Background Bacteremia constitutes a significant public health challenge and represents a vital cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients, and fluoroquinolones are commonly prescribed antibiotics due to their range of activities and pharmacokinetic profiles. This study the evaluated antibacterial activities and time-kill kinetics of fluoroquinolone antibiotics: Ofloxacin (OFL), Ciprofloxacin (CIP) and Levofloxacin (LEV) against the etiology of bacteremia of genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Enterobacter , and Salmonella using disc diffusion, micro-broth dilution and plate count techniques. Results The lowest mean growth inhibition zones (mm ± SD) of OFL, LEV, and CIP against the isolates were 10.5 ± 0.0, 10.1 ± 0.1 and 9.6 ± 0.3, respectively. The MIC values of OFL, LEV and CIP on isolates ranged from 6.25 to > 50 µg/mL, MBC ranged from 12.5 to > 50 µg/mL, while MBC/MIC ratios were ≤ 2. The time-kill assay revealed that logarithmic reductions in viable cell counts (Log 10 CFU/mL) of bacteria exposed to OFL, LEV and CIP ranged from 0.17 to 2.14 for P. aeruginosa ; 0.13 to 1.31 for H. influenzae ; 0.04 to 2.23 for Acinetobacter spp; and 0.08 to 2.08 for K. pneumoniae. LEV and OFL (1 × MIC concentration) achieved bactericidal effects on S. typhi ST07 and E. aerogenes EA01 at 30 h post-inoculation, respectively, while ≥ 99.9% reduction in the number of viable K. pneumoniae cells exposed to CIP was achieved at 24 h post-inoculation. Conclusion The fluoroquinolones demonstrated higher inhibitory activities at higher concentrations against the etiology of bacteremia in HIV-infected patients, signifying a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. The MIC-based time-kill curve analyses showed that LEV achieved 3 Log 10 -fold reduction (≥ 99.9% reduction) in CFU/mL of most etiology of bacteremia faster compared with the other two fluoroquinolones.
The performance of a metal oxide semiconductor during operation could be hindered significantly due to thermodynamic instability and mismatch between the gate oxide layer and the substrate. Owing to variation in temperature during thermal applications, the thin film layers and substrates in complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) structures are subjected to high thermal stresses, which can result in large deformation and failure. In this study, the distribution of heat and thermal stress between the Ho2O3 thin film and the SiC substrate has been simulated numerically with finite element modelling and analysis software (ANSYS). This is necessary to emulate the thermal behaviour of the structure under different thermal loadings, and for each temperature loading, the effects of thermal stress and deformation on the structure were also evaluated. Based on the results of the simulation, an optimum temperature was suggested. The thermal stability and characteristics of the thin film layer/SiC structure were evaluated and validated for better electrical performance.
Previous studies suggest marital sexual infidelity (MSI) is growing among men and women. Also, social sciences literature has indicated that religious involvement and values reduce MSI occurrence. Religious persuasions and values remain critical in social life in Ghana and Nigeria, but little is known about religious influence on MSI and protection in both countries. In this study, the 2014 standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for Ghana (GDHS2014: 3,808 women and 1,967 men) and that of 2013 in Nigeria (NDHS2013: 22,220 women 8,292 men) were analysed within the framework of Durkheim’s theory of religion. Results suggest that MSI occurred more among women than men in Ghana (women = 12.9%, men = 9.9%) and Nigeria (women = 6.0%, men = 5.0%). Adjusted logistic regression analysis indicated that religion significantly predicted MSI in Ghana (p < 0.05) and Nigeria (p < 0.001). In Ghana, Other Christian women (OR = 0.5(CI0.4-0.7), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.9), p < 0.05) and in Nigeria, Other Christian women (OR = 0.7(CI0.6-0.9), p < 0.001, and Muslims (women, OR = 0.3(CI0.3-0.4), p < 0.001; men (OR = 0.6(CI0.4-0.8), p < 0.01) had lower odds of reporting MSI experience relative to Catholic Christians. Women are likely more vulnerable to STIs in both countries due to higher MSI prevalence and relatively poor protective behaviour. Therefore, marriage counsellors should focus more on women and men across all religious persuasions. However, women and Catholic Christians require more attention to address the MSI and condom use challenges in Ghana and Nigeria. Social campaigns aiming to prevent MSI and STIs should be intensive in both countries across all religious persuasions.
Progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) have continued to baffle medical science, despite strides in the understanding of their pathology. The inability of currently available therapies to halt disease progression is a testament to an incomplete understanding of pathways crucial to disease initiation, progression and management. Science has continued to link the activities and equilibrium of the gut microbiome to the health and proper functioning of brain neurons. They also continue to stir interest in the potential applications of technologies that may shift the balance of the gut microbiome towards achieving a favourable outcome in PD management. There have been suggestions that an improved understanding of the roles of the gut microbiota is likely to lead to the emergence of an era where their manipulation becomes a recognized strategy for PD management. This review examines the current state of our journey in the quest to understand how the gut microbiota can influence several aspects of PD. We highlight the relationship between the gut microbiome/microbiota and PD pathogenesis, as well as preclinical and clinical evidence evaluating the effect of postbiotics, probiotics and prebiotics in PD management. This is with a view to ascertaining if we are at the threshold of discovering the application of a usable tool in our quest for disease modifying therapies in PD.
Background: The problem of radon (Radon-222) in water is one of the daily health hazards faced by those in Ojo Axis, Nigeria. Therefore, continuous monitoring of radon contamination in different types of water is essential. In the present work, sixteen groundwater and surface-water samples (wells, boreholes, and sachets) were collected from six different locations within the Ojo Local Government area in Nigeria. The water samples collected were stored in 75 cl bottles that were already sterilized with distilled water to avoid contamination. Water samples were then taken to the laboratory for the analysis of radon levels using a RAD7, an active electronic device produced by the Durridge Company in the USA. The radon level in the water is higher than the safe limits of 11.1 Bq/L, as per EPA regulations, except for two sample points from the studied areas. The total annual effective doses from ingestion and inhalation for drinking and groundwater were higher than the safe limit of 0.1 mSv y−1 that is recommended by the World Health Organization and the European Union Commission. Conclusions: The obtained results underline the importance of the development and/or updating of databases regarding radon levels in drinking and groundwater in the Ojo Local Government area in Nigeria.
Glucose‐6‐phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with development of acute hemolytic anemia in the setting of oxidative stress, which can be caused by medication exposure. Regulatory agencies worldwide warn against the use of certain medications in G6PD deficient persons, but in many cases, this information is conflicting, and the clinical evidence is sparse. This guideline provides information on using G6PD genotype as part of the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency and classifies medications that have been previously implicated as unsafe in G6PD deficient individuals by one or more sources. We classify these medications as high, medium, or low‐to‐no risk based on a systematic review of the published evidence of the gene‐drug associations and regulatory warnings. In patients with G6PD deficiency, high risk medications should be avoided, medium risk medications should be used with caution, and low‐to‐no risk medications can be used with standard precautions, without regard to G6PD phenotype. This new document replaces the prior Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guideline for rasburicase therapy in the context of G6PD genotype (updates at www.cpicpgx.org).
Alkaline Fuel cells (AFCs) are one of the emerging energy future energy sources and energy conversion systems. The use of the anion exchange membrane in alkaline fuel cells (AEMFCs) has made AFCs more versatile. It has also introduced the use of an abundance of catalysts, mostly non-Platinum group metals (PGMs), especially for its more favorable cathodic oxygen reduction (ORR). The benefits and importance of the presence of efficient porous carbon supports to enhance the electroactivity of these catalysts were highlighted. Apart from the well-known carbon allotropes used as catalyst supports, some new and innovative forms of porous carbon and their composites are discussed. Their performance as stand-alone catalysts or as support for non PGMs for ORR in operating conditions of AEMFCs has given a further boost to the future availability of low-cost AFC driven devices.
Background Predictive models for academic performance forecasting have been a useful tool in the improvement of the administrative, counseling and instructional personnel of academic institutions. Aim The aim of this work is to develop a Radial Basis Function Neural Network for prediction of students’ performance using their past academic records as well as their cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Methods We obtained data from a secondary school repository containing academic, cognitive and psychomotor scores of the students. The preprocessed dataset was used to train the RBFNN model. The impact of Principal Component Analysis on the model performance was also measured. Results The results gave a sensitivity (pass prediction) of 93.49%, specificity (failure prediction) of 75%, overall accuracy of 86.59% and an AUC score (aggregate measure of performance across the possible classification thresholds) of 94%. Conclusion We established in this study that psychomotor and cognitive abilities also predict students’ performance. This study helps students, parents and teachers to get a projection of academic success even before sitting for the examination.
Colored contaminants in wastewater need to be removed prior to discharge due to their negative impacts on public health and the environment. Herein, immobilized TiO2 on termite hill (TiO2/TH) and ZnO-promoted TiO2/TH (ZnO-TiO2/TH) were synthesized, evaluated by different characterization techniques (XRF, XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis and SEM), and the possibility of using them as photocatalysts for methylene blue (MB) degradation under solar irradiation investigated. The influence of photocatalytic reaction parameters (initial MB concentration, photocatalyst dosage and solution pH) was studied at fixed irradiation time. XRD and SEM results, among other analyses revealed successful incorporation of ZnO and TiO2 on structured support (TH), while UV-Vis analysis affirmed reduction in band gap energy due to immobilizing effect. The optimized photocatalytic degradation variables were 50 mg/L dye concentration, 1.2 g/L photocatalyst dose and 6.0 pH. The ZnO-TiO2/TH showed better photoactivity for MB degradation than TiO2/TH under the same conditions which could be attributed to a reduction in band gap energy from 2.94 eV to 2.85 eV upon addition of ZnO. More than 80% degradation efficiency was achieved after the 7th cycle, depicting better stability. A pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood model with a rate constant of 0.0774 min⁻¹ and R²of 0.9971 at optimum dye concentration (50 mg/L) appeared to best describe the photocatalytic degradation kinetic data. The UV-Vis spectra changes and decrease in total organic carbon indicated that ZnO-TiO2/TH photocatalyst has the prospect to degrade organic pollutants in industrial effluent completely.
Introduction: An imbalance between free radicals and antioxidants causes oxidative stress, which has detrimental consequences for a variety of health issues. Petiveria alliaceae (P. alliaceae) is a global plant having a variety of bioactive chemicals that have a variety of therapeutic uses. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effect of P. alliaceae leaf aqueous extract on oxidative stress biomarkers in male rats with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced-endotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five (25) male albino rats were divided into five (n = 5) groups at random. Group 1 was used as a control, Group 2 was given P. alliaceae aqueous extract (1000 mg/kg body weight), Group 3 was given LPS, a single intraperitoneal dose (4 ml/kg body weight), and was observed for 4 hours before being sacrificed, Group 4 was given LPS (observed for 4 hours) and treated with P. alliaceae for 7 days, Group 5 was given P. alliaceae extract for 7 days, then Spectrophotometric analysis was used to evaluate the activities of oxidative stress biomarkers (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in plasma, erythrocytes, brain, liver, kidney, and heart. Results: As seen in this work, oxidative stress is a characteristic of LPS-induced endotoxicity. Following LPS injection, P. alliaceae leaf aqueous extract significantly (p 0.05) increased CAT and SOD activities. Conclusion The aqueous extract of P. alliaceae leaf reduced the effect of endotoxins in the body by mopping up free radicals, according to the findings
Introduction: The risk of exposure of either the patient or the surgeon to pathogens when the surgical glove is perforated is significant. This is particularly so in jaw fractures when intermaxillary fixation is done with the stainless-steel wire as many perforations also result in percutaneous injury. Material and method: This study was carried out in two tertiary Hospitals in Abuja, Nigeria. Adult patients for intermaxillary fixation as a result of jaw fractures were consecutively recruited into the study. Similarly, surgeons and their trainees (assistants) were also recruited. Factors investigated included the method of gloving used by surgeons and trainees (single versus double gloving), glove perforations and percutaneous injury rates, years of operator's experience, among others. During surgical operations, percutaneous injuries were recorded and obviously perforated or torn gloves were labelled and changed. At the end of every surgical procedure, gloves used were investigated for perforation. Results: A total of 564 gloves were investigated (Surgeons-337; Trainees-227) after use for wire intermaxillary fixation procedures. The frequency of glove perforations for the surgeons was 72 (21.4%). Forefinger perforations were most frequent; 40 (55.6%) cases. Assistants, had 35 (15.4%) cases of glove perforations. Percutaneous injury occurred in 9.7% (7/72) and 5.7% (2/35 cases) of cases for surgeons and assistants, respectively. Conclusion: The study revealed high risk for wire-based IMF procedures. Single gloving was more frequently associated with percutaneous injuries although double gloving was more associated with perforations with higher surgeon infection risk. Double gloving reduces the risk of percutaneous injuries and, therefore, the likelihood of exposure to blood-borne pathogens.
It cannot be over-emphasized, the consensual outlook among scholars that education is the bedrock of development of any society. However a careful examination of the present status quo of Nigeria’s education is replete with countless issues and challenges that have the capacity to compromise the role education plays in national development. Such challenges as insufficient quality of curriculum, policy making and implementation, imperfect certification and lack of competence are typical to the Nigeria`s educational system. In general, there is a gap in the Nigerian education system between the formulation of educational policy and its implementation, which has resulted in the low performance of Nigerian education in recent times. These challenges are some of the fundamental pointers to the plummet in the country’s educational system, hence their solution need to be properly prepared to be able to contribute to the overall human development. As a result, this research explores the potential of the method of philosophical analysis to establish, contrary to popular opinion that Nigeria remains underdeveloped not because of the experience of colonization, imperialism and exploitation of her resources, but through the miscarriage of her educational system. The moral decadence in Nigeria institutions comes many forms, but this article discusses only five of them: examination malpractice, drug abuse, cultism, sexual harassment and grade sorting. Another problem bedeviling Nigeria educational system at all level is strike. This study thereby takes another approach to disinter how the educational system in contemporary Nigeria has waned consequent to the circumvention of proper learning and proper assessment of knowledge.
The study investigates the chemical composition and antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Cyanomentra vogelii Hook. F. Hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of C. vogelii were obtained using a cold extraction method. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts was achieved using standard methods: in vitro assays were employed to assess antioxidant activities while antidiabetic potentials were evaluated against the action of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase. The chemical composition of the extract was identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The methanol extract of C. vogelii displayed the highest quantity of phenol (68.93 mg gallic acid g-1) and flavonoids (74.84 mg quercetin g-1), while the ethylacetate extract exhibited the highest content of proanthocyanidins (33.21 mg catechin g-1). The methanol extract exhibited significantly potent inhibition (P < .05) – more than hexane and ethylacetate extracts – against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl (OH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline (ABTS) radicals at half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 0.58, 0.19 and 0.46 mg/mL, respectively, while hexane extract showed higher metal chelating activity (P < .05) at 0.06 mg/mL. Hexane extract displayed better antidiabetic activities, as revealed by its moderate ?-amylase (2.54 mg/mL) and potent ?-glucosidase (0.53 mg/mL) inhibition compared to other extracts and acarbose. Mixed non-competitive and competitive modes of inhibition were elicited by the hexane extract against the activity of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, respectively. The major chemical components with reported antioxidant and antidiabetic activities identified from GC-MS analysis of the methanol extract include phytol (7.26%), n-hexadecanoic acid (5.95%), caryophyllene (1.70%) and nerolidol (2.22%). Cyanomentra vogelii extract contains active phytochemicals with therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes and oxidative stress-related diseases.
The goal of this study was to examine the effect of interactive radio instruction (IRI) in improving the literacy skills of out-of-school children in IDP camps in Nigeria. The study was a quasi-experiment involving 470 children who were out of school at the time of the study. The indices for measuring literacy skills included phonological skills, letter knowledge, oral comprehension and vocabulary skills. The result of the intervention showed that although all the children scored low regarding their literacy skills at pre-intervention, participants in the IRI group reported a significant improvement in their literacy skills after the intervention. A follow-up assessment was carried out after twelve months and the result showed stability in the literacy skills of participants in the IRI group while those in the control group did not improve in their literacy skills over time. Comparatively, IRI was found to be more efficient in improving literacy skills than a face-to-face learning environment. The implications of these results on learning have been highlighted.
Introduction: Application of classical methods to oscillatory or periodic problems is significantly hindered due to the fact that very small step size is required with corresponding decrease in performance, especially in terms of efficiency. Aims: To overcome this limitation, the construction of a class of two-step exponentially-fitted Milne--Simpson's methods involving first and second derivatives is presented in this work. Materials and Methods: This construction is based on the six-step flow chart described in the literature. In this work, a classical multi--derivative Milne--Simpson's method is constructed and fitted exponentially to allow for easy application to oscillatory or periodic problems. Results: In this work, we extended the classical two-step fourth-order Milne-Simpson to involve the second derivative and hence increasing the attainable order of the method, the extended method is fitted exponentially. Conclusion:The constructed class of methods is shown to be of order of six (6) and well suited for oscillatory or periodic problems.
Dumpsites in Lagos raise the contamination of the environment. This study aimed to determine radon exhalation rates and their changes with meteorological parameters on six dumpsites using the accumulation method. The result uncovers the critical relationship between radon concentration and relative humidity at a 5% (p < 0.05) level. Radon exhalation rates varied between 20 and 50 mBq− 2 h− 1. This study is an illustrative map and an essential reference for studying the pollution from radon gas and its impact on the region’s residents, especially as it poses a threat to their health.
Ionospheric irregularity poses severe challenges to the highly dynamic satellite communication, navigation and tracking operations that rely on transionospheric satellite services like the operation of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Although numerous studies on the effect of geomagnetic storms on the inhibition or suppression of irregularities across different longitudes have been documented, the prediction of equatorial ionospheric irregularities/scintillation over the Nigerian region still remains an unsolved scientific problem. Hence, this study characterizes storm-time ionospheric irregularities and comparison with the quiet-time baseline over the Nigerian equatorial region during the maximum phase (2012–2014) of the solar cycle 24. The ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) data from five geodetic GNSS stations across the equatorial region in Nigeria are considered to investigate the regional rate of change of TEC (ROT) and the rate of change of TEC index (ROTI). We also exploited the E×B vertical plasma drift (Vz) measurements from C/NOFS satellite and solar wind parameters from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellites in conjunction with the disturbance ionospheric electric currents (Diono) proxies from ground-based magnetometers to demonstrate the role of electrodynamics on development and modulation of ionospheric irregularities. In brief, we focused on regional ionospheric response characteristics during the initial phase, main phase and recovery phase of selected important storm events through comparison with the quiet-time ionospheric reference level over the region. The results show almost equal intensity of post-sunset ionospheric irregularities during quiet and disturbed geomagnetic days at most of the stations whereas the drift velocity was slightly higher during the quiet period. Moreover, the enhancement or suppression of ionospheric irregularities during the geomagnetic storm period demonstrates dependence on the local time of the storm commencement when the IMF-Bz and Dst southward orientation is at its minimum level. We emphasize the combined effect of the nominal quiet-time ionospheric electric field and storm-time Prompt Penetration Electric Field (PPEF) responsible for altering the ExB drift during the storm-time to modulate the pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) for the occurrence of ionospheric irregularities over the equatorial region, particularly when the storm onset local time, IMF-Bz southward flipping coincides with the post-sunset hours.
Purpose: A claim is always requested at the maturity or occurrence of an event. The claim is a perception influencer and mirror image in the relationships between the insurers and their policyholders. This perception is thus crucial to the claims handling process. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the claims handling process explicitly attributed to the perceptions of motor insurance policyholders in Lagos, Nigeria.Methodology: The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. The study population was the total number of registered motorists recorded in 2019 by the Motor Vehicle Administration Agency, 704,828. Thus, quota and convenience sampling methods were adopted in the questionnaire distribution and collection processes. A structured questionnaire was employed for data gathering. A total of 399 copies of the questionnaire were distributed, of which 287 were found usable, representing a 72% response rate. The data procedural technique employed were simple frequency percentages and Friedman’s rank test statistical method.Results/Findings: This study confirms the importance of motor insurance policyholders attached to claims handling processes in Nigeria. This study recommended that claims handling procedures should be strategically designed to incorporate the various attributes explained to provide for a mutually beneficial ambience between policyholders and insurers. Furthermore, motor insurance providers should put in place attractive claims packages to boost the confidence level of the motoring communities. Given the implications of this study, research work is thus encouraged to look at behavioural factors that can influence the claims handling preferences of motor insurance policyholders in Nigeria.
Purpose: The study focused on the effect of technological advancement on the Risk management of insurance companies in Nigeria. The study’s objectives were to examine how technological innovations enhance the identification of policyholder risk by insurance companies and evaluate how information technology has improved the identification of risks inherent in investment by insurance companies.Methodology: A survey research design was employed in this study. The study focused on the 14 composite insurance companies in Nigeria, only five of which were selected based on gross premium written and retention ratio. The targeted population of the study was 1569, while the sample size was 181 employees of the selected insurance companies. A well-structured questionnaire was formulated and administered, out of which 163 were filled and used for analyses using regression analysis with the SPSS (IBM 23) package.Results and Findings: The results showed that technological innovation had enhanced insurance companies’ identification of policyholder risks. In contrast, information technology has not improved the identification of risks inherent in investment by insurance companies. Thus, the study recommended, among others, that insurance companies should invest more in information technology to help achieve better results.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most prevalent form of age-related dementia, is typified by progressive memory loss and spatial awareness with personality changes. The increasing socioeconomic burden associated with AD has made it a focus of extensive research. Ample scientific evidence supports the role of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in AD pathophysiology, and there is increasing research into the possible role of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agents as disease modifying therapies. While, the result of numerous preclinical studies has demonstrated the benefits of anti-inflammatory agents, these benefits however have not been replicated in clinical trials, necessitating a further search for more promising anti-inflammatory agents. Current understanding highlights the role of diet in the development of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, as well as the importance of dietary interventions and lifestyle modifications in mitigating them. The current narrative review examines scientific literature for evidence of the roles (if any) of dietary components, nutraceuticals and functional foods in the prevention or management of AD. It also examines how diet/dietary components could modulate oxidative stress/inflammatory mediators and pathways that are crucial to the pathogenesis and/or progression of AD.
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