Soy protein isolate and egg white protein were added to cassava-banana gluten-free pasta and the effects on the nutritional quality, digestibility properties, protein digestibility corrected amino acid (PDCAA), and sensory acceptance of the pasta was observed. Banana-cassava composite flour (75:25) was blended with soy protein isolate or egg white protein at the following rates: 0, 5, 10, and 15 g/100 g flour. Cooked pasta samples were analysed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity, amino acid profiles, protein content, starch digestibility, protein digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Addition of both proteins decreased starch digestibility, increased protein digestibility, improved the balance of the amino acid profile, and PDCAAS whereas only soy protein isolate enhanced the TPC and antioxidant capacity of the banana-cassava pasta. An egg white protein-fortified banana-cassava pasta had better customer acceptance and purchase intent than soy protein isolate inclusion.
Nanotechnology is an advanced field that stretches out over a wide scope of various scientific areas. In food science and technology, nanomaterials and nanoparticles are used to enhance food quality and also used as antimicrobial agents, and packaging materials to enhance food safety. One of the major concerns related to food processing is the microbial activity leading to food spoilage. Other than traditional encapsulation systems, nanoparticles can result in efficient encapsulation known as nanoencapsulation. Antimicrobial food agents can be protected using nanoencapsulation which helps in the controlled delivery to specific sites for improving cellular absorption resulting in high antimicrobial activity. Spray drying, high-pressure valve homogenization, microfluidization, ultrasonication, and hot and cold homogenization are some methods used to prepare nanoencapsulation. Biopolymer-based nanoparticles can be delivered into food formulations by nanocarriers such as nanoliposome, lipid nanocarriers, nanoemulsions, and nanofibers. Recently, the metal nanoparticle has been commonly used in food industries; especially, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is extensively used due to its antimicrobial property. This chapter discusses the nanoencapsulation of antimicrobial agents and their preparing methods, types of nanoencapsulation systems, and the antimicrobial effect of AgNP nanoparticles.
Packing of food plays an indispensable part in safeguarding the packed food by ensuring the maintenance of their standard, high quality, and security. The selection of suitable packaging material for the specific type of food is based on the functions like safeguarding the foodstuffs from humidity, high temperature differences, oxygen, light, microbes, spoilage, absorptivity, penetrability, food detection, chemical, and optical properties. The wide varieties of glass, metals, paperboards, plastics, and biopolymers are major food packaging materials currently in use. Interestingly, nanotechnology-based food packaging is one of the most promising and newly emerging systems as it imparts enhanced barrier properties, mechanical, catalytic, optical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties. Applications of nanocomposites as an active material for packaging as well as the material coatings are a promising alternative to conventional plastics owing to their additional functionalities, superior structural, physical, and biological properties in food packaging industries. This chapter depicts an overview of the broad usage of nanotechnology in food packaging sectors in various forms and their socio-economic impact along with its advancements in food packaging industries.
Quality assurance is indeed the standard that ensures the quality of the food commodities as per the acceptability of the customer and regulatory authorities. These include appearance, texture, taste, nutrient composition, and reliability. Quality assurance is widely expected during the shelf life of the packaged food products owing to the market demand. Traditionally, the conventional food-grade quality assessment methods are surface sampling, direct counting, and molecular methods. These quality inspection approaches have certain constraints such as factual inaccuracies, elevated risk of contamination, nutrient depletion which limits the way of progression in the food-grade analysis. One of the main aspects of nanotechnology is discovering innovative analytical techniques for the food sector. They are valuable for both the consumers as well as industries to retain market dominance. Nanomaterials are incorporated in the design of sensing frameworks to boost the efficiency of traditional food analysis methods containing low recognition boundaries. Though these methods are quite expensive than the conventional methods, their implementation is superior to existing food quality detection methods on considering the factors like ultra-sensitivity, selectivity, multiple targeting, portability, and noninvasive packaged item monitoring. They require the minimal use of organic compounds like sugars or proteins from food samples as the nanostructured target-recognition class for nanoscale devices like nanofood sensors. The specific optoelectronics, and chemical morphologies of these nanosensors aids in detecting the presence of various contaminants in complex food matrices and regenerate the test speed in an array of biosensors/lab-on-chip, electronic noses & tongues, test-strips, etc. Despite the incorrect perception about nanotechnology among various sectors, they will persist to have a significant role in making food supplies cleaner, better, and more sustainable.
This study investigates the impact of the energy poverty index (EPI) on the ecological footprint (ECF) as an inclusive environmental quality index in South Korea from 1990 to 2019, considering environmental-related technologies (ERT), real GDP per capita (RGDPpc), and financial development (FD) in the environmental function. The principal component analysis is used to create the EPI based on accessibility, availability, and affordability. The dynamic ARDL model results reveal that EPI and FD drive the ecological deficit in the short and long runs. In the long run, however, ERT act as a moderator. Lastly, the Breitung-Candelon Spectral Granger Causality Test demonstrates that the ecological deficit is related to EPI, FD, and RGDPpc in the short to long term. On the other hand, environmental technologies have a medium-to-long-term relationship with their ecological footprint. The research findings include government policy recommendations to accomplish COP 26 neutrality and sustainable development goals. The results show how important it is to improve residents’ access to clean energy and reduce energy poverty by putting the right economic, environmental, and energy policies into place.
Anthropogenically driven alterations to coastal sediments and their benthic macroinvertebrate communities impair ecosystem function. However, this paradigm is yet to be tested in ecosystems that typically harbour underdeveloped communities lacking larger bioturbating species. Here, we investigated the effects of sediment condition and macroinvertebrate communities on benthic metabolism, nutrient exchange and denitrification (N 2 production), and assessed the relative importance of taxon richness, abundance, biomass and community bioturbation potential in influencing these processes in 2 regions of the highly modified, microtidal Peel-Harvey Estuary in temperate Western Australia. Sediment condition influenced benthic metabolism more than the macroinvertebrate community, whereas the reverse was true for nutrient exchange. Denitrification was driven by sediment condition and the community in the upper and lower estuary, respectively, highlighting the change in controls of this nitrogen-removal process within estuaries. Overall, benthic macroinvertebrates had little to no effect on many ecosystem processes, exhibiting the limited functional role played by these chronically stressed biota in this estuary. There was also no interaction between sediment condition and the community, suggesting a functional decoupling between these 2 ecosystem components. Where significant macroinvertebrate effects were detected, community biomass was the most frequently selected predictor, demonstrating its fundamental role in ecosystem function. This study reveals pressing implications of what might be expected when benthic environments become particularly degraded and the highly limited potential of the resultant benthic macroinvertebrate communities to provide key ecosystem services such as nutrient processing.
Understanding the influence of macroinvertebrates on ecosystem function often relies on experimental defaunation with methods that remove fauna through minimal sample disturbance. Defaunation is challenging and can lead to confounding effects and/or loss of empirical information when unsuccessful. We evaluated the ability of a deoxygenation treatment to remove macroinvertebrates from sediment cores collected in 2 regions of a microtidal estuary. Only 1 of 16 cores was fully defaunated following 3 deoxygenation cycles. To counteract confounding effects of partial defaunation, we quantified the biomass remaining in each core and used these data as a covariate in statistical models. The unremoved biomass had, in some cases, significant effects on alkalinity fluxes, with positive linear relationships evident, and net phosphate fluxes. The community in the upper estuary that regularly experiences hypoxia exhibited stronger sediment emergence responses (82-100%). The remaining fauna were spread equally among annelids, molluscs and arthropods in abundance, although arthropods dominated the biomass. In contrast, fewer macroinvertebrates emerged from sediments from the lower estuary (47-89%), with most of the remaining biomass and abundance being annelids and molluscs. These findings suggest that estuarine taxa have divergent responses to hypoxia and that regional communities are variably prone to eradication of sensitive taxa. Our study shows how the use of defaunation by deoxygenation can create systematic bias, particularly when comparing areas with disparate in situ oxygen regimes, and provides a way to quantitively account for partial defaunation without sacrificing statistical power or using overly destructive methods.
Food production plays a central role in the health of humanity and our environment. New Zealand produces a large amount of food, but it is unknown if it can produce enough of the right crops in the places to better the health of New Zealanders, profitably, while maintaining New Zealand’s primary production exports and meeting ambitions to lower greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and nutrient losses to water. We tested two scenarios that aimed at delivering a healthy diet while maximising profit and minimising GHGs (climate-focused scenario) or losses of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to water (freshwater-focused scenario). Land use change was targeted to areas not currently meeting bottom lines for N or P loss but needed to spill over to other areas to meet dietary targets in both scenarios. The maximum cost of the required land use change was about 1% of the primary sector’s export revenues, and orders of magnitude less than the estimated savings for the health system from an optimised diet. We conclude that shifting productive land uses can help meet environmental targets for GHGs, N and P while saving money and improving the health of its people.
Data is essential to governing those emerging matters of concern that confront the agrifood every day. But data is no neutral intermediary. It disrupts, exposes, and creates new social, economic, political, and environmental possibilities, whilst simultaneously hiding, excluding, and foreclosing others. Scholars have become attuned to both the constitutive role of data in creating everyday worlds, and the need to develop critical accounts of the materialities, spatialities and multiplicities of data relationships. Whereas this emerging work develops insight to the capacity for data topologies to reterritorialise the spatial performances of everyday life, it has largely reduced the associated temporal dimensions to matters of fact. The effect of these performances has been to naturalize the temporal quality of speed and elide the multiple temporalities required to enact contemporary data worlds. Applying the lenses of infrastructuring, performativity and ferality, this paper explores temporality and data in the everyday worlds produced through the New Zealand kiwifruit industry’s focus on dry matter. The paper argues that temporalities are deeply embedded in the kiwifruit industry’s data relations. We show that while temporal data relations are critical to the industry, we also highlight ways in which those relations introduce new, potentially destabilizing performances into kiwifruit relations.
The manuscript investigates and reports for the first time utilizing a non-GMO approach to alter the fermentation process of Pinot Noir wines. We have experimentally demonstrated that certain dietary compounds possess histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibiting activity and can alter the wine characteristics by potentially altering yeast gene transcription, which was resulted from epigenetic effects.
As the number of observations submitted to the citizen science platform iNaturalist continues to grow, it is increasingly important that these observations can be identified to the finest taxonomic level, maximizing their value for biodiversity research. Here, we explore the benefits of acting as an identifier on iNaturalist.
Environmental sustainability and economic challenges are requiring significant change in the agricultural sector and this is driving an increased focus on farmer and farm business resilience. Participatory extension programmes (PEPs) are a well‐known approach for supporting farmer change. The objective of this paper is to explore how a PEP based on peer‐to‐peer learning can support farmers in increasing resilience. Our study examines the interaction of wellbeing, environmental change, and profitability through the applications of an institutional logics evaluation framework. We interviewed twenty‐four participants in a PEP based in Northland, New Zealand. Findings show that PEPs can provide a safe space to discuss wellbeing challenges, and link farmers with networks to support them on their wellbeing journey. We found that farmer wellbeing is intrinsically linked to other pressures that farmers face around profitability and sustainability, and therefore PEPs need to balance these three pillars. This paper adds to current literature by expanding an institutional logics evaluation framework and identifying the role of different actors in change mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Wheat nutritional quality can be characterised by nutrient concentrations in the grain. This is the sum of nutrient uptake by the roots and re-translocation from other organs during grain filling. It is quantified by the Nutrient Harvest Index (NuHI: the fraction of total accumulated nutrient that is allocated to the grain). In contrast to nitrogen (NHI), there has been little quantification of NuHIs among modern hard spring wheat genotypes, when grown under contrasting N supply. We investigated NuHIs for six macro- and four micro-nutrients among six hard spring wheat genotypes, both under field and glasshouse conditions. There was consistency in element-specific NuHI values between experiments and amongst genotypes. Values ranged from 0.09 to 0.86, with highest NuHI found for phosphorus (P; 0.86) and N (0.82) and lowest values (<0.25) for calcium, copper, iron and potassium. NuHIs were higher under low N supply for all elements, except P, manganese and zinc, which were unaffected by N supply. This reflects the greater deposition of carbohydrate in higher yielding (N fertilised) crops. Thus, NuHIs for the hard spring wheat genotypes tested were highly element specific, and decreased with N supply within a given environment. • HIGHLIGHTS • Nutrient Harvest Index (NuHI) was similar between field and controlled environment • NuHIs were consistent across six modern spring wheat genotypes • NuHIs were in large element-specific ranging from 0.09 for potassium to 0.86 for phosphorus • Limited N supply increased NuHIs mainly through reduced grain yield
Sodium (Na) concentrations are low in plant tissues, and its metabolic function in plants is minor; however, Na is a key nutrient for plant consumers. Previous studies have thus far focused on Na concentration. Nevertheless, a balanced potassium (K) to Na ratio (K:Na) is more important than Na concentration alone since food with high K:Na has detrimental effects on consumers irrespective of Na concentration. Therefore, plants may actively regulate K:Na in their tissues and products, shaping plant-insect interactions. Studies considering nutritional aspects of plant-insect interactions have focused on nonreproductive tissues and nectar. In this study, we consider pollen as serving a primary reproductive function for plants as well as a food of pollinivores. Plants might regulate K:Na in pollen to affect their interactions with pollinivorous pollinators. To investigate whether such a mechanism exists, we manipulated Na concentrations in soil and measured the proportion of K, Na, and 13 other nutrient elements in the pollen of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus) cultivars. This approach allowed us to account for the overall nutritional quality of pollen by investigating the proportions of many elements that could correlate with the concentrations of K and Na. Of the elements studied, only the concentrations of Na and K were highly correlated. Pollen K:Na was high in both cultivars irrespective of Na fertilization, and it remained high regardless of pollen Na concentration. Interestingly, pollen K:Na did not decrease as pollen increased the Na concentration. We hypothesize that high K:Na in pollen might benefit plant fertilization and embryonic development; therefore, a tradeoff might occur between producing low K:Na pollen as a reward for pollinators and high K:Na pollen to optimize the plant fertilization process. This is the first study to provide data on pollen K:Na regulation by plants. Our findings broaden the understanding of plant-bee interactions and provide a foundation for a better understanding of the role of the soil-plant-pollen-pollinator pathway in nutrient cycling in ecosystems. Specifically, unexplored costs and tradeoffs related to balancing the K:Na by plants and pollinivores might play a role in past and current shaping of pollination ecology.
Kākāpō are a critically endangered parrot restricted to a few islands off the coast of New Zealand. Kākāpō are very closely monitored, especially during nesting seasons. In 2019, during a highly successful nesting season, an outbreak of aspergillosis affected 21 individuals and led to the deaths of 9, leaving a population of only 211 kākāpō. In monitoring this outbreak, cultures of aspergillus were grown, and genome sequenced. These sequences demonstrate that, very unusually for an aspergillus outbreak, a single strain of aspergillus caused the outbreak. This strain was found on two islands, but only one had an outbreak of aspergillosis; indicating that the strain was necessary, but not sufficient, to cause disease. Our analysis provides an understanding of the 2019 outbreak and provides potential ways to manage such events in the future.
Perennial ryegrass (PRG, Lolium perenne L.) breeding effort in New Zealand (NZ) has increased since c. 1990, resulting in greater functional trait diversity (e.g. heading date, ploidy, and associated Epichloë endophyte strain) in commercial products. This study quantified the variation, associations and interactions in dry matter (DM) yield, nutritive value and persistence‐related traits among commercial cultivar‐endophyte combinations released between 1973 and 2012, as a basis for assessing gains in value being delivered to the pasture‐based livestock industries. Twenty‐four or 28 combinations were compared over 3 years in two trials in each of two regions: Waikato in northern NZ (dryland), and Canterbury in central eastern South Island (irrigated). Cultivar‐endophyte combinations were sown in mixtures with white clover, and pastures were intensively grazed 8–11 times per year by dairy cows. Principal Component Analysis identified 4 distinct clusters for the DM yield variables and for metabolisable energy (ME) content in each of the four trials. A broadly‐adapted group of three late‐season flowering, AR37‐infected diploids with NZ and Spanish breeding backgrounds dominated the highest‐yielding clusters. Tetraploids dominated the high ME content clusters. Interactions with region were observed throughout the data set: the strongest of these was driven by endophyte strain effects in Waikato. High‐yielding cultivar‐endophyte combinations in these trials were also generally high‐yielding in the standard cultivar merit testing system operated in New Zealand, as interpreted via the DairyNZ Forage Value Index. However, alignment was poorer for medium‐ and lower‐yielding cultivar‐endophyte combinations. Several implications for forage evaluation methods and end‐user industries are identified.
The objectives of this study were to investigate the abundance and community composition of comammox Nitrospira under: (i) pasture-based dairy farms from different regions, and (ii) different land uses from the same region and soil type. The results clearly showed that comammox Nitrospira were most abundant (3.0 × 10⁶ copies) under the west coast dairy farm conditions, where they were also significantly more abundant than canonical ammonia oxidisers. This was also true in the Canterbury dairy farm. The six land uses investigated were pine monoculture, a long term no input ecological trial, sheep + beef and Dairy, both irrigated and non-irrigated. It was concluded that comammox Nitrospira was most abundant under the irrigated dairy farm (2.7 × 10⁶ copies). Contrary to the current industry opinion, the relatively high abundance of comammox Nitrospira under fertile irrigated dairy land suggests that comammox Nitrospira found in terrestrial ecosystems may be copiotrophic. it was also determined that comammox Nitrospira was more abundant under irrigated land use than their non-irrigated counterparts, suggesting that soil moisture is a key environmental parameter influencing comammox abundance. Comammox abundance was also positively correlated with annual rainfall, further supporting this theory. Phylogenetic analysis of the comammox Nitrospira detected determined that 17 % of the comammox community belonged to a newly distinguished subclade, clade B.2. The remaining 83 % belonged to clade B.1. No sequences from clade A were found.
Environmental degradation and the rising popularity of healthy, sustainable diets have increased public awareness of the importance of plant-based food (PBF). This creates opportunities for unique business development, and comprehending strategies to strengthen consumers' favorable green attitude and behavior is crucial. Youngsters embrace this shift in food choice. This study aims to provide a holistic understanding of the formation of attitude and behavioral intention toward PBF by integrating consumption value, environmental concern, and perceived cost as the drivers, as well as assessing the gender moderating role. Data was gathered through online questionnaires from 334 young green customers from Indonesia's greater Jakarta region. Using partial least squares for data analysis, this study reveals that environmental concern, and the functional, social, and conditional values are significant predictors of attitude and behavioral intention. Further, this research shows that gender does not moderate the association between attitude and behavioral intention, and its drivers. These findings provide guidance for PBF business managers to improve their competitiveness and, at the same time, contribute toward a more sustainable environment.
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