There is a need to cultivate medicinal plants to meet the growing demand. Their cultivation is hampered by extreme environmental conditions such as drought that affect plant growth and its pharmacological potential. Application of stress-tolerant endophytic species may potentially attenuate these negative impacts. This study assessed the effects of individual and co-inoculation of two native endophytic species (bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa and fungus Fusarium oxysporum) on growth, physiological responses, metabolite accumulation and therapeutic efficacy of Endostemon obtusifolius subjected to varying watering regimes (well watered, mild and severe stress) under greenhouse conditions. Drought stress negatively affected root and shoot biomass, carotenoid content, chlorophyll fluorescence and relative water content in E. obtusifolius. Electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide accumulation increased with drought stress. Individual and co-inoculation endophyte treatments significantly improved growth and stress tolerance mechanisms via increased osmolyte production (soluble sugars, proline), up-regulation of the enzymatic antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase) and increased antioxidant metabolite content (total phenolics, flavonoids). Antioxidant (DPPH, FRAP) and in vitro α-glucosidase activity of ethyl acetate leaf extracts were negatively affected by water stress but significantly improved when plantlets were subjected to endophyte inoculation. The most active extracts were from plants subjected to mild water stress with co-inoculation. Thus severe drought stress negatively affected growth and therapeutic efficacy of E. obtusifolius. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes enhanced the biochemical responses, osmoregulatory network and improved the therapeutic efficacy of E. obtusifolius.
Non-state sustainability initiatives, such as eco-certification and voluntary sustainability standards, are eco-friendly, market-driven, and privately managed initiatives that garner support from concerned stakeholders in the blue economy. Consequently, these initiatives play pivotal roles in enhancing resource sustainability within the seafood sector. However, despite their importance, the intricacies of how non-state seafood sustainability schemes operate within the blue economy remain unclear. Therefore, this study examines the interactions of these non-state actors within institutional, social, and ecological contexts to improve common resource management. This study is based on a comprehensive review of secondary data from the literature to delineate its scope. In recent years, there has been an increase in non-state initiatives advocating for sustainable fisheries and the sustainable use of natural blue resources. These initiatives claimed to exhibit established institutional, social, and ecological synergies, yet the foundational principles guiding them remain underexplored. It is essential to note that addressing the long-term sustainability issues in the socioeconomic-ecological systems requires the resilience shift of non-state initiatives. Thus, non-state institutions must strengthen their resilience management capabilities by collaborating with other actors, networks, and institutions to promote sustainable development. This collaboration fosters societal understanding of these resilience factors, which are portrayed in this study. Finally, effective resource management necessitates a delicate balance between economic considerations and environmental preservation, supporting the sustainability of common resources. It is imperative to deepen our understanding of the interplay between the socioeconomic and ecological facets of these systems to ensure that our environmental laws serve as the proper framework for effective resource regulation and management.
A sustainable university has been defined as a higher educational institution that addresses, involves and promotes the minimization of negative environmental, economic, societal, and health effects generated in the use of their resources in order to fulfil its functions of teaching, research, outreach and partnership, and stewardship in ways to help society make the transition to sustainable lifestyles. Earlier studies on green innovations have basically centered on the environmental benefits and were purely descriptive in nature. Several others examined the effect of green innovation on soil organic carbon by comparing street trees of species. The present study would contribute to literature using a mixed research approach to empirically investigate the contributions of green innovation on carbon storage and perceived environmental quality in Lagos State University, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained by collecting 100 surface (0 – 15cm) soil samples with the aid of a soil auger under campus trees, grasses, ornamental trees and vegetables (Amaranthus and green vegetable farms) across different land uses on campus. Also, data on green characteristics (tree height, tree size, canopy cover, density of herbs, basal cover and herbaceous cover) were measured using different ecological procedures, while 655 questionnaire copies were administered to staff and students to ascertain their perceived environmental quality of green innovation. Data obtained were analyzed using averages, simple percentages, One-Way Analysis of Variance, multiple regression analysis and principal components analysis. The results obtained showed that carbon storage significantly varied among the green innovation components with canopy cover contributing over 55% of carbon storage. The study revealed that canopy cover and tree size substantially contributed in carbon storage with canopy cover being more effective. PCA result identified beautification of LASU (19.8%), flood control (18.8%), promotion of urban ecology (15.8%) and improvement in air quality (9.5%) as the principal dimensions or perceived environmental quality of green innovation. The result further showed that green innovation characteristics have significant relationship with carbon storage. The study shows the importance of campus tree in carbon reduction and recommends the need for universities to give necessary recognition and incorporate these green components in physical planning.
The negative impacts of human activities on the environment have been generating considerable amounts of concern for several decades. Today, governments all over the world are making efforts to minimize human impacts on the environment. Understanding society's new concerns, businesses have begun to modify their behaviours while integrating environmental issues into organizational activities. This has led to the emergence of green marketing strategy which entails minimizing environmental pollution at all stages involved in the life cycle of products. It is essentially a market branding targeted at capturing the market by appealing to people’s desire to choose products and services that are better for the environment. Likewise, the Halal industry is witnessing unprecedented growth across the world and beyond religion barriers due to its pure, sustainable and ethical credentials or basis. The term ‘halal’ which means permissible or lawful and its compliment ‘toyyiban’, fundamentally implies production and consumption activities that are wholesome, of quality, healthy, green or environmentally sustainable. This strongly establishes the position that green production and green marketing had ever been inherent and integral parts of the Halal industry. Literatures have established that implementation of green marketing concept in the supply chain of the halal industry influences positive economic, environmental, and social impacts. Hence, this chapter examines the inherent relationship between Halal entrepreneurship and green marketing. It also explores how halal entrepreneurs can adopt best marketing strategies to project their green credential as a unique leverage and competitiveness of halalpreneurship.
The halal industry is growing swiftly, and halal has become a crucial barometer for Muslim consumers’ acceptability. As a result, aspiring business owners wishing to break into the halal goods sector must actively hunt for business mentoring opportunities in order to flourish in the competitive business environment. This study investigates the development of a halal entrepreneurship framework through a business incubator service for sustainability using the PRISMA protocol for systematic review. The Scopus and Google Scholar databases are employed in this review. A rigorous keyword search of the online databases produced 103 research papers from 2014 to 2023, 20 of which were research that was relevant to the issue. The findings revealed that halal entrepreneurship plays a crucial role in driving innovation, job creation, societal well-being, and global economic growth. It has the potential to support sustainable development by integrating ecological and socioeconomic considerations into business practices. Using the Viable Systems Model (VSM), the halal sector can adapt to its environment, meet stakeholder interests, and uphold Islamic ideals.
Literary writing in Africa is largely believed to have started with men, that is, the pioneer African male writers, who represented patriarchy in their works. More so, “the first archetypal category in women literature portrays an African woman as a victim in several ways.
Exactly 9% of the world’s HIV-positive people live in Nigeria. Over 6 million persons with HIV are still reported to live in South Africa. The adult prevalence rate is 26.5% in Swaziland, followed by 17.9%, 13.3%, and 11.1% in South Africa, Namibia, and Mozambique, respectively. South Africa, where females had a three times higher annual incidence than males (1.5% vs 0.5), saw the greatest rate of new HIV infections in 2017 among youths between the ages of 15 and 24 (1% annual incidence). The inadequate access to and rates of HIV testing among teenagers in high HIV burden African countries have been emphasized. An effective Sexual and Reproductive Health Education (SRHE) will go a long way in promoting healthy behaviors and reduce the transmission of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI’s). Youth-targeted television shows and other cutting-edge Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) programs have been successful in giving young people the knowledge and skills they need to protect themselves and make responsible sexual health decisions. However, important obstacles such as societal hurdles, educator resistance, and gender inequities continue to exist. A multidimensional strategy, including thorough curricula, teacher training, peer education, coordination with healthcare providers, community participation, and family involvement, is needed to overcome these barriers.
Endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) pose serious health challenges like goiter, diabetes, poor libido/irregular menstrual cycles and abnormal weight distribution. Studies have revealed that pollution of water sources has elevated levels of EDMs. 324 ground and surface water samples were collected from selected urban locations in Lagos and Ogun States. Sampling was done to cover both rain and dry seasons. The instrument used was hazardous effects of metals in water questionnaire (HEMWQ), pH meter and atomic absorption spectrophotometer were the laboratory equipment used. Health risk assessment was done using the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) model. Spatial pattern and seasonal variation affect the concentration of EDMs in the study locations. The values for ground water during the rain and dry season (µg/L) for cadmium and lead ranged from not detected to 2.17 ± 2.22 and 0.33 ± 0.82 to 23.33 ± 36.70. Thus, surface water values (µg/L) are 0.33 ± 0.82 to 16.67 ± 25.82 (cadmium), and 0.50 ± 1.22 to 20.00 ± 31.62 (lead) respectively. The health risk index (HRI) of cadmium and lead in the sample locations for children and adults are less than the threshold value of 1. Continuous monitoring of endocrine disrupting metal to identify pollution sources is recommended.
Conversion of dumpsites to farm lands in several communities is a usual practice in Nigeria. Wastes accumulate heavy metals in a variety of forms. This study assessed the concentration, degrees of contamination, and attendant health risk of heavy metals (HMs), using two major indigenous vegetables (Amaranthus viridis and Talinum triangulare) grown on five major dumpsites in Lagos state. After wet digestion, the mean concentrations of the HMs in the vegetable samples were evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Daily intake of metals (DIM), target hazard quotient (THQ), and hazard index (HI) biomathematics were employed in the assessment of non-carcinogenic health risk. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment was used to assess carcinogenicity. The obtained result shows that the concentrations of HMs fell within the following ranges: (0.37 to 0.59), (0.07 to 1.36), (0.30 to 1.92), (0.00 to 0.03), and (0.00 to 0.04) mg/kg; for zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), Iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), respectively, with low to moderate variability. At Ikorodu dumping site, the Pb concentration was above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible range and has the highest contamination factor. DIM for Pb was also above threshold values (> 1) in both adults and children, while the THQ values for Fe, Pb, and Cd were above 1 (> 1) in both adults and children. HI values for the vegetables exceeded WHO normal range (> 1), except Abule-Egba dumps’ samples (70% HI greater than 1 in adults and 90% HI greater than 1 in children). Additionally, the ILCR values of above 50% of the samples were above the WHO (10⁻⁶) limits, with the highest value in children (Cd, 1.064 × 10⁻³) indicating high risk of carcinogenicity over a life time of exposure. Thus, the results revealed great health risk from consumption of vegetables from the four major dumping sites, with children being at greater risk.
Objective To carrry out molecular surveillance of influenza D virus (IDV) in cattle in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods Prospective epidemiological investigation was initiated in a large commercial farm market where animals in open pens were reared, sold, and butchered under poor hygienic conditions without adequate biosecurity measures. A total of 80 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from cattle between October and November 2021. The samples were extracted using an RNA purification kit (NIMR). RNA extracts were amplified following a two-step PCR using FIREScript RT cDNA synthesis kit (Solis Biodyne, Estonia), followed by PCR OneTaq Quick-load 2X master-mix (NEB, UK) in a Rotor-Gene thermocycler (Qiagen, Germany). Amplicons were detected using a 1.5% Gel electrophoresis. Results In total, 32.5% (26/80) IDV was detected in cattle. Sick animals showed higher burden of IDV with 65.4% (17/26) than 34.6% (9/26) in a healthy population, including 88.2% (15/17) cattle with diarrhoea and 11.8% (2/17) with nausea having IDV. An incidence of 69.2% (18/26) by sex was recorded in bull, which was more than twice compared to 30.7% (8/26) in cow. Age prevalence showed 62.2% (18/26), the highest detection in cattle of four years old, followed by 23.1% (6/26) in five years old, while the lowest 7.7% (2/26) was recorded in three years old. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first molecular detection of IDV in Nigeria and West Africa sub-region. It underscores the need for continuous surveillance of IDV at the animal-human interface.
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder known to impair many physiological functions via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aldose reductase, Sorbitol dehydrogenase, Dipeptidyl peptidase IV, α-amylase and α-glucosidase are pharmacotherapeutic protein targets in type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of these enzymes constitute a new class of drugs used in the treatment and management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. Some reports claim that medicinal plant extracts used as food (antioxidant source) can reduce these alterations by eliminating ROS caused by DM. Ethnobotanical survey claims Jatropha gossypifolia commonly called “fig-nut” and “Lapa-lapa” in the Yoruba land of South-western Nigeria, to be used for the treatment and management of diabetes, in addition to its nutritive value. Objective The nutritional composition and in-silico antidiabetic potential of the bioactive constituents of J. gossypifolia leaf extracts were investigated. Methods Proximate, minerals and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis were carried out using standard procedures. Phytocompounds present in J. gossypifolia methanol (JGM) and ethyl acetate (JGE) leaf extracts were tested as potential antagonists of selected protein targets via in-silico techniques. Drug-likeness, pharmacokinetic properties and toxicity of the promising docked ligands were also predicted. Results The proximate and mineral analysis revealed good nutritional composition and mineral content. Moreso, cyclo-pentadecane and dibutyl phthalate from methanol extract, and benzene1,2,4,5-tetramethyl, benzene-1,2,3,5-tetramethyl, and benzene-1,3-dimethyl-5-(1-methylethyl) from ethyl acetate extract were present in J. gossypifolia leaf which exhibited better binding affinity than the clinically prescribed standard, metformin. Conclusion Benzene-1,2,4,5-tetramethyl from JGE extracts exhibited the most promising antidiabetic potential in-silico, suggesting its candidature as diabetes-target-protein inhibitor which may be developed for the treatment of type-2 diabetes mellitus.
Aims To investigate possible effect of dietary folic acid supplementation (beginning in the prepubertal period) on neurobehaviour, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters and neurotransmitter levels in adult mic Background There is a growing body of knowledge in support of the beneficial effects of folic acid supplementation. However, while ample evidence exists concerning beneficial effects on growth and haematologic parameters, possible effects of continuous folic acid supplementation on the brain are less examined. Objective To investigate possible effect of dietary folic acid supplementation (beginning in the prepubertal period) on neurobehaviour, oxidative stress, inflammatory parameters and neurotransmitter levels in adult mice. Method Forty-eight prepubertal male mice (postnatal day 21) were randomly assigned into four groups of 12 (n=12) animals each. Mice were grouped into normal control (fed standard diet) and three groups fed folic acid supplemented diet at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg of feed. Daily food intake and weekly body weight were assessed. Animals were fed standard diet, or folic acid supplemented diet for a period of eight weeks. On postnatal day 78, animals were exposed to behavioural paradigms (Open-field, Y maze, radial arm maze, elevated plus maze, bar test and models of behavioural despair). Twenty-four hours after the last behavioural test, animals were fasted overnight following which they were sacrificed, and blood taken for assessment of blood glucose, leptin, and insulin levels. The brain of the animals were also homogenised for the assessment of biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity, inflammatory markers, dopamine, brain derived neurotropic factor, acetylcholine and acetylcholinesterase activity). Result Results showed a concentration dependent increase/improvement in body weight, antioxidant status, memory scores (in the radial arm and Y- maze) and acetylcholine levels; and a decrease in food intake, blood glucose, insulin, and leptin level. A reduction in open field behaviours, anxiety-related behaviours, and proinflammatory markers were also observed. Conclusion The beneficial effects of prepubertal continuous dietary folate fortification in specific contexts relating to behaviour, cognition, oxidative status, metabolic hormones and brain neurochemistry (as the animal ages) are shown in the study. Other NONE
In view of the multiple issues associated with fossil fuels, an environmentally friendly and economically feasible alternative energy source is required. While sufficient research has been conducted on diesel and single biodiesel blends, only a few studies on dual blended biodiesel have been conducted in this respect. The significance of blending waste cooking oil and rubber seed oil mixed with diesel at different proportions is investigated in the present research. At different braking power levels, the impacts of dual biodiesel (DB) performance and exhaust fumes on the stationary single-cylinder four-stroke air-cooled diesel engine with electrical loads were evaluated. The engine speed was held constant at 2800 rpm all through the testing. Each load was tested three times. Blend A had relatively better thermal and mechanical efficiency than diesel, based on experimental investigation results. Blends B and C were almost identical to the diesel values. Specific fuel consumption statistics for dual biodiesel blends were similar to diesel. The influence of different mixes on CO, CO2, HC, NOx, and smoke opacity were studied using emission tests. In contrast to diesel, the dual biodiesel blends produced more fumes, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. Dual biodiesel blends, on the other hand, have lesser emissions temperatures than diesel.
Background The growing occurrence of complications associated with diabetes calls for the unending exploration of natural products for more efficient therapeutic substances. The polyol pathway is a foundational scheme involved in the development of diabetic complications. Retarding the activities of enzymes in the polyol pathway is, therefore, a potent method of managing these complications. Objective This work assessed the ability of four non-leafy vegetables, namely Daucus carota Linn. (carrot), Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench (okra), Allium cepa Linn. (onion), and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato), to inhibit the activities of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase. Method The vegetables’ ability was evaluated by incubating the vegetables with suitable enzymes and substrates. Sample(s) with the lowest inhibitory concentration (IC50) was utilized to determine the mechanism of action of the enzymes by constructing the Lineweaver-Burk graph. Results Results showed that the aqueous extract of carrot exhibited the lowest IC50 value for the inhibition of both aldose reductase (135.17 μg/mL) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (14.64 μg/mL), respectively. The double reciprocal plot also showed that the aqueous extract of carrot inhibited both aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in an uncompetitive fashion. Conclusion Aqueous extract of carrot successfully retarded the action of polyol pathway enzymes, which may result in the recovery of diabetic complications. This activity may due to the availability of phytochemicals, including carotenoids and phenylacetylenes.
This research explored how gamification addresses cataloguing and classification education difficulties in Nigeria. It illustrates how library schools may utilize gamification to improve students' teaching and learning experiences using technology. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out. Literature discoveries were then utilized to build a gamification model suitable for the library school. The findings suggest that library schools should continue to plan through gamification in order to better position themselves for cataloguing and classification delivery.
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