# Lakehead University Thunder Bay Campus

• Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
Recent publications
Although the magmatism in the North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is generally accepted to have formed via partial melting of the Keweenaw Plume (i.e., the plume that impinged on the MRS), the long duration of this magmatism and paleomagnetic evidence has led some authors to suggest a passive rifting model. Discerning between these two models (i.e., active vs. passive rifting) has been challenging, however, given that many of the earliest volcanic and intrusive rocks of the MRS have been variably contaminated by crustal material, masking the relative contributions of magmas derived from the plume and subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). Understanding these contributions, however, is critical to developing a genetic model for the early history of the MRS. Here, we assess these contributions by combining new ReOs isotope data of early MRS diabase sills (Nipigon, McIntrye, Inspiration sills), mafic–ultramafic sills (Shillabeer and Jackfish sills) and intrusions (Eva Kitto and Seagull), and subaerial volcanics (Wolfcamp and Coubran basalts) with previously determined SmNd and RbSr isotopes, and whole-rock geochemistry. The γOsi values of the early MRS rock suites range from slightly depleted (−10) to highly radiogenic (3857), with Initiation Stage melts (Eva Kitto and Seagull intrusions, Jackfish sill) exhibiting the smallest variability (4 to 50) and Early Stage melts (Nipigon sills, Wolfcamp basalt, and Thunder intrusion) exhibiting the greatest variability (−10 to 3857). This range of Os isotope compositions could not have resulted from variable degrees of partial melting, garnet retention in the mantle, or crystal fractionation as the values do not correlate with proxies for these processes (e.g., La/Sm, Gd/Yb, and MgO, respectively). Considering the variably elevated Th/La–Th/Nb and radiogenic εNdi–Sri values, it is possible that SCLM and/or crustal material contributed to the magmatic evolution of these rock suites. Based on mixing models in γOsi–εNdi space, the negative εNdi and slightly radiogenic γOsi of the mafic–ultramafic intrusions and sills indicates that they likely crystallized from hybrid magmas representing mixtures of enriched SCLM-derived melts with lesser plume-derived melts; these hybrid magmas were contaminated by limited amounts (<10%) of crustal material during emplacement. An SCLM source for these early MRS intrusions implies that rifting of the North American continent likely initiated passively. Given their negative to highly positive γOsi values, the diabase sills and subaerial lavas are suggested to have crystallized from melts derived from a depleted source region of the Keweenaw Plume and, with the exception of those that formed Wolfcamp basalt, were contaminated to variable degrees by crustal material. Although variable contamination can explain the negative εNdi values, it cannot independently explain the range of γOsi values because i) not all of the rock suites are contaminated (e.g., Wolfcamp basalt) and ii) the highly radiogenic γOsi values would require unrealistically high degrees of contamination. Rather, the variability likely also stems from segregation of sulfide liquid or crystallization of Os-bearing platinum-group minerals. This study demonstrates that the early MRS rock suites did not all crystallize from plume-derived melts as may be expected in a model whereby rifting initiated as a result of plume impingement. Rather, the earliest rock suites (>1109 Ma) crystallized from melts derived from the SCLM, indicating that rifting likely initiated passively.
Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) are becoming a worldwide concern. The ubiquitous dispersion of MPs/NPs in both terrestrial and aquatic environments is growing because of increase in the production and use of plastics globally. Freshwater systems such as lakes and rivers facilitate the transport of plastic particles from urban to marine environments. The presence and potential ecotoxicological effects of MPs in freshwater systems are not clearly understood. The co-occurrence of MPs/NPs with other biological and chemical contaminants such as pathogenic microorganism or heavy metals adds higher complexity to this rapidly growing pollution. Tracking and identification of the fate of plastic debris in freshwater is critical to development of mitigation strategies. In this chapter, the occurrence and sources of MPs/NPs in freshwater ecosystems are summarized. Mass flow, global river, and spatiotemporally explicit models are discussed. These can complement the information on tracking and fate of these particles and help understand these systems better. In addition, interactions of plastic particles with the microbial communities affecting the biofilm formation and biodegradation process are reviewed. As the water cycle is site specific, interconnected, and its components have similar dynamic environment, presenting global freshwater-specific information is challenging. We tried our best to highlight the important role of freshwater system with regards to MP/NP pollution.
Background Dyspnea, the cardinal manifestation of chronic heart failure (CHF), may reflect both pulmonary oedema and pulmonary remodeling resulting in tissue stiffening. Emerging evidence suggests that predominance of distinct phenotypes of alveolar and recruited macrophages, designated M1 and M2, may regulate the course of inflammatory tissue repair and remodeling in the lung. Methods In a CHF rat model, we found fibrotic reinforcement of the extracellular matrix with an increase in monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1/CCL2 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), corresponding to a 3-fold increase in recruited macrophages. In this clinical cross sectional study, we aimed to examine potential mediators of leukocyte activation and lung infiltration in parallel BAL and blood from CHF patients compared to non-CHF controls. Results Mini-BAL and peripheral blood samples were obtained from hospitalized CHF, acute decompensated CHF and non-CHF patients. CHF patients and decompensated CHF patients demonstrated increases from non-CHF patients in BAL MCP-1, as well as the M2 macrophage cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β. BAL and plasma MCP-1 were significantly correlated; however, MCP-1 was 20-fold higher in epithelial lining fluid in BAL, indicative of an alveolar chemotactic gradient. An increase in transglutaminase 2 positive M2 macrophages in parallel with a decrease in the MCP-1 receptor, CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), was apparent in BAL cells of CHF patients compared to non-CHF. Conclusion These data suggest a pathway of MCP-1 mediated M2 macrophage prevalence in the lungs of CHF patients which may contribute to pulmonary fibrotic remodeling and consequent increased severity of dyspnea.
In the wastewater treatment plant of pulp and paper mills, biosludge dewatering is needed to reduce the sludge handling and disposal costs. It is usually facilitated by means of the addition of synthetic polymers. There is increasing interest in replacing synthetic polymers with biopolymers derived from low value by-products or industrial residuals to improve the environmental footprint of dewatering. In this study, lignin-based flocculants (LBF) were tested for their ability to improve the biosludge dewaterability based on Capillary Suction Time (CST) and dry cake solids achieved with a Crown Press. The results demonstrate that LBFs alone can significantly enhance dewatering with a decrease in CSTs from 72.7 ± 5.1 s (unconditioned biosludge) to 23.3 ± 0.4 s and an increase in dry cake solids after pressing from 7.1 ± 0.5% to 13.9 ± 1.3% with a relatively high dosage of 7.5% w/w. However, with dual conditioning a LBF and 0.1% w/w anionic polyacrylamide (APAM), the required dosage of LBF was reduced to 3% w/w to achieve a dry cake solids content of 13.8 ± 0.4%, the same as that achieved with Zetag8165, a commercial synthetic polymer. LBF addition lowered the particle surface charge, allowing the particles to agglomerate and enhancing for the biosludge dewaterability. The application of LBFs for sludge dewatering offers novel considerable promise for providing more sustainable approaches by optimizing the use of lignin from different extraction processes, applying various types of lignin modifications in combination with anionic polymers, and exploring different methods of disposal or utilization of the dewatered sludge.
Background Lignocellulosic biomasses produced from agriculture and forest-based industries are the cheapest or negative-cost biomass with a great potential for biotransformation to value-added bioproducts. Paper mill sludge, an important lignocellulosic biomass creates an environmental threat, which requires financial input for disposal. Thus, this study was aimed to isolate a novel bacterial strain capable of degrading cellulosic biomass including paper mill sludge to produce reducing sugar and other value-added bioproducts. Results A novel bacterial strain Arthrobacter woluwensis TDS9 isolated from the soil was screened for its cellulolytic activity using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the sole carbon source. The incubation period, temperature, pH, carbon, and nitrogen sources are the most important factors ruling the CMCase and sugar productions of the strain A. woluwensis TDS9, and an alkaline pH (pH 8.0) led to enhanced sugar production up to 1100.09 μg/mL after 72 h of incubation at 25°C in a medium containing 1.5% CMC and 1.25% beef extract. The optimal conditions for maximum CMCase activity were defined, and the potassium ion boosted the CMCase activity up to 1.06 U/mL when the enzymatic reaction was performed for 30 min at 50°C and pH 8 using CMC as a substrate. Moreover, the strain A. woluwensis TDS9 produced 433.33 μg/mL reducing sugar from 1% pretreated paper mill sludge. Significant alterations in the structural arrangement of cellulosic fiber of paper mill sludge observed under microscope after each step of chemical treatment process helped for loosening the cellulose fibers and increased the saccharification for enzymatic hydrolysis. Endoglucanase IV (33 KDa) and beta-glucosidase II (53 KDa) were identified in crude enzyme based on the zymogram analysis and substrate specificity. Conclusions The research has for the first time proved that this A. woluwensis TDS9 strain can efficiently convert cellulose. Therefore, the strain TDS9 could be a potential candidate for cellulase production in an industrial biotransformation process of paper mill sludge to produce reducing sugar. This sugar stream can be further used as a substrate to produce biofuels and other organic acids using another microorganism, which represents a greener alternative to add value to the paper production helping paper mill industries.
In this article, an apparatus is proposed for simultaneous vibration suppression and energy harvesting in a broad frequency band. Traditionally, both the spring and the damper of a vibration absorber are directly connected to a primary system. Alternatively, a non-traditional way is to place the damper of the vibration absorber between the absorber mass and the base. A nonlinear energy sink (NES) is a type of nonlinear vibration absorber with an essential nonlinearity. When a strong nonlinear oscillator with a small linear stiffness is weakly coupled to a primary system, it behaves similarly to the NES, which is termed “variant NES”. In the proposed apparatus, a variant NES is arranged in the non-traditional way in which a cantilever beam is placed between a pair of continuous-contact blocks which force the beam to deflect nonlinearly. An electromagnetic energy harvester, which also acts as a damper in the non-traditional variant NES, is formed by attaching a pair of permanent magnets to the free end of the beam and fixing a pair of coils to the base. The transient performances of the developed apparatus are investigated in terms of vibration suppression and energy harvesting using numerical simulation and compared with those of an optimum non-traditional vibration absorber. The simulation results are validated by an experimental study. It is found that the proposed non-traditional variant NES exhibits typical NES characteristics such as 1:1 resonance, targeted energy transfer (TET), and an initial energy threshold. With the prerequisite of TET being established under high-level initial energy, the best trade-off between vibration suppression and energy harvesting is achieved when the NES’s oscillation decays slowly under low electrical damping or quickly under high electrical damping.
Although emerging relay-based communication networks boast of increased transmission coverage and capacity, they currently lack schemes that optimize the simultaneous utilization of the best-quality channels, especially when such channels belong to heterogeneous frequency bands. In this paper, we present a centralized oracle based on a bipartite graph model for multi-band multi-channel allocation, in this case to relay nodes. We also indicate the reasons for which this technique is not viable for deployment. We then go on to develop a customized greedy heuristic, the traditional choice for distributed multi-band multi-channel assignment to relay nodes, that results in sub-optimal performance. Since the greedy approach does not offer a performance bound guarantee, we also explore a better online, distributed multi-band multi-channel allocation strategy by proposing a sequential algorithm based on game theory. Computer-based simulation results demonstrate that our proposed game-theoretic approach significantly outperforms the traditional distributed and centralized methods with a Nash Equilibrium convergence guarantee.
The removal of dissolved iron by oxygen was a key control on marine Ca-carbonate precipitation during the Archean, but many details remain poorly resolved. We examined thick carbonate platforms, ∼2.9–2.8 Ga, in the western Superior Province of Canada. Interlayered Fe and Ca-carbonate minerals suggest platform margin precipitation, both as seafloor crusts and in the water column, during mixing of anoxic offshore and oxygenated onshore water masses in dynamic chemoclines. Platform interiors were subject to short-lived influxes of Fe-rich anoxic offshore waters that variously precipitated aragonite, herringbone calcite, Fe-dolomite, and rare siderite. Overall, these observations are consistent with chemical equilibrium analysis assuming three co-existing confluent carbonate water masses: (i) offshore anoxic iron-rich seawater, precipitating Fe-carbonate, (ii) a chemocline mixing zone variously precipitating interlayered aragonite, calcite and Fe oxide, (iii) onshore iron-poor seawater precipitating calcite and aragonite in an ‘Oxygen Oasis’. In this system, Fe²⁺, at ∼ 3 orders of magnitude lower level, supersedes the effect of Mg²⁺ on Ca-carbonate mineralogy. Only when sufficient Fe²⁺ was removed by oxygenation did the relative concentrations of Mg²⁺ and Ca²⁺ determine CaCO3 mineralogy. Platform margin chemoclines created by oxygen production likely persisted throughout the Archean.
An updated asset inventory enables public transit agencies to make informed decisions on the maintenance and improvement of their physical assets. Conventional asset inventory surveys mainly rely on manual site visits and subsequent analysis, which are time consuming and expensive. Many research projects developed methods to automate condition assessment of civil infrastructure assets, such as road surfaces, structures, and sewage systems; however, research on the automated detection and condition assessment of public transit infrastructure is very limited. This research aims to contribute to addressing this gap by introducing an automated computer vision-based system to detect main assets in transit bus stops and update asset inventories using video frames captured by on-board cameras on operating buses. This system uses existing hardware systems on public buses to gather required data and then uses Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) to recognize public transit assets. In addition, a related method was proposed to process manually collected images for semi-automated asset inventory updating. The experimental results showed more than 95% detection rates in videos, which demonstrate potentials for practical applications.
Gorillas are diverse behaviorally and ecologically with higher frequencies of arboreality and frugivory observed in populations living at lower altitudes compared to those living at higher altitudes. Previous studies have shown that the more arboreal western lowland gorilla has hallucial tarsometatarsal and talocrural joint morphologies associated with enhanced hallucial abduction and foot inversion capabilities whereas the more terrestrial eastern gorilla does not. Here we examine how known ecological and behavioral differences among gorillas relate to variation in calcaneal and cuboid morphology. Specifically, we test whether gorillas that climb more frequently (i.e., western lowland and lowland grauer gorillas) have cuboid‐metatarsal and calcaneocuboid morphologies that facilitate increased foot mobility compared to those that climb less often (i.e., mountain and highland grauer gorillas). We quantify the relative areas of articular and nonarticular surfaces, angles between articular surfaces, articular surface curvatures, the relative length and depth of the calcaneocuboid joint, and the relative size of the calcaneal tuber using three‐dimensional models of gorilla calcanei and cuboids (n = 90 and 81, respectively). Our results, based on univariate and multivariate analyses, show that western and eastern gorillas follow our predicted arboreal‐terrestrial morphocline in terms of their calcaneal and cuboid morphology; however, highland and lowland grauer gorilla populations do not. This study has implications for understanding gorilla foot function and the evolutionary processes responsible for producing the morphological patterns among living gorilla populations. Future studies of gorilla morphological diversity may provide a useful comparative model for studies of locomotor evolution in extinct clades.
Self-reflection is often viewed positively; paradoxically, however, it is also associated with distress, potentially because of its relationship with rumination. Focusing self-reflection on positive themes may be one way to promote adaptive self-reflection. This study examined whether the disposition to engage in self-reflection motivates use of a journal containing positively focused writing prompts and moderates the benefit gained from it, specifically when rumination is controlled for. For 28 days, participants ( N = 152) accessed an app-based mental health intervention containing various features, including the aforementioned journal. Outcomes of self-regulation and psychological wellbeing were assessed, controlling for time spent using other app features. As expected, journaling was associated with improvements in psychological wellbeing but only when baseline self-reflection was average or higher. Journaling was also initially associated with improvements in self-regulation, but this was diminished after controlling for time spent using other app features. Findings suggest self-reflection could be a strength for fostering wellbeing when it is directed in a positive way.
Objective: This scoping review will map the available evidence on diabetes self-management education programs for older adults in Western countries. Introduction: Self-management and education are crucial for controlling diabetes and its associated complications. The successful uptake of diabetes self-management education programs is not straightforward, and little is known about diabetes programs for older adults. Within this context, a broad overview of diabetes self-management education for older adults, considering all types of related evidence, is needed. Inclusion criteria: All studies in English concerning diabetes self-management education for older adults (aged 65 years and older) living with type 1 and 2 diabetes will be included. This review is not specific to gender, sex, ethnicity, frailty, or other demographic variables. The review is restricted to Western countries (North America, Western and Northern Europe, and Australasia), where approaches to diabetes self-management education will be similar. Studies including older adults with and without diabetes will not be considered unless they provided separate analyses for the 2 cohorts. Methods: This scoping review will follow the JBI methodology for scoping reviews. We will conduct searches of electronic databases, including CINAHL, MEDLINE, and PubMed, from January 1, 2000, to the present to capture eligible articles. The review will consider all study designs, including quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods designs, text and opinion papers, and systematic reviews that meet the inclusion criteria. After duplicates are removed, titles and abstracts will be screened independently by 2 reviewers, and the full texts will be reviewed. The screening criteria and data extraction protocol will be pilot tested by the research team. The results will be summarized in tables accompanied by narrative text.
Natural polymer-based sutures have attractive cytocompatibility and degradability in surgical operations. Herein, anionic cellulose nanofibrils (ACNF) and cationic guar gum (CGG) are employed to produce nontoxic CGG/ACNF composite filament with a unique core-shell structure via interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation (IPC) spinning. The comprehensive characterization and application performance of the resultant CGG/ACNF filament as a surgical suture are thoroughly investigated in comparison with silk and PGLA (90% glycolide and 10% l-lactide) sutures in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results show that the CGG/ACNF filament with the typical core-shell structure and nervation pattern surface exhibits a high orientation index (0.74) and good mechanical properties. The tensile strength and knotting strength of CGG/ACNF suture prepared by twisting CGG/ACNF filaments increase by 69.5%, and CGG/ACNF suture has a similar friction coefficient to silk and PGLA sutures. Moreover, CGG/ACNF suture with antibiosis and cytocompatibility exhibits better growth promotion of cells than silk suture, similar to PGLA suture in vitro. In addition, the stitching experiment of mice with the CGG/ACNF suture further confirms better healing properties and less inflammation in vivo than silk and PGLA sutures do. Hence, the CGG/ACNF suture with a simple preparation method and excellent application properties is promising in surgical operations.
Post‐harvest recovery of biodiversity is one of important goals in modern forestry. A variable retention (VR) approach has been of particular interest in North America because it promotes rapid faunal recovery, while minimizing negative lasting impacts of logging on the natural fauna. We studied responses of rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) to a broad range of retention harvests (2, 10, 20, 50 and 75% retention) in comparison to uncut controls as part of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) experiment in the boreal mixedwood forest of western Canada. We sampled beetles using pitfall traps 1, 2, 11 and 16 years post‐harvest in replicated (n = 3) stands representing four cover types (deciduous‐dominated, deciduous with spruce understory, mixed and coniferous‐dominated). We collected 74 263 individuals distributed across 99 species (excluding Aleocharinae). Estimated species richness was highest in clear‐cuts until year 11, but by year 16 species richness was similar among treatments. Species composition initially varied strongly in relation to intensity of harvest treatments, but overall variation decreased with time, and by year 16, species composition overlapped among most treatment combinations. Assemblages recovered more quickly in early successional (deciduous‐dominated) than in late successional (mixed and conifer‐dominated) stands. Overall, our results show that rove beetle assemblages in stands harvested to all VR prescriptions converged more rapidly toward those in fire‐origin mature stands than did assemblages in clear‐cuts over the first 16 years post‐harvest. Thus, it demonstrates that even modest levels of forest retention can facilitate the recovery of staphylinid assemblages in managed landscapes.
The wake of a long rectangular wall-mounted prism is investigated at Reynolds numbers of $Re=250\unicode{x2013}1200$ by directly solving the Navier–Stokes equations. The aim of this study was to examine the unsteady transition mechanism in the wake of a large-depth-ratio (streamwise length to width) prism as well as to characterize the unsteady wake evolution at low Reynolds numbers. The results highlighted that increasing Reynolds number significantly altered the dominance of upwash and downwash flows in the time-averaged flow and changed the characteristics of coherent structures, including their size, dominant frequency and interaction with other structures in the flow. The wake is, therefore, categorized into three regimes within the transition process: steady regime at $Re \leq 625$ , regular unsteady regime at $625 < Re < 750$ and irregular unsteady regime at $Re \geq 750$ . Particularly, the wake started to exhibit unsteady features at $Re=625\unicode{x2013}650$ , which transitioned to an early irregular unsteady wake topology at $Re=750$ . At $Re \geq 675$ , horseshoe vortices transformed to vortex loops. There were hairpin-like structures formed on the upper and side faces of the long prism. The results further indicated that the transition to unsteadiness is attributed to separated leading-edge shear-layer instabilities and interactions of the shear layer with the horseshoe structures. The wake was more complex due to the interactions of multiple coherent structures in the flow, which resulted in a multiple-periodicity wake system. A skeleton model is proposed for a large-depth-ratio prism, to incorporate details of the unsteady flow features and specify various flow coherent structures at low Reynolds numbers.
As surface water resources become more intensely used, and occasionally non-useable, consideration of non-conventional water resources for anthropogenic use has become more prevalent. Potentially critical non-conventional water sources include flooded mine-pit lakes. However, water in these lakes can contain potentially problematic concentrations of contaminants of concern. We evaluated the potential use of elevated sulphate (SO 4 ) mining-influenced waters with low to non-detect metals concentrations for irrigation of wild rice (Zizania palustris L.; WR), a culturally and economically important species. Two flow-through in-situ paddies were developed adjacent to two mine-pit lakes with differing chemical water characteristics; specifically, Pit A contained ≈350 mg SO4 L ⁻¹ and Pit C contained ≈1350 mg SO4 L ⁻¹ . Throughout the course of multiple consecutive growing seasons, no adverse WR responses to these mining-influenced water exposures were observed. Based on data and observations from this study, potential use of mining-influenced waters containing elevated SO 4 as the primary contaminant for appropriate irrigation purposes is supported. However, site-specific conditions and potential environmental risks must be considered prior to use of mining-influenced waters for anthropogenic applications.
Background In most cases, the abstracts of articles in the medical domain are publicly available. Although these are accessible by everyone, they are hard to comprehend for a wider audience due to the complex medical vocabulary. Thus, simplifying these complex abstracts is essential to make medical research accessible to the general public. Objective This study aims to develop a deep learning–based text simplification (TS) approach that converts complex medical text into a simpler version while maintaining the quality of the generated text. Methods A TS approach using reinforcement learning and transformer–based language models was developed. Relevance reward, Flesch-Kincaid reward, and lexical simplicity reward were optimized to help simplify jargon-dense complex medical paragraphs to their simpler versions while retaining the quality of the text. The model was trained using 3568 complex-simple medical paragraphs and evaluated on 480 paragraphs via the help of automated metrics and human annotation. Results The proposed method outperformed previous baselines on Flesch-Kincaid scores (11.84) and achieved comparable performance with other baselines when measured using ROUGE-1 (0.39), ROUGE-2 (0.11), and SARI scores (0.40). Manual evaluation showed that percentage agreement between human annotators was more than 70% when factors such as fluency, coherence, and adequacy were considered. Conclusions A unique medical TS approach is successfully developed that leverages reinforcement learning and accurately simplifies complex medical paragraphs, thereby increasing their readability. The proposed TS approach can be applied to automatically generate simplified text for complex medical text data, which would enhance the accessibility of biomedical research to a wider audience.
Intimacy is essential for fulfilling romantic relationships. Although many factors can impact intimacy, the increased regular use of technological devices within our daily lives makes technoference an important one to consider. Technoference (i.e., interference in face-to-face interactions caused by the use of technological devices) is commonly associated with relationship difficulties, including conflict, dissatisfaction, and decreased relational well-being. However, less is known about the direct and indirect impact of technoference on intimacy among couples. We hypothesized that negative perceptions of a partner's technology use and poor communication satisfaction within a romantic relationship help explain the association between technoference and intimacy. University students (N = 141), who were in a romantic relationship of at least 6 months duration, completed online questionnaires assessing technoference, perceptions of their partner's technology use, communication satisfaction, and intimacy in their romantic relationship. PROCESS macro model 6 was used to test the serial mediation models. Results suggest that the relationship between technoference (general, partner's, and participant's) and intimacy is serially mediated by negative perceptions of partner's technology use and communication satisfaction. These findings can help to identify and inform strategies to maximize intimacy levels between couples, thus fortifying romantic relationships as a whole.
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• Department of Computer Sciences
• Department of Psychology
• Department of Biology
• Department of Health Sciences
• Faculty of Natural Resources Management
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955 Oliver Road, P7B5E1, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
Head of institution
Dr. Moira McPherson
Website
http://www.lakeheadu.ca
Phone
+1 (807) 343 8110