Ladoke Akintola University of Technology
Recent publications
Objectives: This study investigated the impact of rohypnol on gastric tissue integrity.Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomized into control, low dose rohypnol-treated, high dose rohypnol-treated, low dose rohypnol-treated recovery and high dose rohypnol-treated recovery groups.Results: Rohypnol caused significant rise in gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), nitric oxide (NO), tumour necrotic factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Also, rohypnol caused reductions in gastric reduced glutathione (GSH) (as well as GSH/GSSG), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2). Furthermore, rohypnol upregulated caspase 3 activity and induced gastric DNA damage, evident by a rise in 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in gastric tissue. These alterations were coupled with reduced gastric weight and distorted gastric cytoarchitecture. Cessation of rohypnol caused a significant but not complete reversal of rohypnol-induced gastric damage.Conclusion: This study revealed that rohypnol induced gastric injury by suppressing glutathione content and COX-2 activity, and upregulating caspase 3-dependent apoptosis, which was partly reversed by rohypnol withdrawal.
Purpose: COVID-19, a novel infection, presented with several complications, including socioeco�nomical and reproductive health challenges such as erectile dysfunction (ED). The present review summarizes the available shreds of evidence on the impact of COVID-19 on ED. Materials and methods: All published peer-reviewed articles from the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak to date, relating to ED, were reviewed. Results: Available pieces of evidence that ED is a consequence of COVID-19 are convincing. COVID-19 and ED share common risk factors such as disruption of vascular integrity, cardiovas�cular disease (CVD), cytokine storm, diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). COVID- 19 also induces impaired pulmonary haemodynamics, increased ang II, testicular damage and low serum testosterone, and reduced arginine-dependent NO bioavailability that promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endothelial dysfunction, resulting in ED. In add�ition, COVID-19 triggers psychological/mental stress and suppresses testosterone-dependent dopamine concentration, which contributes to incident ED. Conclusions: In conclusion, COVID-19 exerts a detrimental effect on male reproductive function, including erectile function. This involves a cascade of events from multiple pathways. As the pandemic dwindles, identifying the long-term effects of COVID-19-induced ED, and proffering adequate and effective measures in militating against COVID-19-induced ED remains pertinent.
Background Amylase is used commercially in food, textiles, sugar syrup, paper, and detergent industries. Bacteria and fungi remain a significant source of industrial enzymes. Pleurotus tuberregium is a macro-fungi that can exist as a fruiting body, sclerotium, mycelium, and spores. Some studies have been conducted on this fungus, with minimal studies on its enzyme activity (s) using the submerged fermentation technique. Results The purified amylase has a specific activity of 5.26 U/mg, total activity of 189.20 U, maximally active at 70 °C, pH of 5, and retaining 100% of its activity at 30 o C for 4 min. P. tuberregium amylase showed optimal activity with plantain peel, followed by starch and pineapple peel (42, 30, and 29 μg/mL/min respectively). The presence of Ca ²⁺ , Mg ²⁺ , and Na ⁺ ions in the reaction mixture activated the enzyme activity , but was slightly and moderately inhibited by KCl and Na 2 H 2 PO 4 respectively. The crude enzyme effectively clarified juice, liquefied soluble cassava starch (with a release of appreciable glucose quantity), and partially de-stained white fabric. Conclusions The amylase obtained from the submerged fermentation of Pleurotus tuberregium has potential applications in food and detergent industries.
Exposure to indoor radon, with no safe level, has been reported to bear the possible radiological risk to humans. The indoor radon level of a total of one hundred and thirty-two offices and sixty classrooms of tertiary institutions within different lithology and at varied meteorological values in southwestern Nigeria was measured using Electret Passive Environmental Radon Monitor (E-PERM). The meteorological parameters were obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) database. MATLAB scripts of code were used to develop the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model. The measured parameters were subjected to both descriptive and inferential statistics. The highest mean radon concentration was observed in offices built on granitic bedrock with a value of 64.3 ± 1.7 Bq.m⁻³ while the lowest was observed in alluvium bedrock with a value of 52.5 ± 1.4 Bq.m⁻³. To enhance prediction involving erratic parametric patterns, the measured data were subjected to an optimized Artificial Neural Network architecture training, validation, and testing, leading to a model determined to have a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient value of 0.997, Average Absolute Relative Error of 0.0115, and Mean Squared Error of 0.07. The predicted result was compared favorably with the measured data with 0.054 Average Validation Error, 0.027 Mean Absolute Error 3.64 Mean Absolute Percentage Error, and 83.7% Goodness-of-Prediction values. About 21.4% of the values were found to be higher than the 100 Bq.m⁻³ limits specified by the World Health Organization. Measured radon concentration and predicted ANN data as obtained in this work, being novel in this study area is useful for immediate assessment of the level of risk associated with radon exposure as well as for future predictions. The ANN developed is effective and efficient in predicting indoor radon concentration.
One of the currently proposed solutions for finding alternatives to fossil fuels and combating environmental pollution concerns the development of advanced materials for clean and renewable energy applications. An ongoing focus is devoted to the design of semiconductor-oriented heterogeneous photoelectrocatalytic, photocatalytic and electrocatalytic systems using fuel cells. In this regard, photocatalytic water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction stand as the two most promising processes for solving the energy crisis and mitigate the environmental pollution. However, these processes still demand for cost-efficient, stable, and environmentally benign photocatalysts. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as adjustable and multipurpose materials that are now intensively investigated as a podium for applications in clean energy, including photocatalytic H2O splitting and CO2 reduction. Apart from representing an array of intrinsic structural and physicochemical characteristics, MOFs are well susceptible for various post-synthetic modifications to address specific challenges. Despite years of research in this field and a good number of seminal studies, further efforts should be geared toward the improvement of light absorption and stability of MOFs, which are the principal challenges that should be overcome. In this review, various strategies for designing MOFs and derived materials for advanced photocatalytic H2O splitting and CO2 reduction processes are discussed in detail, with a particular focus on the most recent progress in this area. Fundamental principles of photocatalysis, thermodynamics and kinetics, mechanistic features, and synthetic strategies for MOFs and derived nanomaterials and composites are exemplified to create a current state-of-the-art perception of this broad and highly important research topic. Industrial perspectives and projections on future research using MOFs and their composite photocatalytic materials are also elucidated. This review will be of assistance and a wake-up call to the scientific community in the field where the design and development of MOFs is blended with the materials science toward creating new solutions for clean energy production, using water splitting and carbon dioxide reduction as two key processes of paramount significance.
Globally, replanted sugarcane (Rp) on hillslopes has accelerated soil erosion and associated nutrients entering the river, causing serious water pollution. Sugarcane planting patterns (SPPs), including the area ratios of Rp and intercropping (Ic) on the hillslopes, may mitigate these negative impacts by increasing surface coverage. But the effectiveness of SPPs on these impacts has not been quantified at both hillslopes and watershed scale. We measured extreme rainfall erosion-induced nutrients losses on the upslopes with different area ratios of Rp and the deposition ratio on the downslopes with different Ic levels by using beryllium-7 (⁷Be) technique. We estimated the export loads and coefficients of eroding sediment nutrients from the watersheds with different spatial configuration of Rp and Ic levels by combinative use of ⁷Be, compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) and watershed monitoring. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss increased with area ratios of Rp, ranging from 6.9 to 21.2 kg ha⁻¹ event⁻¹ and 2.8–9.6 kg ha⁻¹ event⁻¹, respectively. Delivery ratios of eroding nutrients from the upslopes decreased with intercropping levels on the downslopes, ranging between 38.0% and 49.6%. Export loads and coefficient of eroding nutrients varied with the spatial configuration of Rp ratios and Ic levels in the watershed, ranging from 0.04 kg ha⁻¹ to 1.76 kg ha⁻¹ and 1.09–25.15%, respectively. The magnitudes of sediment nutrient losses on the upslope were positively correlated with area ratios of Rp (P < 0.05), whereas their delivery ratios on the downslope were negatively correlated with Ic levels, although they were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The changes in ground litter cover (Glc) caused by Rp and Ic explained the variations of 53.6–55.3% in nutrient loss rate and of 74.1–74.4% in nutrient delivery ratio. Our results suggest that regulating SPPs could effectively mitigate erosion-induced nitrogen and phosphorus loss on the slopes and their export loads from the watershed.
Phase change metals (PCM) with high latent heat during the solid-liquid phase transition are promising for thermal energy storage applications. However, popular PCM have low thermal conductivity properties, low thermal stability and thermal cycling among other limitations. The current study provides a cutting-edge review of recent literature on thermal energy storage systems for solar thermal management towards photovoltaic performance enhancement. Also, in-depth overview on solar thermal storage mechanisms, such as sensible thermal storage, latent thermal storage and thermochemical thermal storage, were also carried out in the study. Application of phase change materials (PCM), PCM heat transfer enhancement and PCM selection criteria, photovoltaic performance indicator variables were also reviewed in the study. To sum up, this work extensive study of thermal storage configuration methodologies, PCM and hybrids performance, heat and mass transfer fluids, and thermal storage mechanisms compiled the research trend and research gap in PCM adoption to photovoltaic energy harnessing.
Powdered speargrass (Imperata cylindrica) (IC) root was modified by treating with orthophosphoric acid and was engaged for the trapping of Congo red (CR) dye molecule from solution. The raw and modified IC roots were characterized using Fourier transform infrared, Scanning electron microscopy, Boehm titration, and pH point of zero charge technique. Batch adsorption studies were investigated using various parameters namely contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature respectively. The initial adsorptive uptake of the dye was observed to be rapid within 50 min of contact time while equilibrium was attained between 120 and 150 min of contact time. The high regression and closeness of experimental and calculated results of qe attested to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model being the most fitting to adsorption data. Results obtained from the adsorption of Congo red dye unto ICRAC root showed the fitting of isotherm models in the order Dubinin-Radushkevich (R² = 0.8757) < Langmuir (R² = 0.9274) < Temkin (R² = 0.9511) < Freundlich (R² = 1). Thermodynamic parameters obtained showed that the interaction was exothermic and spontaneous in nature with negative values of Gibb’s free energy (− 25.92, − 27.23, and − 28.94) kJ mol⁻¹, and negative values for enthalpy change. The values of ∆S for the ICRAC root were positive, suggesting more disorderliness and randomness at the ICRAC-CR dye interface. The adsorption capacities obtained at 303 K for ICRAC root was 1666.70 mg g⁻¹. This study showed that the prepared ICRAC effectively removed Congo red dye from the solution.
This study conducted experiments used for the development of both the regression model with uncertainty analysis and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for the prediction of the yield of biodiesel (YB) produced from castor oil in the presence of calcium oxide derived from the eggshell. Box Behnken design (BBD) was used to develop the experimental condition for five different variables while YB was the response. Uncertainty analysis was determined from Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The model was optimized and validated before the generated data was applied in the three ANFIS modelling techniques. Root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of correlation (R2) and average percentage error (APE) were used to determine the accuracy of the models developed. The result of this modelling shows that the optimum YB (94.29%) was achieved at a methanol to oil ratio of 11.48, catalyst loading of 3.38 wt%, reaction time of 1.84 h, the temperature of 60.2 °C, and agitation of 343.5 rpm. The prediction from BBD, ANFIS and MCS agreed that the methanol to oil ratio was the most important parameter for investigation. The considered ANFIS model technique (subtractive clustering) for the modelling of YB outperformed BBD model. The novelty of this study are the determination of the optimum condition for the transesterification of castor oil in the presence of thermally treated anthill, the establishment of the use of ANFIS in modelling YB, the prediction of the influence of variables on YB using both statistical and, AI techniques and validation of the predictions from the two methods using MCS.
The requirement for easily adoptable technology for fruit preservation in developing countries is paramount. This study investigated the effect of pre-treatment (warm water blanching time—3, 5 and 10 min at 60 °C) and drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) on drying mechanisms of convectively dried Synsepalum dulcificum (miracle berry fruit—MBF) fruit. Refined Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) was utilized to model the effect and establish the sensitivity of drying factors on the moisture ratio variability of MBF. Unblanched MBF had the longest drying time, lowest effective moisture diffusivity (EMD), highest total and specific energy consumption of 530 min, 5.1052 E−09 m²/s, 22.73 kWh and 113.64 kWh/kg, respectively at 50 °C drying time, with lowest activation energy of 28.8589 kJ/mol. The 3 min blanched MBF had the lowest drying time, highest EMD, lowest total and specific energy consumption of 130 min, 2.5607 E−08 m²/s, 7.47 kWh and 37 kWh/kg, respectively at 70 °C drying temperature. The 5 min blanched MBF had the highest activation energy of 37.4808 kJ/mol. Amongst others, 3—gbellmf—38 epoch ANFIS structure had the highest modeling and prediction efficiency (R² = 0.9931). The moisture ratio variability was most sensitive to drying time at individual factor level, and drying time cum pretreatment at interactive factors level. In conclusion, pretreatment significantly reduced the drying time and energy consumption of MBF. Refined ANFIS structure modeled and predicted the drying process efficiently, and drying time contributed most significantly to the moisture ratio variability of MBF.
Land pooling as a technique for urban renewal is becoming fast growing technique worldwide to achieve effective, unbiased and sustainable urban development. Continues opposition over conventional techniques of urban renewal led to the evolution of land pooling in many countries. In Nigeria, Lagos state has just adopted land pooling technique for urban renewal exercise as pilot project. This study aimed at reviewing the technique to identify and analyse its potentials and shortcomings for sustainable urban renewal project. The study reviewed relevant literatures on the subject matter and adopted content analysis technique for the analysis. Although, the result revealed that land pooling technique has several potentials, there are also shortcomings especially in the society with diversities of cultural, social and economic differences. To overcome these shortcomings, workable and future course of action are suggested to pursue a better design and implementation of land pooling technique to achieve its overall proficiency.
The double perovskite Cs2AgInCl6is a potential material for the absorbing layer of a thin film solar cell due to its direct band gap. The only current limitation the material has is its wide band gap. A careful engineering of its structural, mechanical and opto-electronic properties with the aid of hydrostatic pressure ranging from 0 GPa – 16 GPa has been studied using density functional theory. The calculations were carried out using GGA-PBEsol exchange correlation functional. It is found that the lattice constant reduces as the pressure increases, while the bulk modulus increases as the exerted pressure increases. The bulk moduli calculated from the elastic constants are found to be in agreement with those obtained via Birch-Murnaghan equation of state. This indicates the accuracy of the calculations, and it is achieved at all pressure values. The mechanical properties of the material are investigated, and the material is found to be anisotropic and ductile at all pressure considered. Due to the underestimation of the energy band gap by GGA-PBEsol exchange correlation functional, TB-mBJ, a metaGGA functional, was used to calculate the electronic and optical properties. The energy band gap is found to reduce from 2.746 eV at ambient pressure to 2.482 eV at 6 GPa and momentarily increases until it reached 2.501 eV at 16 GPa. The optical properties of Cs2AgInCl6 revealed its absorption threshold is in the visible range, although a shift in the absorption threshold is observed as pressure is applied on it. An 8.7 % increase in the refractive index is observed as pressure increases. The calculated absorption coefficient corresponds reasonably with the calculated band gap. The electron energy loss function and reflectivity of the material have also been investigated.
Environmental pollution is a major concern all over the world as various substances are added to nature by human activities and subsequently resulting in adverse effects on man, animals, plant and the ecosystem. In the time past, pollution has been managed conventionally by physical and chemical methods, but the pollutants persist in the environment, mostly in different forms, thus necessitating the need for a green technological approach. Environmental biotechnology is greatly accepted as it is safe and cheap and remediates all pollutants. Microbial nanobiotechnology is a viable option in pollution management in the world today as it is of high efficiency with no known toxic end products. The microorganisms producing the eco-friendly, nano-sized materials are generally regarded as safe. Diverse nanoparticles of environmental importance have been extensively synthesized intracellularly and extracellularly by bacteria, fungi, algae, yeasts, etc. Microbial nanoparticles of gold, silver and other metals have found applications in waste management, and they are of different shapes ranging from spherical, triangular, rectangular to pentagonal. Currently, in addition to remediating polluted environments, microbial nanobiotechnology is of great promise in pollution biosensory activity and prevention. This chapter also assesses the prospects, challenges, sustainability and risks related to the application of microbial nanobiotechnology in pollution management.
Background: Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced organ toxicity is of critical concern in cancer therapy because of its contributions to morbidity and mortality of cancer patients. This study evaluated the beneficial effect of Annona muricata (A. muricata) ethanol leaf extract on the toxic effect of DOX. Methods: Scavenging abilities of A. muricata fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, and aqueous) were tested against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals. Male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were randomly allotted into four groups of treatments. Group A served as a control, Group B was treated with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w) DOX intraperitoneally (i.p) twice per week, Group C was treated with 200 mg/kg b.w extract (orally), once per day, and 2.5 mg/kg b.w DOX (i.p) twice per week. While Group D was treated with 200 mg/kg b.w. ethanol leaf extracts orally once daily for 2 weeks. Hematological indices (White blood cells (WBC), Red blood cells (RBC), Platelet (PLT), lymphocyte (LYM), hemoglobin (HGB), and hematocrit (HCT)), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), urea, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), cholesterol, CA (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated. Results: Aqueous and ethanol fractions displayed significant DPPH (p
Background The prognostic implications of metabolic syndrome (METS) among African stroke patients are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of METS and its prognostic implications among Africans with newly diagnosed stroke in the SIREN study. Methods We included stroke cases (adults aged >18 years with CT/MRI confirmed stroke). The validated tools comprehensively evaluated vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs for the association between METS and risk factors. We also computed the prediction power of the domain of covariates in a sequential manner using the area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) curve. Results Among 3998 stroke subjects enrolled in the study, 76.8% had METS by at least one of the clinical definitions. Factors associated with METS were age > 50 years (OR- 1.41, CI-1.18-1.68), male gender (OR 3.37, CI- 2.83-4.0), income >100USD (OR1.42, CI-1.18-1.65), stress (OR1.46, CI-1.14-1.87), diabetes mellitus (OR1.38, CI-1.06-1.78), and cardiac disease (OR1.42, CI-1.18-1.65). Stroke severity was higher (aOR 13.58, CI- 8.58-22.09 for severe diseases) among those with METS (SLS = mean +/− SD) compared with those without METS (SL mean +/− SD). METS was associated with higher odds (aOR 1.31, CI-1.08-1.58) of one-month fatality after adjusting for stroke severity, age > 50 years, and average monthly income >100USD. Conclusion METS is very common among African stroke patients and is associated with stroke severity and worse one-month fatality. Lifestyle interventions may prevent METS and attenuate its impact on stroke occurrence and outcomes.
This work reported the effects of heat-assisted extraction (HAE) temperature (35 – 55 °C), solid: liquid (1:20 - 1:50 g/mL) and time (100 - 200 min) on the total phenolic content (TPC, GAE/g), bioactive extracts yield (EYs, %) and antioxidant activity (AA, AAE/g) of Senna alata leaves (SALs) using the Box-Behnken experimental design. Multi-objective HAE process optimization was also carried out. The large scale (1000 L extractor capacity) HAE integrated process was thereafter designed using the global optimum data and techno-economically analyzed. Profitability sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were conducted on the large scale integrated process to determine the associated risk. The extraction temperature, solid: liquid and time had significant effects on TPC, EYs and AA. The extraction condition at 54.97 °C, 41.59 g/mL and 100 min gave an optimum TPC, EYs and AA of 84.3897 mg GAE/g, 21.3607% and 6.61696 µM AAE/g respectively. The phenolic profiling showed that SALs extracts were rich in betulinic, gallic, chlorogenic, caffeic and ferulic acids. The large scale integrated plant possessed net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IIR), return on investment (ROI) and payback time (PBT) of 193.511 US$, 7.11%, 13.97%, and 7.16 y respectively. The certainty of obtaining base case NPV and ROI were 55.88% and 60.96%. Out of technical and cost variables selected for sensitivity analysis, extracts recovery contributed the most (26.6% and 27.9% in NPV and ROI respectively) while the extraction temperature and SALs purchase cost did not contribute significantly to the variance in NPV and ROI.
Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a leading cause of dementia around the globe. Its pathogenesis is characterized primarily by the extracellular deposition of amyloid β peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. Despite the significant investments in neurological research, the exact molecular mechanism of AD pathogenesis is still not fully elucidated. Several studies converge on a hypothesis that pathogenic microbes might play a role in AD progression. Although this hypothesis has been considered relatively weak for decades, it has recently received considerable attention due to increasing evidence on the association between microorganisms and AD. There is a lack of experimental and scientific arguments conveying that these microorganisms engender cognitive and neuropathological deficits and modifications specific to AD, challenging the theory that it could be an infectious neurological disease. This review focuses on recent advances in the infection hypothesis and provides an overview of new findings portraying the significance of pathogenic microbes in AD and the challenges confronting the validity of the hypothesis. Methodology Data were collected from medical journals published on PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and Embase bibliographical databases with a predefined search strategy. All articles considering neurological disorders, especially AD associated with infectious diseases, were included. Results This work focused on providing an overview of new findings around the relationship between microorganisms and AD, challenges facing the validity of the theory, and recommendations on how the scientific community can best develop alternative approaches to address the pathophysiology of AD. Conclusion While many studies reinforce the suspicion of an infectious etiology of AD, it is important to note that it is yet not validated how microorganisms’ presence in the brain can develop AD due to the limited available evidence. Certainly, ground‐breaking work is mandatory in this field of research, and these reports so far warrant a thorough investigation into how a chronic infection may remain silent while progressing its neuroinflammation. Amid this uncertainty arises the hope that many researchers will take on this challenge and join this endeavor to benefit AD patients worldwide.
The quest for sustainable potable water is an unendless struggle as it is one of the pillars that sustain the growth of any community. Okitipupa is being challenged with a low level of access to safe and sustainable water for human activities, thereby limiting the source of potable water in the area to groundwater resource. In this study, a vertical electrical sounding (VES) technique employing Schlumberger electrode array was used to conduct a geophysical survey in Okitipupa to assess the groundwater potentials and locate promising zones for groundwater exploitation. VES was carried out at 48 locations. The lithological units obtained are topsoil, lateritic sand, clayey sand, silty sand, sand (which is the main aquifer), sandy clay and shale. The topsoil is characterized by clay and lateritic sands. The aquiferous units vary from the second to fifth layers where two percent of the total sounding points showed no signs of groundwater. The range of the delineated aquifer’s depths varied from 0.5 to 1.5 m, 0.8 to 14.9 m, 4.2 to 123.4 m and 29.7 to 164.1 m, respectively. The estimated longitudinal conductance in this study indicates that the aquifer’s protective capacities vary from poor to good ratings. The central, northwestern and southern parts are the promising zones for groundwater exploration in the study area, with aquifer’s depths ranging from 0.5 to 164.1 m. As a result of the nature of lithology of the studied aquifers, discharge of toxic substances that could contaminate the aquifer should be avoided in the study area.
Supply chain workers’ well-being was critically affected during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. During this period, workers were suspended, retrenched, and short-pay which tells on their personal, family, and household wellbeing. Therefore, this study qualitatively examined the impact of COVID-19 on Supply Chain workers' well-being in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Agbara Industrial Estate in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a phenomenological research methodology to explore and provide an in-depth description of participants’ well-being experiences during COVID 19 pandemic. In total, 150 participants were selected randomly from the study area. Both Atlas.ti 7.0 and In Vivo software were used to transcript the interview while analysis was done qualitatively. The findings of the study revealed that most respondents consented that they went through difficulties in feeding themselves and their families during the pandemic due to their job loss and short payment. The study concluded that the supply chain workers were retrenched/short-pays during the period of COVID 19 and they were not adequately catered for their well-being in terms of food and health care. The study recommends that the supply chain companies can support an inclusive COVID-19 recovery for workers.
Biomass from agriculture is a promising alternative fuel due to its carbon-neutral feature. However, raw biomass does not have properties required for its direct utilization for energy generation. Torrefaction is considered as a pretreatment method to improve the properties of biomass for energy applications. This study was aimed at investigating the effects of torrefaction temperature and residence time on some physical and chemical properties of torrefied corncobs. Therefore, a fixed-bed torrefaction reactor was developed and used in the torrefaction of corncobs. The torrefaction process parameters investigated were the torrefaction temperature (200, 240, and 280 °C) and the residence time (30, 60, and 90 min). The effects of these parameters on the mass loss, grindability, chemical composition, and calorific value of biomass were investigated. It was shown that the mass loss increased with increasing torrefaction temperature and residence time. The grinding throughput of the biomass was improved by increasing both the torrefaction temperature and the residence time. Torrefaction at higher temperatures and longer residence times had greater effects on the reduction in particle size of the milled corncobs. The calorific value was highest at a torrefaction temperature of 280 °C and a residence time of 90 min. The energy yield for all treatments ranged between 92.8 and 99.2%. The results obtained in this study could be useful in the operation and design of torrefaction reactors. They also provided insight into parameters to be investigated for optimization of the torrefaction reactor.
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5,269 members
Bolaji Emmanuel Egbewale
  • Department of Community Medicine
Donatus Sabageh
  • Department of Morbid Anatomy / Histopathology
Johnson Akinwumi Adejuyitan
  • Department of Food Science and Engineering
Iyabo Christianah Oladipo
  • Department of Science Laboratory Technology
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