Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
  • Berkeley, CA, United States
Recent publications
Temporal computing promises to mitigate the stringent area constraints and clock distribution overheads of traditional superconducting digital computing. To design a scalable, area- and power-efficient superconducting network on chip (NoC), we propose packet-switched superconducting temporal NoC (PaST-NoC). PaST-NoC operates its control path in the temporal domain using race logic (RL), combined with bufferless deflection flow control to minimize area. Packets encode their destination using RL and carry a collection of data pulses that the receiver can interpret as pulse trains, RL, serialized binary, or other formats. We demonstrate how to scale up PaST-NoC to arbitrary topologies based on 2×2 routers and 4×4 butterflies as building blocks. As we show, if data pulses are interpreted using RL, PaST-NoC outperforms state-of-the-art superconducting binary NoCs in throughput per area by as much as $5\times$ for long packets.
Operation of high-field superconducting magnets relies on diagnostic instrumentation for measuring strain, temperature, and magnetic field variations, detecting quenching, and identifying performance problems. Discrete sensor implementation is costly, requires multi-channel data acquisition systems, and sensor density is often insufficient to resolve problematic locations spatially. Distributed sensing is a viable alternative approach providing location-specific diagnostic information over single terminal output. In particular, it can be the key to quench protection of high-temperature superconductor (HTS)-based magnets where hot spots are known to form and persist before a quench. Fiber-optic technology offers distributed sensing solution for magnets but suffers from drawbacks such as fiber fragility, high costs of optical interrogators, and difficulty in differentiating between physical quantities such as temperature and strain. We propose an alternative, robust, and easily integrable way of implementing distributed sensing in magnets using radio-frequency (RF) technologies. RF Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique has been around for nearly 60 years, and it is an essential diagnostic tool used in multiple areas of technology and applied research. We discuss operational principles and practical implementation of RF TDR sensors capable of detecting local variations of strain, temperature, and magnetic field through changes in RF impedance and wave propagation time. Results of cryogenic testing of our TDR sensors with HTS tape conductors are presented. The perspective of enabling a new diagnostics paradigm for high-energy physics and fusion energy applications based on distributed RF sensing is discussed.
Bi-2212 is the only high temperature superconducting wire with the round geometry. It is multifilamentary, available in a wide range of fine filaments and twisted filament architectures and can be made into Rutherford and other cables. The properties of Bi-2212 conductors depend on powder quality, conductor fabrication and heat treatment. The heat treatment is still complex but much better understood, particularly the vital parameters of the maximum heat treatment temperature ( T<sub>max</sub> ), time-in-the-melt ( t<sub>melt</sub> ) and the cooling rate as Bi-2212 reforms on cooling. Here we report on the performance and microstructure variation with heat treatments for more than a dozen wires made with powders produced by Engi-Mat in recent years. Wire architectures include 37x18, 55x18 and 85x18 and wire diameters range from 0.8 to 1.0 mm. T<sub>max</sub> was varied between 884 and 897 °C. Wires with smaller filament diameter showed a peak J<sub>E</sub> at the low end of T<sub>ma</sub> <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">x</sub> and also a J<sub>E</sub> that was more sensitive to T<sub>max</sub> . J<sub>E</sub> ( T<sub>max</sub> ) plots for all recent wires show a plateau between T<sub>max</sub> of 886 and 894 °C, where J<sub>E</sub> (4.2 K, 5 T) is 1100 - 1400 A/mm <sup xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">2</sup> . Some wires with filament size of 13 - 15 μm showed a 10 °C heat treatment window ( Δ T<sub>max</sub> ) with a plateau J<sub>E</sub> (4.2 K, 5 T) of about 1100 A/mm <sup xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">2</sup> .
The cold powering test of the first two prototypes of the MQXFB quadrupoles (MQXFBP1, now disassembled, and MQXFBP2), the Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn inner triplet magnets to be installed in the HL-LHC, has validated many features of the design, such as field quality and quench protection, but has found performance limitations. In fact, both magnets showed a similar phenomenology, characterized by reproducible quenches in the straight part inner layer pole turn, with absence of training and limiting the performance at 93% (MQXFBP1) and 98% (MQXFBP2) of the nominal current at 1.9 K, required for HL-LHC operation at 7 TeV. Microstructural inspections of the quenching section of the limiting coil in MQXFBP1 have identified fractured Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn sub-elements in strands located at one specific position of the inner layer pole turn, allowing to determine the precise origin of the performance limitation. In this paper we outline the strategy that has been defined to address the possible sources of performance limitation, namely coil manufacturing, magnet assembly and integration in the cold mass.
The design and production of Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn-based dipole and quadrupole magnets is critical for the realization of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn superconducting coils are aimed at enhancing the bending and focusing strengths of accelerator magnets for HL-LHC and beyond. Due to the brittle nature of Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn, the coil fabrication steps are very challenging and require very careful QA/QC. Flaws in the Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn filaments may lead to quenches, and eventually, performance limitation below nominal during magnet testing. A novel inspection method, including advanced non-destructive and destructive techniques, was developed to explore the root-causes of quenches occurring in performance-limiting coils. The most relevant results obtained for MQXF coils through this innovative inspection method are presented. This approach allows for precise assessment of the physical events associated with the quenches experienced by magnet coils, mainly occurring in the form of damaged strands with transversely broken sub-elements. Coil-slice preparation, micro-optical observations of transverse and longitudinal cross-sections, and a deep etching technique of copper will be illustrated in the present work, with a focus on the results achieved for a CERN coil from a non-conforming quadrupole magnet prototype, and two coils fabricated in the US, in the framework of the Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP) collaboration, from two different non-conforming quadrupole magnets, respectively. The results obtained through the proposed inspection method will be illustrated.
The growing interest in the modeling of superconductors has led to the development of effective numerical methods and software. One of the most utilized approaches for magnetoquasistatic simulations in applied superconductivity is the $H$ formulation. However, due to the large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) present when modeling large and complex systems (e.g. large coils for fusion applications, electrical machines, and medical applications) using the standard $H$ formulation on a desktop machine becomes infeasible. The $H$ formulation solves the Faraday's law formulated in terms of the magnetic field intensity $\mathbf {H}$ using edge elements in the whole modeling domain. For this reason, a very high resistivity is assumed for the non-conducting domains, leading to an ill-conditioned system matrix and therefore long computation times. In contrast, the $H$ - $\phi$ formulation uses the $H$ -formulation in the conducting region, and the $\phi$ formulation (magnetic scalar potential) in the surrounding non-conducting domains, drastically reducing DOFs and computation time. In this work, we use the $H$ - $\phi$ formulation in 2D for the magnetothermal (AC losses and quench) analysis of stacks of REBCO tapes. The same approach is extended to a 3D case for the AC loss analysis of a twisted superconducting wire. All the results obtained by simulations in Sparselizard are compared with results obtained with COMSOL. Our custom tool allows us to distribute the simulations over hundreds of CPUs using domain decomposition methods, considerably reducing the simulation times without compromising accuracy.
High-temperature superconducting $\rm{REBa}_{2} Cu_{3} O_{7-x}$ ( REBCO ) conductors have the potential to generate a high magnetic field over a broad temperature range. The corresponding accelerator magnet technology, still in its infancy, can be attractive for future energy-frontier particle colliders such as a multi-TeV muon collider. To help develop the technology, we explore the requirements and potential characteristics of a REBCO magnet, operating at 4.2 or 20 K, with a dipole field of 8 – 10 T in a clear aperture of 150 mm. We use the canted $\cos \theta$ magnet configuration to reduce the electromagnetic stresses on the conductors. We present the resulting dipole fields, field gradients for combined-function cases, conductor stresses, magnet dimensions and conductor lengths. We also discuss the conductor performance that is required to achieve the target dipole field at 4.2 and 20 K. The information can provide useful input to the development of REBCO magnet and conductor technology for collider-ring magnets in a muon collider.
Forty years ago, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) tested a pulsed current quench protection system for a high current density two-meter diameter two-layer solenoid at 4.5 K with a stored energy of 8.5 MJ. The energy needed to protect this magnet was 13.4 kJ from an electrolytic capacitor system charged to voltages 800 V. This method also involved the use of a well-coupled shorted secondary circuits and quench-back. The applicability of this quench protection method to HTS magnets operating at temperatures >25 K could be of interest. There are a number of questions that should be asked: 1) Can this method work for HTS coils operating at temperatures >25 K? 2) Are there batteries or capacitors that can store 2 MJ or more that have short enough discharge times for quench protection at voltages less than 2 kV? 3) Is this quench protection system cost low enough to be reasonable?
The US HL-LHC Accelerator Upgrade Project (AUP) is building Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn quadrupole magnets, called MQXFA, with plans to install 16 of them in the HL-LHC Interaction Regions. Variability in coil size must be dealt with at the assembly level, which requires timely and repeatable measurement of each coil. In this paper we will present the methodology used for coil measurements and the geometrical size data for the coils that have been measured thus far. We will also show the coil measurements of 8 coils before and after cold test. The Leica AT960-MR laser tracker with Spatial Analyzer software acquired to achieve these measurements has been used elsewhere in the project to great effect.
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are building a new High Field Vertical Magnet Test Facility (HFVMTF) for testing superconducting cables in high magnetic field. The background magnetic field of 15 T in the HFVMTF will be produced by a magnet provided by LBNL. The HFVMTF is jointly funded by the US DOE Offices of Science, High Energy Physics (HEP), and Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), and will serve as a superconducting cable test facility in high magnetic fields and a wide range of temperatures for HEP and FES communities. This facility will also be used to test high-field superconducting magnet models and demonstrators, including hybrid magnets, produced by the US Magnet Development Program (MDP). The paper describes the status of the facility, including construction, cryostat designs, top and lambda plates, and systems for powering, and quench protection and monitoring.
Quench localization is one of the most important aspects in identifying the performance limitations of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices and applications. In order to localize the quench and improve spatial resolution, an acoustic-based quench detection technique using shear-horizontal waves and chirplet transform is proposed in this paper. To verify the performance of the proposed method, acoustic signals are collected by the shear piezoelectric transducers mounted on the REBCO tape, and the heating points are localized via the time-frequency cross-correlation value and baseline subtraction method. This work proves heating points can be detected and localized with a resolution of better than 1 %. It is expected that the proposed method can improve the quench detection and localization for accelerators and fusion power applications.
A test facility dipole is being developed at LBNL, targeting a 16 T field in a 144 mm wide aperture. The magnet uses a block design, with two double-pancake coils. In order to minimize motion under the large Lorentz forces, the coils are preloaded against a thick aluminum shell and iron yoke using bladder and key technology. It is then crucial to verify that the performance of the magnet is not degraded due to strain induced on the Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn conductor during assembly, cool-down and powering. The critical current of extracted strands was measured in a varying background magnetic field and as a function of the applied longitudinal strain. Finite element analysis was used to extract the strain state inside the superconducting strands during magnet assembly and operation. This strain was then compared to the measurements to evaluate potential reversible and irreversible effects on the magnet performances. The results suggest that the magnet can reach 16 T with sufficient margin, with no irreversible degradation in the high field region.
The unique Rutherford cabling facility at the Berkeley Center for Magnet Technology, LBNL, has been leading the production of a range of Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn cables for a variety of magnet projects domestically and internationally. Cable fabrication is a critical step in accelerator magnet production: to ensure tight dimensional control of the multi-turn coils, fine tolerances must be kept on the cable width, thickness, keystone angle [1] with minimal degradation to the conductor. In addition to these dimensional measurements, we implemented an in-line image acquisition system that can monitor for critical defects such as cross-overs, as well as track the extent of strand deformation at the cable edges. At LBNL, we have collected a large dataset to establish the association between the cable edge facet dimension and the cross-sectional subelement damages. We thus can use image analysis on the facet as an integral and critical quick turn-around-time quality control monitor. Although such measurements are not direct and require a baseline for a given conductor and cable geometry combination, they are non-destructive. They can be measured across the entire length of the cable, which contrasts with critical current or residual resistance ratio measurements, which are only made at the point and tail of the cable and require a lengthy heat-treatment. Moreover, the high frequency of image acquisition coupled with Fast Fourier Transform analysis can give us insights into the key components of the cabling machine as they tend to produce periodic variations within the cable. Such analysis can help find potential faults and inform maintenance planning. This work describes our setup of in-line imaging of Rutherford cables during manufacture, the subsequent image analysis, and data processing. Several case studies illustrate typical usage of the system and lessons learned.
In the framework of studies for high energy particle colliders, design concepts for high field dipoles are being explored. In particular, relatively compact 20 T magnets can be achieved in a hybrid configuration, combining a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) and a Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS). Preliminary concepts have been previously proposed using Bi2212 for the HTS and Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn for the LTS. One of the main difficulties of 20 T magnets is the management of the very high stresses developing during operation. The design concepts rely on a rectangular block-coil layout, which offers the advantage of aligning the conductors with the main magnetic field, therefore submitting the conductors to a perpendicular electromagnetic force for a better control of the stresses. In addition, the layout allows a specific stress management, with adequate horizontal and vertical plates to intercept the stresses. The paper presents the improvements provided to the initial concept. In terms of magnetic design, the field quality has been improved. In terms of mechanical design, the stress management has been optimized to provide a compact coil with a reduced peak stress on the HTS. Concepts for flared-end coils with joints in the coil-ends are finally presented.
Hybrid magnets are currently under consideration as an economically viable option towards 20 T dipole magnets for next generation of particle accelerators. In these magnets, High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) materials are used in the high field part of the coil with so-called “insert coils”, and Low Temperature Superconductors (LTS) like Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn and Nb-Ti superconductors are used in the lower field region with so-called “outsert coils”. The attractiveness of the hybrid option lays on the fact that, on the one hand, the 20 T field level is beyond the Nb <sub xmlns:mml="" xmlns:xlink="">3</sub> Sn practical limits of 15-16 T for accelerator magnets and can be achieved only via HTS materials; on the other hand, the high cost of HTS superconductors compared to LTS superconductors makes it advantageous exploring a hybrid approach, where the HTS portion of the coil is minimized. We present in this paper an overview of different design options aimed at generating 20 T field in a 50 mm clear aperture. The coil layouts investigated include the Cos-theta design (CT), with its variations to reduce the conductor peak stress, namely the Canted Cos-theta design (CCT) and the Stress Management Cos-theta design (SMCT), and, in addition, the Block-type design (BL) including a form of stress management and the Common-Coil design (CC). Results from a magnetic and mechanical analysis are discussed, with particular focus on the comparison between the different options regarding quantity of superconducting material, field quality, conductor peak stress, and quench protection.
Stainless steel vessels see widespread use in superconducting magnets for particle accelerator applications. Their function varies in different magnet designs: they always provide the necessary liquid helium containment, but in some cases are also used to provide azimuthal prestress and can also be welded to the magnet end plate to provide additional longitudinal stiffness. A magnet designed with the bladder and key technology does not rely on the structural role of the vessel. They are structurally supported using azimuthally prestressed aluminum shells, and the longitudinal constraint by rods. In this case, the magnet designer would generally like to minimize the interaction between the magnet and the stainless-steel vessel and to minimize the coil stress variation due to the vessel. The stress state in the vessel and in the coil is a function of the circumferential interference, defined as the vessel azimuthal length minus the magnet circumference. The vessel and the magnet azimuthal length machining tolerances are relatively large resulting in significant stress variations in the superconducting coils. In this paper we introduce an interference-control shim, which can significantly limit the stress variation of the coils for a given variation of the interference. The effectiveness of the interference-control shim is evaluated numerically on the MQXF, the low- $\beta$ quadrupole for the High Luminosity LHC.
Core-collapse Supernovae (SNe) are one of the most energetic events in the Universe, during which almost all the star's binding energy is released in the form of neutrinos. These particles are direct probes of the processes occurring in the stellar core and provide unique insights into the gravitational collapse. RES-NOVA will revolutionize how we detect neutrinos from astrophysical sources, by deploying the first ton-scale array of cryogenic detectors made from archaeological lead. Pb offers the highest neutrino interaction cross-section via coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEνNS). Such process will enable RES-NOVA to be equally sensitive to all neutrino flavours. For the first time, we propose the use archaeological Pb as sensitive target material in order to achieve an ultra-low background level in the region of interest (O(1 keV)). All these features make possible the deployment of the first cm-scale neutrino telescope for the investigation of astrophysical sources. In this contribution, we will characterize the radiopurity level and the performance of a small-scale proof-of-principle detector of RES-NOVA, consisting in a PbWO4 crystal made from archaeological-Pb operated as cryogenic detector.
The evolution of the physical properties of two‐dimensional material from monolayer limit to the bulk reveals unique consequences from dimension confinement and provides a distinct tuning knob for applications. Monolayer 1T’‐phase transition metal dichalcogenides (1T’‐TMDs) with ubiquitous quantum spin Hall (QSH) states are ideal two‐dimensional building blocks of various three‐dimensional topological phases. However, the stacking geometry was previously limited to the bulk 1T’‐WTe2 type. Here, we introduce the novel 2M‐TMDs consisting of translationally stacked 1T’‐monolayers as promising material platforms with tunable inverted bandgaps and interlayer coupling. By performing advanced polarization‐dependent angle‐resolved photoemission spectroscopy as well as first‐principles calculations on the electronic structure of 2M‐TMDs, we revealed a topology hierarchy: 2M‐WSe2, MoS2, and MoSe2 are weak topological insulators (WTIs), whereas 2M‐WS2 is a strong topological insulator (STI). Further demonstration of topological phase transitions by tunning interlayer distance indicates that band inversion amplitude and interlayer coupling jointly determine different topological states in 2M‐TMDs. We propose that 2M‐TMDs are parent compounds of various exotic phases including topological superconductors and promise great application potentials in quantum electronics due to their flexibility in patterning with two‐dimensional materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
The design of circular polymers has emerged as a necessity due to the lack of efficient recycling methods for many commodity plastics, particularly those used in durable products. Among the promising circular polymers, polydiketoenamines (PDKs) stand out for their ability to undergo highly selective depolymerization in strong acid, allowing monomers to be recovered from additives and fillers. Varying the triketone monomer in PDK variants is known to strongly affect the depolymerization rate; however, it remains unclear how the chemistry of the cross-linker, far from the reaction center, affects the depolymerization rate. Notably, we found that a proximal amine in the cross-linker dramatically accelerates PDK depolymerization when compared to cross-linkers obviating this functionality. Moreover, the spacing between this amine and the diketoenamine bond offers a previously unexplored opportunity to tune PDK depolymerization rates. In this way, the molecular basis for PDK circularity is revealed and further suggests new targets for the amine monomer design to diversify PDK properties, while ensuring circularity in chemical recycling.
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Carlos Hernandez Faham
  • Physics Division
Trent Northen
  • Joint BioEnergy Institute
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