Liverpool John Moores University
  • Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Background: Evidence on how pre-drinking (i.e., drinking in private or in unlicensed settings before going out) varies across cultures and its implications for defining policies and prevention strategies is needed. We explored the perceived impact that various alcohol policies could have on pre-drinking practices amongst Brazilian and British students that pre-drink. Methods: A cross-sectional, online survey amongst student drinkers aged 18-29 in England (N = 387) and Brazil (N = 1,048) explored sociodemographic, pre-drinking habits, and attitudes towards alcohol policies (increasing prices, regulating availability, and restricting promotions). Results: A greater proportion of British students were aged between 18 and 21 years old (67.2%) than Brazilian students (45.2%; p < 0.001). More British (ENG 85.8%) than Brazilian (BRA 44.8%, p < 0.001) students reported pre-drinking. Pre-drinkers' main motivation was to save money (BRA 66.5%, ENG 46.2%, p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, in Brazil, male (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.53, CI: 1.04-2.24) and white (OR: 1.60, CI: 1.03-2.49) pre-drinkers were more likely to believe that increasing prices policies could reduce their pre-drinking habits. In Brazil, white pre-drinkers (OR: 1.86, CI: 1.10-3.15) were more likely to believe that restricting alcohol promotions policies could reduce their pre-drinking habits. Regarding the perceived impact that the combined alcohol policies could have on students' pre-drinking practice, only in Brazil there were significant statistical results. Conclusions: Whilst in Brazil none of the investigated alcohol policies are currently implemented, more Brazilian pre-drinkers believed that such legislation could reduce their pre-drinking practices (when compared with British pre-drinkers). These data may help legislators and stakeholders to better understand the characteristics of a more acceptable alcohol policy amongst university students.
This work presents a primary dataset collected from various geographic locations in Iraq for the seedlings of eight varieties of grapes that are used for local consumption and export. Grape types included in the dataset are: deas al-annz, kamali, halawani, thompson seedless, aswud balad, riasi, frinsi, shdah. Leaves of each type of the seasoned fruit were photographed with high resolution device. A total of 8000 images (i.e., 1000 images per category) were captured using random sampling approach while maintaining the balance and diversity within grape image data. The proposed dataset is of significant potential impact and usefulness with features including (but not limited to) 8 varieties, that have different tastes and can support various industry in agriculture and food manufactures.
Background: Comparative data between the HAS-BLED, GARFIELD-AF and ORBIT score are limited in anticoagulated Asian patients with AF. We compared the performance of the three scores in a nationwide registry. Methods: AF patients treated with OACs in the COOL-AF registry were studied. We fitted the variables of the HAS-BLED, GARFIELD-AF and ORBIT score to major bleeding in Cox model. We explored a modified HAS-BLED by addition of sex and body weight. Discrimination, calibration, net reclassification index (NRI) and decision curve analysis were used to compare the performance of the three models. Results: Of 3,402 patients in the registry, 2,568 patients who received OAC at baseline were studied. Majority of patients (91.1%) received warfarin. The rate of major bleeding was 2.11 per 100 person-years. The C-statistics of the GARFIELD-AF, HAS-BLED, modified HAS-BLED and ORBIT score were 0.65 (95%CI 0.63-0.67), 0.66 (95%CI 0.64-0.68), 0.69 (95%CI 0.67-0.71) and 0.64 (95%CI 0.62-0.66) respectively. There was good agreement between predicted and observed bleeding in the deciles of HAS-BLED and GARFIELD-AF scores, while the modified HAS-BLED score and ORBIT score overestimated the risk in the last decile. The modified HAS-BLED score had superior NRI than the HAS-BLED score (26.9%, 95%CI 9.7%-42.2%) and the ORBIT score (31.9%, 95%CI 9.0-53.6%). The NRI between the modified HAS-BLED and GARFIELD-AF score was similar. The net benefit curve of the four models were overlapping among different thresholds. Conclusion: The clinical utility for bleeding prediction of GARFIELD-AF, HAS-BLED, modified HAS-BLED and ORBIT scores were similar in anticoagulated Asian patients with AF participating in the COOL-AF registry.
Jockeys are unique given that they make weight daily and, therefore, often resort to fasting and dehydration. Through increasing daily food frequency (during energy deficit), we have reported short-term improvements in jockey’s body composition. While these changes were observed over 6–12 weeks with food provided, it is unclear whether such improvements can be maintained over an extended period during free-living conditions. We, therefore, assessed jockeys over 5 years using dual X-ray absorptiometry, resting metabolic rate, and hydration measurements. Following dietary and exercise advice, jockeys reduced fat mass from baseline of 7.1 ± 1.4 kg to 6.1 ± 0.7 kg and 6.1 ± 0.6 kg ( p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. In addition, fat-free mass was maintained with resting metabolic rate increasing significantly from 1,500 ± 51 kcal/day at baseline to 1,612 ± 95 kcal/day and 1,620 ± 92 kcal/day ( p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. Urine osmolality reduced from 816 ± 236 mOsmol/L at baseline to 564 ± 175 mOsmol/L and 524 ± 156 mOsmol/L ( p < .001) at Years 1 and 5, respectively. The percent of jockeys consuming a regular breakfast significantly increased from 48% at baseline to 83% ( p = .009) and 87% ( p = .003) at Years 1 and 5, alongside regular lunch from 35% to 92% ( p < .001) and 96% ( p < .001) from baseline to Years 1 and 5, respectively. In conclusion, we report that improved body composition can be maintained in free-living jockeys over a 5-year period when appropriate guidance has been provided.
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in significant changes to education delivery. For many university programmes this has included a move from face-to-face to virtual and online learning and teaching. Aim: To gain insight into the experiences of students undertaking the community children's nursing specialist practitioner programme during the academic year 2020-21, when most learning and teaching was delivered using virtual and online methods as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: A survey questionnaire containing qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed to 28 students by programme leaders at three universities in England. Seven questionnaires were returned, yielding a 25% response rate. Findings: Respondents' experience of online and virtual learning was generally positive, with benefits for work-life balance and the opportunity to revisit recorded lectures being particularly well regarded. Loss of opportunity for face-to-face engagement with fellow students and the teaching team were identified as disadvantages. Conclusion: There was strong student support for the provision of more flexible approaches to learning and teaching. Universities should recognise that failure to offer such flexibility could potentially affect recruitment and the viability of courses in the future.
An epoxy-functionalized beta type nanozeolite (BEA)/graphene oxide nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE/BEA/APTMS/GA/GO/NF) has been created for the differential pulse voltammetric determination of bisphenol E (BPE). The modified electrode presented an enhanced current response in comparison with bare GCE. A linear dependence of anodic peak current ( I p ) and scan rate (ν) was observed, which showed that the electrochemical process was adsorption-controlled. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed and optimized for the sensitive determination of BPE. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current was linearly proportional to BPE concentration in the range between 0.07 and 4.81 µM, with a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and limit of detection 0.056 μM (S/N = 3). The electrode showed good repeatability and storage stability, and a low response to interfering compounds. Comparison was made to the determination of bisphenol A. To confirm the electrode analytical performance, recovery tests were performed, and deviations lower than 10% were found. The BEA zeolite-GO nanocomposite proved to be a promising sensing platform for bisphenol determination. Graphical abstract
Soil liquefaction is a phenomenon associated with strong earthquakes and it can affect large areas. High-rise and low-rise buildings, residential structures typically of 1-2 storeys, may be equally prone to the destructive consequences of liquefaction. For the case of high-rise buildings, expensive solutions like well-designed piles with ground improvement can be used. However, in the case of smaller residential structures, this is not economically viable. To this purpose, the current research explores the effectiveness of a novel proposed low-cost liquefaction protection technique, where the soil underneath the foundation is replaced by a sand-tire chip mixture base reaching down to a certain depth. Series of triaxial and shaking table tests were performed for a range of parametric scenarios to, mainly mecha-nistically, assess the effectiveness of such a mitigation technique, since similar previous studies are extremely limited. The tests have shown that the closest the considered base is to the surface, the thicker it is and with higher tire ratio, the more effective it can become on controlling the pore pressure rise that leads to liquefaction.
In fisheries, operational management units and biological data often do not coincide. In many cases, this is not even known due to the lack of information about a species’ population structure or behaviour. This study focuses on two such species, the common ling Molva molva and the blue ling M. dypterygia, two Northeast Atlantic gadoids with overlapping geographical distribution, but different depth habitats. Heavily exploited throughout their ranges, with declining catches, little is known about their population structure. Genotyping-by-sequencing at thousands of genetic markers indicated that both species are separated into two major groups, one represented by samples from the coasts of western Scotland, Greenland, and the Bay of Biscay and the other off the coast of Norway. This signal is stronger for the deeper dwelling blue ling, even though adult dispersal was also identified for this species. Despite small sample sizes, fine-scale patterns of genetic structure were identified along Norway for common ling. Signatures of adaptation in blue ling consisted in signs of selections in genes involved in vision, growth, and adaptation to cold temperatures.
Background: Currently there is no universally agreed schema for predicting ocular morbidity in facial nerve palsy. The House Brackmann Scale has limitations in assessing ocular morbidity from facial nerve palsy. Our aim was to create a scoring system to help quantify ocular morbidity to aid in decision making regarding the need for corneal protective oculoplastic surgery. Methods: We conducted a large cohort study observing 606 patients attending the specialist facial palsy clinic in Manchester UK between March 2002 and October 2017. Retrospective multivariate analysis identified clinical predictors for the 316 patients that required oculoplastic surgery. β coefficients generated in the multivariate analysis helped formulate a new facial nerve palsy scoring instrument to predict the need for corneal protective oculoplastic surgery. Results: The House Brackmann Scale, corneal lagophthalmos and loss of corneal sensation proved clinically significant predictors for requiring corneal protective oculoplastic surgery. The scoring system derived from these factors provided an accurate and repeatable prediction tool demonstrated by validation studies on our patient population. The area under the ROC curve for the multivariate prediction model was 0.769 (0.726, 0.811). A score of 5 points out of a possible 8 was the best cut off score to recommend oculoplastic surgery, giving a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.671. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that corneal lagophthalmos, corneal sensation and the House Brackmann Scale are important in predicting the need for corneal protective oculoplastic surgery. Our scoring tool is an important clinical decision tool for ophthalmic and ENT colleagues.
Background Appropriate medication use is essential in ensuring optimal pharmacotherapeutic outcomes. It is mistakenly assumed that adults can swallow solid oral dosage forms (SODFs, e.g. tablets/capsules colloquially referred to as ‘pills’), without difficulty and that children cannot. KidzMed is a ‘pill swallowing’ training programme designed to teach effective SODF use in patients of all ages. It may be utilised by healthcare professionals to assist patients taking SODFs. E-learning was essential for training during COVID pandemic to reduce viral transmission. The aim of this study was to explore UK student pharmacists views of e-learning to support swallowing solid oral dosage forms. Methods This study used pre- and post-intervention online surveys on Microsoft Forms to evaluate self-directed eLearning about pill swallowing on MPharm programmes at three UK Universities using a 13-item survey. A combination of five-point Likert Scales and free-text items were used. The eLearning was available via the virtual learning environment at the University and embedded within existing curriculum. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to explore responses. Results In total, 113 of 340 (33%) students completed the survey. Seventy-eight percent (n = 65) reported the eLearning would enable them to teach adults and children to swallow SODFs successfully. Learners either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt comfortable to teach patients (95%, n = 62/113) and parents or carers (94%, n = 60) to swallow medications having completed the e-learning. Student pharmacists generally found eLearning as an acceptable way to reflect on their own experiences of ‘pill’ swallowing and how to support patients to swallow SODFs. Conclusion The KidzMed eLearning was well received by student pharmacists. Further work is needed to explore whether skills translates into real life application in the clinical settings.
Primate ranging behavior is associated with numerous social and ecological correlates. Interspecific comparisons of ranging behavior can therefore provide insight into the socio-ecological conditions that characterize a species' niche within its community. We provide the first description of ranging behavior in golden-bellied mangabeys (Cercocebus chrysogaster), using sympatric bonobos (Pan paniscus) as a comparison. Over 6 months, we recorded GPS tracks at 1- and 5-min intervals from one habituated golden-bellied mangabey group and two habituated bonobo communities at LuiKotale, central Democratic Republic of the Congo. We compared estimates of home range size, time spent at different elevations, and hourly travel distances between species. We modeled daily travel distances against total monthly rainfall to investigate seasonal variation in daily ranging. The golden-bellied mangabey home range was similarly sized or larger than each of the two bonobo communities at LuiKotale across estimation methods. Mangabeys visited more of their range per day and spent more time in terra firma forest and less time in swamps than bonobos. Mangabeys traveled significantly farther per day and during midday hours than bonobos, but travel distances did not relate to monthly rainfall in either species. Golden-bellied mangabeys exhibited wide daily ranging behavior that more closely resembled that of sympatric bonobos than other Cercocebus species. Large homes ranges in mangabeys are likely influenced by food availability in terra firma forest, especially as groups appear to travel long distances between fruit trees and terrestrial food patches. Maximizing daytime activity may help mangabeys avoid competition from heterospecifics and indicates temporal niche partitioning in this primate community.
Aims: Paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is a common complication after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) that poses an increased risk of rehospitalization for heart failure and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of haemodynamic indices to predict relevant PVR. Methods and results: In this prospective single-centre clinical trial, four haemodynamic indices of PVR measured during TAVR were assessed for their correlation with gold standard cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived regurgitant fraction (CMR-RF) at 1 month follow-up: diastolic delta (DD), heart rate-adjusted diastolic delta (HR-DD), aortic regurgitation index (ARI), and aortic regurgitation index ratio (ARI ratio). These haemodynamic indices were analysed for their ability to predict relevant PVR (defined as CMR-RF > 20%) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves with corresponding area under the ROC curves (AUCs). A total of 77 patients were included and had CMR performed 41 ± 14 days after TAVR. Mean CMR-RF was 12.4 ± 9.3%. Fifteen (19.5%) patients had CMR-RF > 20%. DD had the best correlation with CMR-RF and the highest AUC to predict relevant PVR (0.82; 95% CI, 0.72-0.92), followed by HR-DD (AUC 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89), ARI (AUC 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.89), and ARI ratio (AUC 0.65; 95% CI, 0.49-0.81). The optimal cut-off value for DD was 32 mmHg, with sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 77% in predicting relevant PVR. Conclusion: DD measured during TAVR best predicts relevant PVR. Correction for heart rate (HR-DD) or systolic blood pressure (ARI, ARI ratio) did not improve this predictive value.
Background: Bacterial infections cause substantial pain and disability among people who inject drugs. We described time trends in hospital admissions for injecting-related infections in England. Methods: We analysed hospital admissions in England between January 2002 and December 2021. We included patients with infections commonly caused by drug injection, including cutaneous abscesses, cellulitis, endocarditis, or osteomyelitis, and a diagnosis of opioid use disorder. We used Poisson regression to estimate seasonal variation and changes associated with COVID-19 response. Results: There were 92,303 hospital admissions for injection-associated infections between 2002 and 2021. 87% were skin, soft-tissue or vascular infections; 72% of patients were male; and the median age increased from 31 years in 2002 to 42 years in 2021. The rate of admissions reduced from 13.97 per day (95% CI 13.59-14.36) in 2003 to 8.94 (95% CI 8.64-9.25) in 2011, then increased to 18.91 (95% CI 18.46-19.36) in 2019. At the introduction of COVID-19 response in March 2020, the rate of injection-associated infections reduced by 35.3% (95% CI 32.1%-38.4%). Injection-associated infections were also seasonal; the rate was 1.21 (95% CI 1.18-1.24) times higher in July than in February. Conclusions: This incidence of opioid injection-associated infections varies within years and reduced following COVID-19 response measures. This suggest that social and structural factors such as housing and the degree of social mixing may contribute to the risk of infection, supporting investment in improved social conditions for this population as a means to reduce the burden of injecting-related infections.
In March 2020, a ‘major deal’ was struck between the National Health Service (NHS) and private healthcare sector to facilitate ‘crisis’ and ‘continuity’ responses to COVID-19. A further deal was struck in January 2022 to support the NHS in tackling the Omicron variant, suggesting that the pandemic was evolving, rather than definitively over. The legal basis for these deals was a Public Policy Exclusion Order, a temporary relaxation mechanism in UK competition law defined by a ‘disruption period’. In a global pandemic, the ‘healthcare disruption period’ might be considered to be of a different scope and nature to short-term disturbances experienced in other sectors, such as groceries. This article examines the Public Policy Exclusion Orders issued in respect of health services in England and Wales, and the Collective Agreements notified under these between March 2020 and March 2021, and again in March 2022. Amid ongoing tensions surrounding ‘NHS privatisation’, this enables a timely analysis of whether the underlying relationship between the NHS and private healthcare may be changing in response to COVID-19, and how considerations of ethical frameworks are also relevant to this aspect of the pandemic response.
Background: People with intellectual disabilities' voting rate within the United Kingdom remains significantly below the population average despite government enacted voting promotion measures. No published academic literature directly involves people with intellectual disabilities when considering their UK general election experiences - this study aims to address this omission. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with intellectual disabilities (N = 20) about their election experiences during the 2017 (n = 18) and 2019 (n = 8) general elections. Six participants were interviewed around both elections. Data was analysed with template analysis. Results: Eight themes were produced - election information, political knowledge, political opinions, voting choice process, polling station experience, voting outcome, capacity and support. Theme interactions impacted on election experiences. Conclusions: While acknowledging diverse experiences, voting outcomes and experiences were particularly impacted by factor interactions concerning election information and/or polling station accessibility, capacity and support. Voting promotion interventions and future research should consider these areas.
Gathering comprehensive marine biodiversity data can be difficult, costly and time consuming, preventing adequate knowledge of diversity patterns in many areas worldwide. We propose fishing ports as “natural” sinks of biodiversity information collected by fishing vessels probing disparate habitats, depths, and environments. By combining rapid environmental DNA metabarcoding (eDNA) surveys and data from public registers and Automatic Identification Systems, we show significant positive relationships between fishing fleet activities (i.e. fishing effort and characteristics of the fishing grounds) and the taxonomic fish assemblage composition in eleven Mediterranean fishing ports. Overall, we identified 160 fish and 123 invertebrate OTUs, including at least seven non-indigenous species, in some instances well beyond their known distribution areas. Our findings suggest that eDNA assessments of fishing harbours’ waters might offer a rapid way to monitor marine biodiversity in unknown or under-sampled areas, as well as to reconstruct fishing catches, often underreported in several regions.
Drug delivery via aerosolization for localized and systemic effect is a non-invasive approach to achieving pulmonary targeting. The aim of this study was to prepare spray-dried proliposome (SDP) powder formulations to produce carrier particles for superior aerosolization performance, assessed via a next generation impactor (NGI) in combination with a dry powder inhaler. SDP powder formulations (F1-F10) were prepared using a spray dryer, employing five different types of lactose carriers (Lactose monohydrate (LMH), lactose microfine (LMF), lactose 003, lactose 220 and lactose 300) and two different dispersion media. The first dispersion medium was comprised of water and ethanol (50:50% v/v ratio), and the second dispersion medium comprised wholly of ethanol (100%). In the first dispersion medium, the lipid phase (consisting of Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC as phospholipid) and Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP; model drug) were dissolved in ethanol and the lactose carrier in water, followed by spray drying. Whereas in second dispersion medium, the lipid phase and lactose carrier were dispersed in ethanol only, post spray drying. SDP powder formulations (F1-F5) possessed significantly smaller particles (2.89 ± 1.24-4.48 ± 1.20 μm), when compared to SDP F6-F10 formulations (10.63 ± 3.71-19.27 ± 4.98 μm), irrespective of lactose carrier type via SEM (scanning electron microscopy). Crystallinity of the F6-F10 and amorphicity of F1-F15 formulations were confirmed by XRD (X-ray diffraction). Differences in size and crystallinity were further reflected in production yield, where significantly higher production yield was obtained for F1-F5 (74.87 ± 4.28-87.32 ± 2.42%) then F6-F10 formulations (40.08 ± 5.714-54.98 ± 5.82%), irrespective of carrier type. Negligible differences were noted in terms of entrapment efficiency, when comparing F1-F5 SDP formulations (94.67 ± 8.41-96.35 ± 7.93) to F6-F10 formulations (78.16 ± 9.35-82.95 ± 9.62). Moreover, formulations F1-F5 demonstrated significantly higher fine particle fraction (FPF), fine particle dose (FPD) and respirable fraction (RF) (on average of 30.35%, 890.12 μg and 85.90%) when compared to counterpart SDP powder formulations (F6-F10). This study has demonstrated that when a combination of water and ethanol was employed as dispersion medium (formulations F1-F5), superior formulation properties for pulmonary drug delivery were observed, irrespective of carrier type employed.
Serverless computing is stepping forward to provide a cloud environment that mainly focuses on managing infrastructure, resources and configurations on the behalf of a user. Research in this field can’t rely on commercial providers such as AWS and Azure, as their inflexibility and cost often limits the required levels of reproducibility and scalability. Therefore, simulators have been opted as an alternative solution by the research community. They offer a reduced-cost and easy-setup environment. To get respectable precision, simulators use real traces collected and offered by commercial providers. These traces represent comprehensive information of executed tasks that reflect user behaviour. Due to serverless computing’s recency, typical workload traces employed by IaaS simulators are not well adoptable to the new computing model. In this paper, we propose an approach for generating realistic serverless traces. We enhance our previous generator approach that was based on the Azure Functions dataset. Our new, genetic algorithm based approach improves the statistical properties of the generated traces. We also enabled arbitrary scaling of the workload, while maintaining real users’ behaviour. These advances further support reproducibility in the serverless research community. We validated the results of our generator approach using the coefficient of determination (R2), which shows that our generated workload closely matches the original dataset’s characteristics in terms of execution time, memory utilisation as well as user participation percentage. To demonstrate the benefits of the reusability of the generated traces, we applied them with a diverse set of simulators and shown that they offer reproducible results independently of the simulator used.
WEAVE, the new wide-field, massively multiplexed spectroscopic survey facility for the William Herschel Telescope, will see first light in late 2022. WEAVE comprises a new 2-degree field-of-view prime-focus corrector system, a nearly 1000-multiplex fibre positioner, 20 individually deployable ‘mini’ integral field units (IFUs), and a single large IFU. These fibre systems feed a dual-beam spectrograph covering the wavelength range 366−959 nm at R ∼ 5000, or two shorter ranges at R ∼ 20 000. After summarising the design and implementation of WEAVE and its data systems, we present the organisation, science drivers and design of a five- to seven-year programme of eight individual surveys to: (i) study our Galaxy’s origins by completing Gaia’s phase-space information, providing metallicities to its limiting magnitude for ∼3 million stars and detailed abundances for ∼1.5 million brighter field and open-cluster stars; (ii) survey ∼0.4 million Galactic-plane OBA stars, young stellar objects and nearby gas to understand the evolution of young stars and their environments; (iii) perform an extensive spectral survey of white dwarfs; (iv) survey ∼400 neutral-hydrogen-selected galaxies with the IFUs; (v) study properties and kinematics of stellar populations and ionised gas in z < 0.5 cluster galaxies; (vi) survey stellar populations and kinematics in ∼25 000 field galaxies at 0.3 ≲ z ≲ 0.7; (vii) study the cosmic evolution of accretion and star formation using >1 million spectra of LOFAR-selected radio sources; (viii) trace structures using intergalactic/circumgalactic gas at z > 2. Finally, we describe the WEAVE Operational Rehearsals using the WEAVE Simulator.
This research builds on the recently published paper (Garden, 2022c), which explored through interviews the use of iPads as cameras to enhance Forest School practice. Children's perspectives of the Forest School space captured what was important to them on camera (Garden, 2022c). Working with the same group of 32 Key Stage 2 children selected from two UK primary schools, the research explored the images captured on iPad cameras during the follow-on session. The unstructured interviews explored the children's feelings and meanings associated with the images captured in the Forest School space using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The photographs can be understood within the themes of 'play with technology', 'soft fascination' and 'place attachment', all of which are inherent in the Forest School ethos. Suggestions for future research include reflections on the ways the capturing of images of Forest School can encourage peer collaboration whilst considering the relative influence of space.
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14,383 members
Sheila Glenn
  • School of Natural Sciences and Psychology
David Phipps
  • Built Environment and Sustainable Technologies (BEST) Research Institute
Andreea Font
  • Astrophysics Research Institute
Ayoub Bensakhria
  • Department of Computer Science and Mathematics
Lisa Jones
  • Public Health Institute
Tithebarn Street, L3 3AF, Liverpool, Merseyside, United Kingdom