Lawrence University
  • United States
Recent publications
Cyanobacteria blooms have been reported to be increasing worldwide. In addition to potentially causing major economic and ecological damage, these blooms can threaten human health. Furthermore, these blooms can be exacerbated by a warming climate. One approach to monitoring and modeling cyanobacterial biomass is to use processed satellite imagery to obtain long-term data sets. In this paper, an existing algorithm for estimating cyanobacterial biomass previously developed for MERIS is validated for Green Bay using cyanobacteria biovolume estimates obtained from field samples. Once the algorithm was validated, the existing MERIS imagery was used to determine the bloom phenology of the cyanobacterial biomass in Green Bay. Modeled datasets of heat flux (as a proxy for stratification), wind speed, water temperature, and gelbstoff absorption along with in situ river discharge data were used to separate bloom seasons in Green Bay from bloom seasons in nearby cyanobacteria bloom hotspots including western Lake Erie and Saginaw Bay. Of the ten-year MERIS dataset used here, the highest five years were considered “high bloom” years, and the lowest five years from biomass were considered “low bloom” years and these definitions were used to separate Green Bay. Green Bay had a strong relationship with gelbstoff absorption making it unique among the water bodies, while western Lake Erie responded strongly with river discharge as previously reported. Saginaw Bay, which has low interannual bloom variability, did not exhibit a largely influential single parameter.
Below-ground processes are crucial in determining the effects of plants on ecosystem function. The root-soil interface is a highly active zone due to root exudation and nutrient uptake. However, its role in determining effects of tree species and their interactions on the soil microbial community, ecosystem function and above-ground growth is less well known. We compared the effects of tree species monocultures and their mixture on rhizospheric microbial communities, specific functional genetic markers associated with processes in the nitrogen (N) cycle, and above-ground and below-ground growth and nutrient allocation. Two pairs of tree species were grown: Pseudotsuga menziesii and Alnus rubra; Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus robur. Tree establishment altered soil microbial composition, but after 26 months differences amongst tree species and effects of species mixture were minor, suggesting functional redundancy in microbial communities. A greater abundance of fungi, bacteria, and specifically ammonia oxidising and denitrifying bacteria in the rhizospheric soil of the N-fixing A. rubra was the most notable trend. Mixing A. rubra with P. menziesii did produce overyielding: trees grown in mixture attained a two-fold greater (Relative Yield Total 2.03 ± 0.52) above-ground biomass than in a mixture predicted from trees grown in monoculture. We did not observe strong trends in overyielding for A. psuedoplatanus and Q. robur. Inclusion of the N-fixing species A. rubra in admixture with P. menziesii promoted N cycling, and decreased the C:N ratios of leaf, branch, and root tissues but not soil C:N ratio for P. menziesii. Given the observed overyielding in the A. rubra with P. menziesii mixtures, we explored potential mechanistic links between functional genetic markers for nitrification and ammonification, however we found no statistically significant effects attributable to these genetic markers. We found root area index was significantly lower in A. rubra monocultures than in admixture with P. menziesii. For both P. menziesii and A. rubra, the number of root tips was lower in mixture than monoculture, indicating physical partitioning of soil space as a result of growing in mixture. We documented additive and synergistic effects of tree species identity on above and belowground productivity, and rhizospheric microbial community development in these four tree species.
As research on race and racism in the USA has suggested that it now takes a more subtle and neoliberal form, one of the areas in which race and racism are most explicit is in dating and sex. When finding dating and sexual partners, people tend to be explicit about their rejection of potential mates along racial lines while claiming that these preferences have no connection with racism. Callander et al.’s (2015) study was the first to provide the evidence that these expressions of sexual racism, or race-based rejections of partners in sexual contexts, were in fact related to cultural racism perpetuated in society at large. Despite all of this, the study has never been replicated. We aimed to partially replicate the study in the USA, using a sample of 616 gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men. Using the Quick Discrimination Index and online sexual racism surveys referenced in the original paper, we find a correlation of − 0.129, between the two measures. This suggests that respondents who demonstrate more openness and less racist beliefs in general are also less likely to be accepting of forms of online sexual racism, a finding that is consistent with prior research. Still, the correlation between these measures is not nearly as strong as that observed in Australia in the original paper (− 0.56), raising questions that require further exploration.
Task‐specificity in isolated focal dystonias is a powerful feature that may successfully be targeted with therapeutic brain–computer interfaces. While performing a symptomatic task, the patient actively modulates momentary brain activity (disorder signature) to match activity during an asymptomatic task (target signature), which is expected to translate into symptom reduction.
Background: Fragile X syndrome is characterized by a myriad of physical features, behavioral features, and medical problems. Commonly found behavioral features are hyperactivity, anxiety, socialization difficulties, and ASD. There is also a higher incidence than in the general population of strabismus, otitis media, and mitral valve prolapse. In addition, one of the most common medical problems associated with FXS is an increased risk of seizures. A subset of individuals carrying the full mutation of the FMR1 gene and diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are reported to experience seizures, mostly during the first 10 years of their life span. Methods: As part of a larger project to identify genetic variants that modify the risk of seizures, we collected clinical information from 49 carriers with FXS who experienced seizures and 46 without seizures. We compared seizure type and comorbid conditions based on the source of data as well as family history of seizures. Results: We found that the concordance of seizure types observed by parents and medical specialists varied by type of seizure. The most common comorbid condition among those with seizures was autism spectrum disorder (47% per medical records vs. 33% per parent report compared with 19% among those without seizures per parent report); the frequency of other comorbid conditions did not differ among groups. We found a slightly higher frequency of family members who experienced seizures among the seizure group compared with the nonseizure group. Conclusion: This study confirms previously reported features of seizures in FXS, supports additional genetic factors, and highlights the importance of information sources, altogether contributing to a better understanding of seizures in FXS.
The increase in species diversity from temperate to tropical regions is one of the most widespread patterns in biogeography. As humans continue to drastically modify natural habitats, land‐use changes such as the development of cities could potentially alter typical latitudinal diversity gradients. Cities could depress or enhance biodiversity through filtering, localised extirpations, or increasing niche availability, respectively. To address these possibilities and the consequences for the latitudinal diversity gradient, we constructed a global dataset of urban species diversity (richness) and community composition across ~60° of absolute latitude and from 63 cities. We focused our study on ants, for which comparable urban and non‐urban diversity data are broadly available. We found that urbanisation significantly dampened the latitude‐diversity cline. The effects of urbanisation varied with latitude: at lower latitudes, cities were relatively species poor and harboured distinct ant communities relative to nearby non‐urban communities. In higher latitude cities, both species richness and community composition were more similar to the surrounding non‐urban ant communities. Our analyses suggest that the strongest impacts of urbanisation on ant diversity may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is already expected to experience the greatest risk of extinction in the face of climate change. We constructed a global dataset of urban ant species diversity (richness) and community composition. We found that urbanisation significantly dampened the latitude‐diversity cline, with varying impacts across latitude. Lower latitude cities were species poor with distinct ant communities relative to nearby non‐urban communities. Urban and non‐urban species richness and community composition were more similar at higher latitudes. The strongest impacts of urbanisation on ant diversity may be in the tropics, where biological diversity is expected to experience the greatest risk of extinction due to climate change.
Internet of Things (IoT) data processing enables rapid access to large volumes of data with the possibility of improving service‐oriented business models. As such, the rapid adoption of IoT devices has resulted in a large number of low‐powered devices integrating into traditional communication networks and influencing practically all assets of everyday life. However, the integration of IoT devices into traditional networks comes at a price, often in the form of added security challenges or administrative complexity. Some of these challenges may be addressed by leveraging technology developed from an unlikely source, crypto currencies. Crypto currencies introduced the notion of a blockchain, which is comprised of several underlying technologies that may be combined with IoT protocols to enable secure mechanisms for reaping the benefits of IoT devices. This paper introduces key challenges in securing IoT devices as well as important components of blockchain technology that may contain the keys to addressing these challenges. Emerging IoT security solutions are identified and evaluated based on their assessed effectiveness.
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) are highly contagious diseases caused by lagoviruses in the Caliciviridae family. These infectious diseases are associated with high mortality and a serious threat to domesticated and wild rabbits and hares, including endangered species such as riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius). In the United States (U.S.), only isolated cases of RHD had been reported until Spring 2020. However, RHD caused by GI.2/rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV)2/b was unexpectedly reported in April 2020 in New Mexico and has subsequently spread to several U.S. states, infecting wild rabbits and hares and making it highly likely that RHD will become endemic in the U.S. Vaccines are available for RHD; however, there is no specific treatment for this disease. Lagoviruses encode a 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which is essential for virus replication and a promising target for antiviral drug development. We have previously generated focused small-molecule libraries of 3CLpro inhibitors and demonstrated the in vitro potency and in vivo efficacy of some protease inhibitors against viruses encoding 3CLpro, including caliciviruses and coronaviruses. Here, we report the development of the enzyme and cell-based assays for the 3CLpro of GI.1c/RHDV, recombinant GI.3P-GI.2 (RHDV2/b), and GII.1/European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) as well as the identification of potent lagovirus 3CLpro inhibitors, including GC376, a protease inhibitor being developed for feline infectious peritonitis. In addition, structure-activity relationship study and homology modeling of the 3CLpro and inhibitors revealed that lagovirus 3CLpro share similar structural requirements for inhibition with other calicivirus 3CLpro. IMPORTANCE Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) and European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) are viral diseases that affect lagomorphs with significant economic and ecological impacts. RHD vaccines are available, but specific antiviral treatment for these viral infections would be a valuable addition to the current control measures. Lagoviruses encode 3C-like protease (3CLpro), which is essential for virus replication and an attractive target for antiviral drug discovery. We have screened and identified potent small-molecule inhibitors that block lagovirus 3CLpro in the enzyme- and cell-based assays. Our results suggest that these compounds have the potential for further development as antiviral drugs for lagoviruses.
The category of “former friend” is familiar, yet the nature of this relationship type remains underexplored. Aristotle, for example, poses but does not answer the question of what constitute appropriate relations between former friends. To elucidate post-friendship expectations, I promote an account of friendship according to which some of our most significant friendships participate in a type of intimacy characterized by having normative standing to interpret each other in a constitutive manner, which I call the “co-interpretation view” of friendship. Unchecked powers of co-interpretation, however, invite and allow for violations of each friend’s personhood, so I draw on Kantian resources to guide the co-interpretation view and render it more plausible. These Kantian resources help to establish relevant expectations for co-interpretation between friends. This positions me to provide an account of appropriate expectations between former friends, which I analyze in three types of post-friendship circumstance: when the friendship has faded but the parties still share a general outlook; when the friendship has become damaging for the friends but not due to viciousness; and, when the friendship ruptures due to vicious behaviors.
During the Holocene, the scale and complexity of human societies increased markedly. Generations of scholars have proposed different theories explaining this expansion, which range from broadly functionalist explanations, focusing on the provision of public goods, to conflict theories, emphasizing the role of class struggle or warfare. To quantitatively test these theories, we develop a general dynamical model based on the theoretical framework of cultural macroevolution. Using this model and Seshat: Global History Databank, we test 17 potential predictor variables proxying mechanisms suggested by major theories of sociopolitical complexity (and >100,000 combinations of these predictors). The best-supported model indicates a strong causal role played by a combination of increasing agricultural productivity and invention/adoption of military technologies (most notably, iron weapons and cavalry in the first millennium BCE).
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a human pathogen capable of establishing lifelong latent infections that can reactivate under stress conditions. A viral immediate early protein that plays important roles in the HSV-1 lytic and latent infections is the viral E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0. ICP0 transactivates all temporal classes of HSV-1 genes and facilitates viral gene expression. ICP0 also impairs the antiviral effects of interferon (IFN)-β, a component of host innate defenses known to limit viral replication. To begin to understand how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to disarm the IFN-β response, we performed genetic analyses using a series of ICP0 truncation mutants in the absence and presence of IFN-β in cell culture. We observed that IFN-β pretreatment of cells significantly impaired the replication of the ICP0 truncation mutants, n212 and n312, which code for the first 211 and 311 amino acids of ICP0, respectively; this effect of IFN-β correlated with decreased HSV-1 early and late gene expression. This increased sensitivity to IFN-β was not as apparent with the ICP0 mutant, n389. Our mapping studies indicate that loss of 77 amino acids from residues 312 to 388 in the N-terminal half of ICP0 resulted in a virus that was significantly more sensitive to cells pre-exposed to IFN-β. This 77 amino acid region contains a phospho-SUMO-interacting motif or -SIM, which we propose participates in ICP0's ability to counteract the antiviral response established by IFN-β. IMPORTANCE Interferons (IFNs) are secreted cellular factors that are induced by viral infection and limit replication. HSV-1 is largely refractory to the antiviral effects of type 1 IFNs, which are synthesized shortly after viral infection, in part through the activities of the viral regulatory protein, ICP0. To understand how ICP0 impedes the antiviral effects of type 1 IFNs, we used a series of HSV-1 ICP0 mutants and examined their viral replication and gene expression levels in cells stimulated with IFN-β (a type 1 IFN). Our mapping data identifies a discrete 77 amino acid region in the N-terminal half of ICP0 that facilitates HSV-1 resistance to IFN-β. This region of ICP0 is modified by phosphorylation and binds to the posttranslational modification SUMO, suggesting that HSV, and potentially other viruses, may counteract type 1 IFN signaling by altering SUMO and/or SUMO modified cellular proteins.
Human–wildlife cooperation occurs when humans and free-living wild animals actively coordinate their behavior to achieve a mutually beneficial outcome. These interactions provide important benefits to both the human and wildlife communities involved, have wider impacts on the local ecosystem, and represent a unique intersection of human and animal cultures. The remaining active forms are human–honeyguide and human–dolphin cooperation, but these are at risk of joining several inactive forms (including human–wolf and human–orca cooperation). Human–wildlife cooperation faces a unique set of conservation challenges, as it requires multiple components—a motivated human and wildlife partner, a suitable environment, and compatible interspecies knowledge—which face threats fromecological and cultural changes. To safeguard human–wildlife cooperation, we recommend: (i) establishing ethically sound conservation strategies together with the participating human communities; (ii) conserving opportunities for human and wildlife participation; (iii) protecting suitable environments; (iv) facilitating cultural transmission of traditional knowledge; (v) accessibly archiving Indigenous and scientific knowledge; and (vi) conducting long-term empirical studies to better understand these interactions and identify threats. Tailored safeguarding plans are therefore necessary to protect these diverse and irreplaceable interactions. Broadly, our review highlights that efforts to conserve biological and cultural diversity should carefully consider interactions between human and animal cultures.
We have synthesized and characterized a benzannulated analog, bBDPA, of the well-known stable radical bis(diphenylene)phenylallyl (BDPA). Benzannulation gives rise to fluorescence in the closed-shell precursor molecule bBDPAH, but luminescence is quenched in the radical species. We detail the synthesis, characterization by absorption, emission, and EPR spectroscopy, and examine the molecular orbital landscape dictating the properties of the radical. We find that benzannulation alters the energy of the radical’s frontier molecular orbitals differently than in luminescent radicals brought about by incorporation of heteroatoms into their frameworks.
The Uto‐Aztecan premolar (UAP) is a rare dental morphological variant long thought to be restricted to non‐Arctic Native Americans. The recent discovery of four individuals with this trait in a Hungarian sample invites reassessment of its geographic distribution. Our goal is to assess the variation of this trait on a global level and provide an explanation for its distribution. Observations on over 300 medieval Hungarian dentitions, along with data from the C.G. Turner II database, provide the authors with a global perspective on the distribution of UAP. In addition to four instances of UAP from Hungary, additional European cases have been reported from Germany, Spain, Yugoslavia, and France. While the trait is most common in non‐Arctic Native Americans, it is absent in Africa, Arctic America, the Pacific, and Asia with a few isolated and problematic exceptions. Most papers on UAP have focused on the trait’s presence in the Americas with some authors suggesting a possible New World mutation. Although rare outside of the Americas, four examples from Hungary, in addition to other reported cases from Europe, suggest a more complex history of the UAP. Recent paleogenomic research indicates that direct gene flow from a west Eurasian lineage to an Ancient Native American population may have taken place after their divergence from the ancestral Arctic Native American population (Ancient Paleo‐Siberians), thus explaining its current distribution among Europeans and non‐Arctic Native Americans.
The reproducibility movement in psychology has resulted in numerous highly publicized instances of replication failures. The goal of the present work was to investigate people’s reactions to a psychology replication failure vs. success, and to test whether a failure elicits harsher reactions when the researcher is a woman vs. a man. We examined these questions in a pre-registered experiment with a working adult sample, a conceptual replication of that experiment with a student sample, and an analysis of data compiled and posted by a psychology researcher on their public weblog with the stated goal to improve research replicability by rank-ordering psychology researchers by their “estimated false discovery risk.” Participants in the experiments were randomly assigned to read a news article describing a successful vs. failed replication attempt of original work from a male vs. female psychological scientist, and then completed measures of researcher competence, likability, integrity, perceptions of the research, and behavioral intentions for future interactions with the researcher. In both working adult and student samples, analyses consistently yielded large main effects of replication outcome, but no interaction with researcher gender. Likewise, the coding of weblog data posted in July 2021 indicated that 66.3% of the researchers scrutinized were men and 33.8% were women, and their rank-ordering was not correlated with researcher gender. The lack of support for our pre-registered gender-replication hypothesis is, at first glance, encouraging for women researchers’ careers; however, the substantial effect sizes we observed for replication outcome underscore the tremendous negative impact the reproducibility movement can have on psychologists’ careers. We discuss the implications of such negative perceptions and the possible downstream consequences for women in the field that are essential for future study.
Abstract Human‐wildlife cooperation is a type of mutualism in which a human and a wild, free‐living animal actively coordinate their behaviour to achieve a common beneficial outcome. While other cooperative human‐animal interactions involving captive coercion or artificial selection (including domestication) have received extensive attention, we lack integrated insights into the ecology and evolution of human‐wildlife cooperative interactions. Here, we review and synthesise the function, mechanism, development, and evolution of human‐wildlife cooperation. Active cases involve people cooperating with greater honeyguide birds and with two dolphin species, while historical cases involve wolves and orcas. In all cases, a food source located by the animal is made available to both species by a tool‐using human, coordinated with cues or signals. The mechanisms mediating the animal behaviours involved are unclear, but they may resemble those underlying intraspecific cooperation and reduced neophobia. The skills required appear to develop at least partially by social learning in both humans and the animal partners. As a result, distinct behavioural variants have emerged in each type of human‐wildlife cooperative interaction in both species, and human‐wildlife cooperation is embedded within local human cultures. We propose multiple potential origins for these unique cooperative interactions, and highlight how shifts to other interaction types threaten their persistence. Finally, we identify key questions for future research. We advocate an approach that integrates ecological, evolutionary and anthropological perspectives to advance our understanding of human‐wildlife cooperation. In doing so, we will gain new insights into the diversity of our ancestral, current and future interactions with the natural world. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.
The use of grazing‐incidence scattering methods for the characterization of 2D patterned organic thin films is limited due to the elongated 1D footprint of the X‐ray beam on the sample. However, this characteristic feature can be turned into an advantage, when combined with tomographic reconstruction. In this pilot study we show, how the use of a chosen texture reflection and a diffuse reflectivity signal can each provide 2D images of the deposits, simultaneously revealing the organic film's crystal orientation and the location of the metal electrodes in a field‐effect transistor structure from a single sequence of diffraction images. Grazing incidence scattering methods have much contributed to analyze the morphology of organic semiconductor thin films. Here grazing‐incidence tomographical methods are introduced to elucidate morphological information in a 2D patterned device structure.
Self-monitoring is a promising evidence-based intervention for students who benefit from supplemental supports to stay on-task during academic periods. I-Connect, a technology-based self-monitoring intervention with a substantial body of research, allows students to discretely recognize and record their behavior on a mobile or desktop app at scheduled intervals, to improve positive behavior and increase inclusion opportunities. This meta-analytic review examined the effect of I-Connect on the on-task behavior of students with or at risk for disabilities to determine the omnibus effect of using I-Connect across students and intervention packages. Students received 20–45 minutes of training before using I-Connect and most students monitored their on-task behavior every 30-seconds during 10-minute monitoring sessions. Under these conditions, I-Connect was found to demonstrate strong functional relations, an abrupt increase in on-task behavior and consistently positive parametric effects across all 14 elementary and secondary students receiving special education.
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Peter Glick
  • Psychology
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  • Psychology
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