable internal consistency for all factors, and the total score. The findings of the present study indicate that compulsive online shopping could be assessed adequately in Iranian samples using the COSS.
This study draws on the Gender Schema Theory, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Uses and Gratifications Theory (U&G), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to explore how gender moderates the relationship between extreme-context perception and user intentions on Instagram for fashion brands, drawing on the COVID-19 pandemic as an example of extreme context. Specifically, our study context concerns social media users in West Africa during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. Through a time-lagged online survey, the data of 310 Instagram users based in Uganda and Nigeria were obtained and subsequently analysed using a variance-based structural equation modelling. Our analysis supports previously reported results in the literature by demonstrating the positive effects of extreme-context perception on intentions to follow and recommend fashion brands on Instagram. Furthermore, our results present new evidence that gender moderates extreme-context perception effects, such that men are significantly more likely to develop higher usefulness, enjoyment, satisfaction and intentions to recommend and follow fashion brands on Instagram. This empirical investigation expands our knowledge of social media use by demonstrating the moderating role of gender regarding the way extreme-context perception affects consumer behaviour towards fashion brands on social media.
Enhanced attachment ability is common in plants on islands to avoid potential fatal passive dispersal. However, whether island insects also have increased attachment ability remains unclear. Here we measured the attachment of a flightless weevil, Pachyrhynchus sarcitis kotoensis, from tropical islands, and compared it with documented arthropods from the mainland. We examined the morphology and material gradient of its attachment devices to identify the specific adaptive modifications for attachment. We find that the weevil has much stronger attachment force and higher safety factor than previously studied arthropods, regardless of body size and substrate roughness. This probably results from the specific flexible bases of the adhesive setae on the third footpad of the legs. This softer material on the setal base has not been reported hitherto and we suggest that it acts as a flexible hinge to form intimate contact to substrate more effectively. By contrast, no morphological difference in tarsomeres and setae between the weevil and other beetles is observed. Our results show the remarkably strong attachment of an island insect and highlights the potential adaptive benefits of strong attachment in windy island environment. The unique soft bases of the adhesive hairs may inspire the development of strong biomimetic adhesives.
Background Although nurses and midwives make up the largest sector of the National Health Service (NHS) workforce, studies have identified a lack of knowledge, skills and confidence to engage and lead research. In 2018, the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) invested in the development of a 3-year Senior Nurse Midwife Research Leader (SNMRL) Programme aimed at developing nursing and midwifery research capacity and capability. This review was conducted at the end of year one as part of an ongoing impact evaluation of the programme. Aim To evaluate the impact of activities undertaken by NIHR SNMRL at the end of year one of the programme. Method The content of anonymised end-of-year one activity, self-reported by SNMRL, was coded independently and deductively analysed by a project team using the modified Visible ImpaCT Of Research framework (VICTOR). Exemplar case studies were selected by the team to illustrate activity within domains. Working group members coded two reports independently then compared them in pairs to increase inter-rater reliability and the quality and consistency of coding. Results Reports from 63 of 66 SNMRL were submitted and included for analysis. Reporting reflected progress towards NIHR programme objectives. These included acting as a programme ambassador, creating a vibrant research culture, supporting staff recruitment and retention, enhancing organisational reputation and clinical academic outputs. Networking and collaboration locally, regionally and nationally were widely reported. Conclusions The SNMRL cohort reported initiating multiple initiatives aimed at influencing organisational research culture, service provision and supporting nursing/midwifery engagement with research. Evaluation indicated progress to address barriers to research engagement within NHS Trusts.
The demand for polished silicon wafers has increased significantly in recent years to cater to the development of the semiconductor industry. For example, polished silicon wafer has direct applications in integrated circuits, radio frequency amplifiers, micro-processors, micro-electromechanical systems, etc. To carry out mechanical polishing, lapping, grinding, or single-point diamond turning of silicon, diamond abrasives were extensively used before the implementation of chemo-mechanical polishing. During the diamond-based polishing, a few problems have already been identified, such as the formation of an amorphous phase, heat-affected zones, low material removal, etc. Some research work has also reported that nano-structured abrasives lead to a thin layer of the amorphous phase and a better material removal rate. In the same direction, a molecular dynamics simulation is carried out in this paper to investigate the mechanism of material removal from monocrystalline silicon during the diamond-abrasive-based polishing process. The present work is mainly focused on the dynamics of material removal phenomena near the abrasive particles at the nanometric scale by considering stress, lattice, cohesive energy, etc. This reveals that a higher value of indentation force results in surface buckling, which creates a zone of both compressive and tensile stresses, which increases the coordination number and forms β-silicon just ahead of the abrasive particle. This mechanism happens by developing a β-silicon phase on the surface with a thickness beyond a certain value of indentation force on the zone of compression. Buckling on this phase happens due to stress localisation in compression, as the flow stress of this phase is less than that of diamond cubic lattices. To avoid the mechanism of surface buckling and process silicon material on the surface, the indentation force needs to be maintained below a critical value. In the present case, it was found that the indentation force of less than or equal to 190 nN for the abrasive size of ϕ8 nm does the material removal by surface processing only without surface buckling. It was also found that surface processing helps to reduce the depth of the amorphous layer significantly without compromising the material removal rate or the generation of a wavy surface. Thus, the present mechanism will help in the polishing of silicon with minimum defects and reduce processing time for the final stage of polishing towards manufacturing ultra-smooth and planer surfaces.
Introduction Mentorship is perceived as a mechanism to enhance career progression. Within occupational therapy, there is little research to demonstrate the effectiveness of mentoring on career success and no research has explored its relevance for black and minoritised ethnic (BME) occupational therapists. This research explored the experience of mentoring for career progression from a BME perspective using a survey. Methods An online survey was conducted with occupational therapists in the United Kingdom who identified as BME. The primary recruitment method was a convenience sample via a BME network and through its other links. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse and report the data. Findings In all, 54 BME occupational therapists completed the survey. Most BME therapists had never requested a BME mentor, but most wanted a BME mentor. Active allyship was viewed as an important part of mentorship when mentored by a white therapist. Conclusion This research is the first study in occupational therapy to examine the mentoring experiences and needs of BME therapists. It is a call for action to recognise and reorient the approach and understanding of the structures and experiences of BME mentorship.
To the Editor, The recent review of optometrists' referral accuracy and contributing factors by Carmichael et al. 1 is a timely addition to the literature. In their final summary paragraph, the authors stated that 'Overall, based on this review optom-etrists' referral accuracy can be considered suboptimal' and 'One could argue that optometrists are working within their scope of practice and that choosing the cautious option of referral is in the patients' best interests, especially when they feel uncertain of a diagnosis'. When viewed from the hospital perspective, the interpretation of referral accuracy as suboptimal is understandable. However, in a broader context this reflects both the limited scope of the General Ophthalmic Services (GOS) contract 2 in England, under which optometrists provide National Health Service (NHS) sight tests in primary care, and the typically inadequate referral reply rate from secondary care to the referring optometrist. 3-5 As a result of these factors, the unwarranted variation in referrals 6 from optometrists to the Hospital Eye Service (HES) has persisted for many years, with over-referring optometrists continuing to over-refer without consequence, support or incentive to change. The main purpose of the GOS sight testing service in England is the provision of spectacles. The GOS framework in England has not evolved since 2006 to provide a comprehensive eye health examination, as it has in Scotland 7 and now recently in Wales. 8 Nonetheless, GOS in England delivered 13.4 million NHS sight tests in 2019-2020 9 and has an average referral rate of ~5%. 10 It was perhaps beyond the remit of Carmichael et al.'s helpful review to give more detailed consideration and context as to why optometrists in England are not refining their referral decisions and managing more cases in the community, which can be seen as largely due to the terms of their GOS contract. For example, there are GOS contract limitations on how soon patients can be reexamined and there is no GOS funding to see a patient again to recheck suspect findings or perform additional tests, monitor signs and symptoms before referral or for managing acute eye presentations. It is recognised in England that the NHS sight test fee (currently £23.14) does not reflect the actual cost, and provision relies on cross-subsidy from other practice income. Consequently, GOS is a blunt tool for managing uncertainty and risk, based on information gained from a single episode of care. In many cases, community op-tometrists would like to investigate further, but under the current GOS contract there is only a binary decision and, in many cases, little choice but to refer. A recent audit of a rapid access clinic identified only 26% of attendance activity originating from optometrists, comprising 6% from community optometrists providing enhanced optometric services (EOS) and 20% from other community optometrists, most likely providing core GOS. 11 Where EOS (e.g., repeated Goldmann applanation tonome-try, cataract pre-assessment and urgent eye condition services) are in place to refine referral decisions, these may not be consistently commissioned or applied across all optical practices and all community optometrists. Unwarranted variation in referral quality is therefore the inevitable consequence of a fragmented core GOS and EOS model, where patients can experience different levels of service from commissioned EOS practices/practitioners and core GOS practices/practitioners within the same area. Learning from the elective care ophthalmology programme is that a comprehensive and consistent application of EOS is needed across all NHS commissioning systems. 12 In another recent review, Carmichael et al. 13 considered interventions for optometric referrals. As the authors noted, 'The implementation of a successful intervention is more complex than a "one-size-fits-all" approach'. We believe that success in this area also requires fixing the underlying problem, a fragmented GOS/EOS framework and the inconsistent commissioning and coverage of EOS in England. All the interventions that Carmichael et al. considered could be seen as 'not tackling the root cause' and a more consistent and fit-for-purpose integrated GOS/EOS model would seem the most appropriate solution. Contrary to the statement in Carmichael et al. 1 that suspected glaucoma 'is still seen infrequently in primary care practice', the detection of this condition represents a significant portion of the work of community optometrists, especially those involved in EOS, and most glaucoma and suspect glaucoma are initially detected by community optometrists. 14 Recent papers 4,5 highlight the importance of the referring optometrist receiving replies from the HES to close the feedback loop. It is absurd that for most practices in
Cognitive control is a core feature of several mental disorders. A recent account poses that health problems may derive from proactive forms of cognitive control that maintain stress representation over time. The working hypothesis of the present study is that psychological distress is caused by the tendency to select a particular maladaptive self-regulation strategy over time, namely perseverative thinking, rather than by transient stimulus–response patterns. To test this hypothesis, we asked 84 women to carry out a battery of standardized questionnaires regarding their tendency to undertake perseverative thinking and their level of psychological distress, followed by cognitive tasks measuring the tendency to use proactive versus reactive control modality and disinhibition. Through a series of mediation analyses, we demonstrate that the tendency to use proactive control correlates with psychological distress and that this relation is mediated by perseverative thinking. Moreover, we show that the relation between low inhibitory control and psychological stress is more strongly mediated by perseverative thinking than impulsiveness, a classical construct that focuses on more transient reactions to stimuli. The present results underline the importance of considering psychological distress as the consequence of a maladaptive way of applying control over time, rather than the result of a general deficit in cognitive control abilities.
Background In England, court‐based mental health liaison and diversion (L&D) services work across courts and police stations to support those with severe mental illness and other vulnerabilities. However, the evidence around how such services support those with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) is limited. Aims This study aimed to evaluate, through the lens of court and clinical staff, the introduction of a L&D service for defendants with NDs, designed to complement the existing L&D service. Methods A realist evaluation was undertaken involving multiple agencies based within an inner‐city Magistrates' Court in London, England. We developed a logic model based on the initial programme theory focusing on component parts of the new enhanced service, specifically training, screening, signposting and interventions. We conducted semi‐structured interviews with the court staff, judiciary and clinicians from the L&D service. Results The L&D service for defendants with NDs was successful in identifying and supporting the needs of those defendants. Benefits of this service included knowledge sharing, awareness raising and promoting good practice such as making reasonable adjustments. However, there were challenges for the court practitioners and clinicians in finding and accessing local specialist community services. Conclusion A L&D service developed for defendants with NDs is feasible and beneficial to staff and clinicians who worked in the court setting leading to good practice being in place for the defendants. Going forward, a local care pathway would need to be agreed between commissioners and stakeholders including the judiciary to ensure timely and equitable access to local services by both defendants and practitioners working across diversion services for individuals with NDs.
Modelin-5 (M5-NH2) killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a minimum lethal concentration (MLC) of 5.86 μM and strongly bound its cytoplasmic membrane (CM) with a Kd of 23.5 μM. The peptide adopted high levels of amphiphilic α-helical structure (75.0%) and penetrated the CM hydrophobic core (8.0 mN m-1). This insertion destabilised CM structure via increased lipid packing and decreased fluidity (ΔGmix < 0), which promoted high levels of lysis (84.1%) and P. aeruginosa cell death. M5-NH2 showed a very strong affinity (Kd = 3.5 μM) and very high levels of amphiphilic α-helical structure with cardiolipin membranes (96.0%,) which primarily drove the peptide's membranolytic action against P. aeruginosa. In contrast, M5-NH2 killed Staphylococcus aureus with an MLC of 147.6 μM and weakly bound its CM with a Kd of 117.6 μM, The peptide adopted low levels of amphiphilic α-helical structure (35.0%) and only penetrated the upper regions of the CM (3.3 mN m-1). This insertion stabilised CM structure via decreased lipid packing and increased fluidity (ΔGmix > 0) and promoted only low levels of lysis (24.3%). The insertion and lysis of the S. aureus CM by M5-NH2 showed a strong negative correlation with its lysyl phosphatidylglycerol (Lys-PG) content (R2 > 0.98). In combination, these data suggested that Lys-PG mediated mechanisms inhibited the membranolytic action of M5-NH2 against S. aureus, thereby rendering the organism resistant to the peptide. These results are discussed in relation to structure/function relationships of M5-NH2 and CM lipids that underpin bacterial susceptibility and resistance to the peptide.
Metacognitions about sex are theorized to shape cognitive appraisal, coping mechanisms, and regulation or dysregulation before, during, and/or after exposure to sexual stimuli. In our study, we examined the construct structure and validity of the Metacognitions about Sex Scale (MSS) among a sample of adolescents. We estimated the convergent validity of the MSS by factors: negative affect, dysregulated thoughts, and impulsivity, and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB). We also ran a structural equation model in which we examined the possibility that metacognitions about sex would mediate the association between negative affect, dysregulated thoughts, and impulsivity on the one hand, and CSB on the other. The study population included 662 adolescents (252 boys and 410 girls, M = 16.70, SD = 1.32) between 13–18 years of age. The analyses indicated that the factorial structure of the MSS comprised the two expected factors. We also found that positive and negative metacognitions about sex significantly mediated the effect of negative affect, dysregulated thoughts, and impulsivity on CSB. The findings provide evidence that MSS among Israeli adolescents are psychometrically appropriate for use by researchers and practitioners in the prevention and treatment of CSB.
Background Lived experience of people directly or indirectly affected by public health issues can provide unique insights into how to improve interventions. Increasing availability of gambling necessitates involving communities in efforts to reduce gambling-related harms. This presentation reports qualitative exploratory research into the value of lived experience across a city-region gambling harm reduction initiative in the UK. Methods Focus groups and interviews were used to explore the practical application of lived experience with participants: advisory panel members, external stakeholders, community project staff, and public health professionals. Collaborative data analysis combined the framework method with theme development inductively (from participants’ accounts) and deductively (from academic and grey literature). Results Four themes were identified: (1) lived experience spans formal and informal settings with different activities and personal impacts; (2) organic and structured pathways to lived experience involvement coexist; (3) the emotional work of people affected by gambling-related harms ranges from frustration at policy inertia to deeper understanding of their own recovery journey; and (4) lived experience encompasses diverse experiential knowledges. Conclusions Involving lived experience in this intervention increased participants’ awareness of the harmful role of the gambling industry and critical reflection on the representativeness of lived experience. Harnessing lived experience at a regional level requires multi-setting support free from stigma and industry influence to ensure the sustained vitality of a diverse lived experience community specialised in gambling-related harms and equipped to navigate conflicting emotions and a challenging policy environment. Key messages • Increasing availability of gambling necessitates involving communities in efforts to reduce gambling-related harms. • The use of lived experience in gambling-related harms prevention efforts and research can inform intervention development.
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