Two new umbravirus-like associated RNAs (ulaRNAs) were found, respectively, in maize and Johnsongrass samples from Ecuador. The complete sequences consist of 3,053 and 3,025 nucleotides, respectively, and contain four open reading frames (ORFs). Their genome sequences were 58% identical to each other and 28 to 60% identical to the most closely related viruses. Phylogenetic analysis using full genome sequences and amino acid sequence of the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRp) placed both sequences in a clade sharing the most recent common ancestor with ulaRNAs from sugarcane and maize, suggesting that they belong to a monophyletic grass-infecting lineage. Their terminal regions exhibit features common to umbraviruses and ulaRNAs.
We present MediaDive (https://mediadive.dsmz.de), a comprehensive and expert-curated cultivation media database, which comprises recipes, instructions and molecular compositions of >3200 standardized cultivation media for >40 000 microbial strains from all domains of life. MediaDive is designed to enable broad range applications from every-day-use in research and diagnostic laboratories to knowledge-driven support of new media design and artificial intelligence-driven data mining. It offers a number of intuitive search functions and comparison tools, for example to identify media for related taxonomic groups and to integrate strain-specific modifications. Besides classical PDF archiving and printing, the state-of-the-art website allows paperless use of media recipes on mobile devices for convenient wet-lab use. In addition, data can be retrieved using a RESTful web service for large-scale data analyses. An internal editor interface ensures continuous extension and curation of media by cultivation experts from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ, which is interlinked with the growing microbial collections at DSMZ. External user engagement is covered by a dedicated media builder tool. The standardized and programmatically accessible data will foster new approaches for the design of cultivation media to target the vast majority of uncultured microorganisms.
We present two strains affiliated with the GKS98 cluster. This phylogenetically defined cluster is representing abundant, mainly uncultured freshwater bacteria, which were observed by many cultivation-independent studies on the diversity of bacteria in various freshwater lakes and streams. Bacteria affiliated with the GKS98 cluster were detected by cultivation-independent methods in freshwater systems located in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas. The two strains, LF4-65 T (=CCUG 56422 T =DSM 107630 T ) and MWH-P2sevCIIIb T (=CCUG 56420 T =DSM 107629 T ), are aerobic chemoorganotrophs, both with genome sizes of 3.2 Mbp and G+C values of 52.4 and 51.0 mol%, respectively. Phylogenomic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 120 proteins suggest an affiliation of the two strains with the family Alcaligenaceae and revealed Orrella amnicola and Orrella marina (= Algicoccus marinus ) as being the closest related, previously described species. However, the calculated phylogenomic trees clearly suggest that the current genus Orrella represents a polyphyletic taxon. Based on the branching order in the phylogenomic trees, as well as the revealed phylogenetic distances and chemotaxonomic traits, we propose to establish the new genus Zwartia gen. nov. and the new species Z. hollandica sp. nov. to harbour strain LF4-65 T and the new genus Jezberella gen. nov. and the new species J. montanilacus sp. nov. to harbour strain MWH-P2sevCIIIb T . Furthermore, we propose the reclassification of the species Orrella amnicola in the new genus Sheuella gen. nov. The new genera Zwartia , Jezberella and Sheuella together represent taxonomically the GKS98 cluster.
The understanding and manipulation of microbial communities toward the conversion of lignocellulose and plastics are topics of interest in microbial ecology and biotechnology. In this study, the polymer-degrading capability of a minimal lignocellulolytic microbial consortium (MELMC) was explored by genome-resolved metagenomics. The MELMC was mostly composed (>90%) of three bacterial members (Pseudomonas protegens; Pristimantibacillus lignocellulolyticus gen. nov., sp. nov; and Ochrobactrum gambitense sp. nov) recognized by their high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Functional annotation of these MAGs revealed that Pr. lignocellulolyticus could be involved in cellulose and xylan deconstruction, whereas Ps. protegens could catabolize lignin-derived chemical compounds. The capacity of the MELMC to transform synthetic plastics was assessed by two strategies: (i) annotation of MAGs against databases containing plastic-transforming enzymes; and (ii) predicting enzymatic activity based on chemical structural similarities between lignin- and plastics-derived chemical compounds, using Simplified Molecular-Input Line-Entry System and Tanimoto coefficients. Enzymes involved in the depolymerization of polyurethane and polybutylene adipate terephthalate were found to be encoded by Ps. protegens, which could catabolize phthalates and terephthalic acid. The axenic culture of Ps. protegens grew on polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) nanoparticles and might be a suitable species for the industrial production of PHAs in the context of lignin and plastic upcycling.
Multi-kingdom community complexity and the chemically mediated dynamics between bacteria and insects have recently received increased attention in carrion research. However, the strength of these inter-kingdom interactions and the factors that regulate them are poorly studied. We used 75 piglet cadavers across three forest regions to survey the relationship between three actors (epinecrotic bacteria, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flies) during the first 4 days of decomposition and the factors that regulate this interdependence. The results showed a dynamic bacterial change during decomposition (temperature-time index) and across the forest management gradient, but not between regions. Similarly, VOC emission was dynamic across a temperature-time index and the forest management gradient but did not differ between regions. However, fly occurrence was dynamic across both space and time. The strong interdependence between the three actors was mainly regulated by the temperature-time index and the study regions, thereby revealing regulation at temporal and spatial scales. Additionally, the actor interdependence was stable across a gradient of forest management intensity. By combining different actors of decomposition, we have expanded our knowledge of the holistic mechanisms regulating carrion community dynamics and inter-kingdom interactions, an important precondition for better describing food web dynamics and entire ecosystem functions.
Recent publications indicate that A. radioresistens can cause infections in humans, even though it is rarely reported in routine diagnostics. However, the fact that it is infrequently detected may be explained by the misidentification of the species by conventional methods. It is also likely that A. radioresistens is not considered clinically relevant and therefore not consistently included in diagnostic results. To elucidate the medical significance of this probably clinically underestimated bacterial species, we created a well-documented reference strain collection of 21 strains collected in routine diagnostics. For further analysis of A. radioresistens, it is essential to know which methods can be used to achieve a trustworthy identification. We, therefore, compared three methods widely used in routine diagnostics (MALDI-TOF MS, VITEK 2, and sequencing of housekeeping genes) in terms of secure and reliable identification of A. radioresistens. As reference methods, whole genome-based approaches were applied. VITEK 2 led to misidentification for four strains. However, MALDI-TOF MS and sequencing of housekeeping genes led to reliable and robust identifications.
The order Solirubrobacterales is a deep-branching lineage within the phylum Actinomycetota . Most representatives have been isolated from terrestrial environments. A strain isolated from a grassland soil was found to be affiliated with this order and therefore characterized by a polyphasic approach. Cells of strain 0166_1 T are Gram-positive, short rods, non-motile, non-spore-forming and divide by binary fission. A surface layer with protrusions covers the majority of the cells. Strain 0166_1 T grows optimally around neutral to slightly alkaline pH (pH 7.1–7.9) and at temperatures between 24–36 °C in SSE/HD 1 : 10 medium. It grows optimally with 0–0.5% NaCl (w/v) but can withstand concentrations up to 5 %. The major fatty acids are C 18 : 1 ω9 c , C 16 : 1 ω 7 c , C 17 : 0 cyclo ω 7 c , C 18 : 1 ω7 c methyl and C 19 : 0 cyclo ω 9 c . The major polar lipids are diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and one unidentified glycolipid. MK-7(H4) and MK-7(H2) are the predominant respiratory quinones. meso -2,6-Diaminopimelic acid is the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The G+C content for strain 0166_1 T is 72.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that this bacterium was related to Conexibacter arvalis KV-962 T and Conexibacter stalactiti YC2-25 T with 95.5 and 95.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, genomic and phylogenetic data, we propose the novel species Capillimicrobium parvum sp. nov. (type strain 0166_1 T =DSM 104329 T =LMG 29999 T =CECT 9240 T ) of the novel genus Capillimicrobium gen. nov. within the novel family Capillimicrobiaceae fam. nov.
Root nodules of legume plants are primarily inhabited by rhizobial nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Here, we propose two new Rhizobiales species isolated from root nodules of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), as shown by core-gene phylogeny, overall genome relatedness indices, and pan-genome ana lysis. Mesorhizobium onobrychidis sp. nov. actively induces nodules and achieves atmospheric nitrogen and carbon dioxide fixation. This species appears to be depleted in motility genes and is enriched in genes for direct effects on plant growth performance. Its genome reveals functional and plant growth-promoting signatures, like a large unique chromosomal genomic island with high density of symbiotic genetic traits. Onobrychidicola muellerharveyae gen. nov. sp. nov. is described as a type species of the new genus Onobrychidicola in Rhizobiaceae. This species comprises unique genetic features and plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), which strongly indicate its function in biotic stress reduction and motility. We applied a newly developed bioinformatics approach for in silico prediction of PGPTs (PGPT-Pred), which supports the different lifestyles of the two new species and the plant growth-promoting performance of M. onobrychi-dis in the greenhouse trial. IMPORTANCE The intensive use of chemical fertilizers has a variety of negative effects on the environment. Increased utilization of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is one way to mitigate those negative impacts. In order to optimize BNF, suitable candidates for different legume species are required. Despite intensive search for new rhizobial bacteria associated with legumes, no new rhizobia have recently been identified from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). Here, we report on the discovery of two new rhizobial species associated with sainfoin, which are of high importance for the host and may help to increase sustainability in agricultural practices. We employed the combination of in silico prediction and in planta experiments, which is an effective way to detect promising plant growth-promoting bacteria.
Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a severe lymphoid malignancy with a worse prognosis lacking curative treatment regimens. Several gene mutations and deregulated pathways, including NFkB signaling, have been implicated in its pathogenesis. Accordingly, CTCL cell line HUT-78 reportedly contains mutated NFKB2, which is constitutively activated via partial gene deletion, also demonstrating that genomic rearrangements cause driving mutations in this malignancy. Here, along with HUT-78, we analyzed CTCL cell line HH to identify additional aberrations underlying gene deregulation. Karyotyping and genomic profiling of HH showed several rearrangements worthy of detailed investigation. Corresponding to the established karyotype, RNA-seq data and PCR analysis confirmed the presence of t(3;17)(q28;q25), generating a novel fusion gene, FOXK2::TP63. Furthermore, chromosomal rearrangement t(1;4)(p32;q25) was connected to amplification at 4q24–26, affecting aberrant NFKB1 overexpression thereat. Transcription factor binding-site analysis and knockdown experiments demonstrated that IRF4 contributed to NFKB1 expression. Within the same amplicon, we identified amplification and overexpression of NFkB signaling activator CAMK2D (4q26) and p53-inhibitor UBE2D3 (4q24). Genomic profiling data for HUT-78 detailed a deletion at 10q25 underlying reported NFKB2 activation. Moreover, amplifications of ID1 (20q11) and IKZF2 (2q34) in this cell line drove overexpression of these NK cell differentiation factors and possibly thus formed corresponding lineage characteristics. Target gene analysis for NFKB1 via siRNA-mediated knockdown in HH revealed activation of TP63, MIR155, and NOTCH pathway component RBPJ. Finally, treatment of HH with NFkB inhibitor demonstrated a role for NFkB in supporting proliferation, while usage of inhibitor DAPT showed significant survival effects via the NOTCH pathway. Collectively, our data suggest that NFkB and/or NOTCH inhibitors may represent reasonable treatment options for subsets of CTCL patients.
The fungus Ilyonectria pseudodestructans belongs to the family Nectriaceae and was found to be part of the endophytic microbiome of apple trees (Malus x domestica, Borkh.) with apple replant disease (ARD). After dsRNA extraction, a mycoviral infection became evident. Here, we report the identification of a new virus, tentatively named “Ilyonectria pseudodestructans chrysovirus 1” (IpCV1), as the first member of the proposed new species “Alphachrysovirus ilyonectriae” within the genus Alphachrysovirus. This is the first report of a chrysovirus infecting a member of the fungal genus Ilyonectria. IpCV1 has a tripartite dsRNA genome with a total length of 8944 bp. The segments are 3439 bp, 2850 bp, and 2655 bp in length, and each dsRNA carries a single ORF. The encoded viral proteins are a 125.92-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a 100.75-kDa coat protein, and one protein of unknown function with a predicted molecular mass of 93.04 kDa. The 5´ and 3´ UTRs are comparatively short and are 79 to 91 bp and 62 to 148 bp in length, respectively. This study provides the basis for further investigations of the impact of IpCV1 on its host and the etiology of ARD.
Opinion 112 denies the request to place Seliberia Aristovskaya and Parinkina 1963 (Approved Lists 1980) on the list of rejected names because the information provided is insufficient. For the same reason, Opinion 113 denies the request to reject Shewanella irciniae Lee et al . 2006 and Opinion 114 denies the request to reject the name Enterobacter siamensis Khunthongpan et al . 2014. Opinion 115 rejects the epithet of Moorella thermoautotrophica (Wiegel et al . 1981) Collins et al . 1994, which is regarded as a nomen confusum . To assess the consequences of Rule 8, Opinion 116 revisits names of taxa above the rank of genus which should comprise the stem of the name of a nomenclatural type and a category-specific ending but fail to do so. Such names should be orthographically corrected if the sole error is the inadvertent usage of an incorrect stem or be regarded as illegitimate if otherwise. The necessary corrections are made for a number of names. In Opinion 117, the request to designate Methylothermus subterraneus Hirayama et al . 2011 as the type species of the genus Methylothermus is denied because an equivalent action compatible with the Code was already conducted. In Opinion 118, the possible orthographical correction of the name Flaviaesturariibacter is treated, as are the analogous cases of Fredinandcohnia and Hydrogeniiclostidium . The genus names are corrected to Flaviaestuariibacter , Ferdinandcohnia and Hydrogeniiclostridium , respectively. Opinion 119 concludes that assigning Actinomycetales Buchanan 1917 (Approved Lists 1980) as nomenclatural type of the class Actinobacteria Stackebrandt et al . 1997 would not render that name legitimate if Rule 8 remained retroactive. The request is granted but Actinomycetales is also assigned as type of Actinomycetes Krassilnikov 1949 (Approved Lists 1980). In Opinion 120, the possible orthographical correction of the name Amycolatopsis albidoflavus is treated. It is grammatically corrected to Amycolatopsis albidoflava . Six names which could according to Rule 61 be grammatically corrected by anyone are also corrected. Opinion 121 denies the request to revise Opinion 69 and notes that Opinion 69 does not have the undesirable consequences emphasized in the request. In Opinion 122, the request to reject various taxon names of Mollicutes proposed in 2018 is denied because it is based on misinterpretations of the Code, which are clarified. Alternative ways to solve the perceived problems are outlined. These Opinions were ratified by the voting members of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes.
Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), genus Potyvirus, is the causal agent of a disease of cucurbits. The genome sequences of seven ZYFV isolates of different origin were determined, two of which were reconstructed from a squash ( Cucurbita sp.) collected in 2017 in Greece, while the others, accessions from the DSMZ Plant Virus Collection, were from samples collected in Italy, Greece, and France in the 1980s and 1990s. A high level of molecular diversity, well dispersed along the genome, was observed, but this was within the limits for assignment of the virus isolates to the same species. P1 was the most diverse gene, and isolates from squash contained an insertion in this gene.
An orange-golden iridescent culture, designated A1X5R2 T , was isolated from a compost soil suspension which was amended with Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665 T culture supernatant. The cells were non-motile, Gram-stain-negative, 0.4–0.5 µm wide and 0.7–1.4 µm long. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic and whole-genome analyses revealed that strain A1X5R2 T forms a distinct lineage within the family Sphingosinicellaceae and is closely related to members of the genus Sphingoaurantiacus ( S. capsulatus , 93.04 % similarity, and S. polygranulatus , 92.77 %). The organism grew at 22–47 °C (optimal at 37 °C), salinity <3 % (optimal at 1.5 %) and at pH 7. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10, but a small quantity of ubiquinone-9 was also detected The major polyamine was homospermidine, but a small quantity of putrescine was also detected. The strain contained C 18 : 1 ω7 c , C 16 : 0 , C 16 : 1 ω7 c and C 18 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingoglycolipid, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified amino lipids. The DNA G+C content was 64.9 mol%. According to the results of phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses, as well as its physiological characteristics, strain A2X5R2 T represents the type species of a novel genus within the family Sphingosinicellaceae . The name Pedomonas mirosovicensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain being A1X5R2 T (=NCCB 100839 T =DSM 112829 T ).
Plasmids are small DNA molecules that replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. The common view of the role of plasmids is dominated by the accumulation of resistance genes, which is responsible for the antibiotic crisis in health care and livestock breeding.
Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important crop for smallholder farmers in the Northeast region of Brazil. Wherever yam is grown, diseases caused by yam mosaic virus (YMV) are prevalent. In the present study, the diversity of YMV infecting Dioscorea cayennensis-rotundata was analyzed. In addition, five species of Dioscorea (D. alata, D. altissima, D. bulbifera, D. subhastata, and D. trifida) commonly found in Brazil were analyzed using ELISA and high-throughput sequencing (HTS). YMV was detected only in D. cayennensis-rotundata, of which 66.7% of the samples tested positive in ELISA. Three YMV genome sequences were assembled from HTS and one by Sanger sequencing to group the sequences in a clade phylogenetically distinct from YMV from other origins. Temporal phylogenetic analyses estimated the mean evolutionary rate for the CP gene of YMV as 1.76 × 10–3 substitutions per site per year, and the time to the most recent common ancestor as 168.68 years (95% Highest Posterior Density, HPD: 48.56–363.28 years), with a most likely geographic origin in the African continent. The data presented in this study contribute to reveal key aspects of the probable epidemiological history of YMV in Brazil.
A genome led phylophasic study was designed to determine the taxonomic status of a strain, DSM 45956, recovered from a Saharan desert soil. A wealth of taxonomic data, including average nucleotide identity and DNA:DNA hybridization (DDH) values, showed that the isolate and the type strains of Actinopolyspora lacussalsi and Actinopolyspora righensis belong to the same species. Consequently, it is proposed that A. righensis is a heterotypic synonym of A. lacussalsi. Similarly, DDH values and associated phenotypic data show that A. lacussalsi contains two subspecies, A. lacussalsi subsp. lacussalsi and A. lacussalsi subsp. righensis which includes isolate DSM 45956.
The Gram-positive strain R79T, isolated from the rhizosphere of young M26 apple rootstocks, was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Phylogenetic identification based on the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of Rhodococcus wratislaviensis (99.6%) and Rhodococcus opacus (99.2%) followed by Rhodococcus imtechensis (98.9%). All other 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities were below 98.65%. A phylogenomic tree calculated based on a whole-genome sequence also showed a distinct clustering with the type strain of Rhodococcus koreensis. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between whole-genome sequences of R79T and the closest related type strains were below 95% supported the novel species status. The DNA G + C content of R79T was 67.24% mol. Predominant fatty acids were C16:0, C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. The strain contained MK8-H2 as the major respiratory quinone. The polar lipid profile consists of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as of some unidentified lipids. The peptidoglycan type of the strain is A1γ meso-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the obtained genotypic and phenotypic, including chemotaxonomic data, we conclude that R79T represents a novel species of the genus Rhodococcus, for which the name Rhodococcus pseudokoreensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is R79T (= DSM 113102T = LMG 32444T = CCM 9183T).
A polyphasic study was designed to resolve the taxonomic position of isolate MGRD01-02 T which was recovered from an acidic hot spring in Indonesia and assigned to the genus Actinospica . Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences show that the isolate is most closely related to the type strains of Actinospica acidiphila (98.5%), Actinospica robiniae (97.8%) and Actinospica durhamensis (96.8%). Morphological and chemotaxonomic data underpin the assignment of the isolate to the genus Actinospica as it forms an extensively branched substrate mycelium which carries tufts of white aerial hyphae that differentiate into straight to flexuous chains of cylindrical spores with faint rugose surfaces, contains 2,6-diamino-3-hydroxydiaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, mixtures of hydrogenated menaquinones with nine isoprene units, iso- C 15:O and iso -C 16:O as major fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine as the diagnostic phospholipid. Whole-genome sequence analyses show that the isolate, A. durhamensis CSCA 57 T and Actinocrinis puniceicyclus DSM 45168 T have genome sizes of 7.9, 9.6 and 6.7 Mbp, respectively. A phylogenomic tree shows that they form distinct branches in a well-supported clade, a result supported by associated phenotypic data. Average nucleotide identity and digital DNA:DNA hybridization similarities are below the recommended thresholds for assigning strains to the same species; they also indicate that isolate MGRD01-02 T is most closely related to the A. durhamensis and A. robiniae strains. Corresponding amino acid identity and conserved protein data not only support these relationships but also confirm the taxonomic integrity of the genus Actinocrinis . Based on these results, it is proposed that isolate MGRD01-02 T (= CCMM B1308 T = ICEBB-09 T = NCIMB 15218 T ) be classified in the genus Actinospica as Actinospica acidithermotolerans sp. nov. The draft genome of the isolate and its closest phylogenomic neighbours contain biosynthetic gene clusters with the potential to produce new natural products, notably antibiotics.
Nucleus-forming jumbo phages establish an intricate subcellular organization, enclosing phage genomes within a proteinaceous shell called the phage nucleus. During infection in Pseudomonas, some jumbo phages assemble a bipolar spindle of tubulin-like PhuZ filaments that positions the phage nucleus at midcell and drives its intracellular rotation. This facilitates the distribution of capsids on its surface for genome packaging. Here we show that the Escherichia coli jumbo phage Goslar assembles a phage nucleus surrounded by an array of PhuZ filaments resembling a vortex instead of a bipolar spindle. Expression of a mutant PhuZ protein strongly reduces Goslar phage nucleus rotation, demonstrating that the PhuZ cytoskeletal vortex is necessary for rotating the phage nucleus. While vortex-like cytoskeletal arrays are important in eukaryotes for cytoplasmic streaming and nucleus alignment, this work identifies a coherent assembly of filaments into a vortex-like structure driving intracellular rotation within the prokaryotic cytoplasm.
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