Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent and debilitating global cardiovascular condition affecting around 64 million individuals, placing significant strain on healthcare systems and diminishing patients' quality of life. The escalating prevalence of HF underscores the urgent need for innovative therapeutic approaches that target the root causes and aim to restore normal cardiac function. Stem cell-based therapies have emerged as promising candidates, representing a fundamental departure from conventional treatments focused primarily on symptom management. This review explores the evolving landscape of stem cell-based therapies for HF management. It delves into the mechanisms of action, clinical evidence from both positive and negative outcomes, ethical considerations, and regulatory challenges. Key findings include the potential for improved cardiac function, enhanced quality of life, and long-term benefits associated with stem cell therapies. However, adverse events and patient vulnerabilities necessitate stringent safety assessments. Future directions in stem cell-based HF therapies include enhancing efficacy and safety through optimized stem cell types, delivery techniques, dosing strategies, and long-term safety assessments. Personalized medicine, combining therapies, addressing ethical and regulatory challenges, and expanding access while reducing costs are crucial aspects of the evolving landscape.
Arsenic is associated with male reproductive toxicity through histone deacetylation and oxido-inflammatory injury. Notwithstanding, short-chain fatty acids such as acetate exert anti-oxido-inflammatory activities and inhibit histone deacetylation. This study investigated the impact of acetate on arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity. Forty eight adult male Wistar rats were allotted into any of these four groups (n = 12 rats per group): vehicle-treated, sodium acetate-treated, arsenic-exposed, and arsenic-exposed + sodium acetate-treated. The results revealed that arsenic exposure prolonged the latencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation and reduced the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation, as well as mating and fertility indices, litter size and weight, anogenital distance, anogenital index, and survival rate in male F1 offspring at weaning. Also, arsenic reduced the circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testosterone and testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. In addition, arsenic reduced the daily and total spermatid production, sperm count, motility, and viability but increased the percentage of sperm cells with abnormal morphology. Furthermore, arsenic increased testicular xanthine oxidase activity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde levels, and reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, total antioxidant capacity, and Nrf2 level. More so, arsenic exposure increased testicular iNOS activity and nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and NFkB levels as well as Bax, caspase 9, and caspase 3 activities, and reduced Bcl-2. These findings were associated with arsenic-induced increase in testicular arsenic concentration, histone deacetylase activity, and reduced testicular weight. Histopathological examination revealed that arsenic also disrupted testicular histoarchitecture, which was accompanied by altered testicular planimetry and reduced spermatogenic cells. Notwithstanding, sodium acetate alleviated arsenic-induced sexual dysfunction as well as biochemical and histological alterations. These were accompanied acetate-driven downregulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Succinctly, acetate attenuated arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity by suppressing HDAC and uric acid–driven oxido-inflammatory NFkB/iNOS/NO response.
It is well-documented that radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from the cell phone contributes to testicular dysfunction and subsequently predisposes individuals, especially male to infertility. Panax ginseng (P. ginseng) exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects in biological systems. However, its protective role against reproductive dysfunction, including testiculopathy is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the protective effects of P. ginseng extract on testicular damage induced by RF-EMR from cell phones in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats (120–150 g) were randomly divided into four groups of n = 5; Control group received vehicle (normal saline, po), P. ginseng group received 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng extract (po), RF-EMR group was exposed to 900MHz of radiation and RF-EMR + P. ginseng group was exposed to 900MHz of radiation and was concomitantly treated with 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng (po). The treatment was done daily for 56 days. The animals were sacrificed, and the biochemical/endocrine parameters and the histology of testes were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in spermatogonia, sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with decrease in progressivity in RF-EMR group compared with control. Likewise, a significant decrease was observed in serum-luteinizing hormone, testosterone and glutathione peroxidase with degeneration of germ cells and Leydig cells, and a distorted interstitium in RF-EMR group compared with control. However, the administration of P. ginseng attenuated these alterations. The results of the present study suggest that supplementation with P. ginseng extract ameliorates testicular dysfunction associated with RF-EMR from cell phone by enhancement of antioxidant capacity.
The brewery industry generates a huge quantity of brewers’ spent grain (BSG) which can pose waste disposal and pollution problems. Anaerobic digestion of BSG, a recalcitrant lignocellulosic waste, is slow but can be enhanced by bioaugmentation, biostimulation and co-digestion to obtain a higher biogas yield. Hence, the effect of inoculum from brewery wastewater sludge (BWWS), iron (III) chloride (FeCl 3 ) and co-digestion with poultry manure (PM) on the production of biogas from BSG was investigated. Cumulative biogas and biomethane yields of 588.19 NL/kgVS and 400.34 NL CH4 /kgVS, respectively, were obtained from a slurry consisting of a blend of 60% BSG and 40% PM plus 15 mg L ⁻¹ FeCl 3 in BWWS, after 30 day retention time at 37 o C. However, mono-digestion of BSG in only water yielded 402.17 NL biogas /kgVS and 262.86 NL CH4 /kgVS. The synergistic effects of inoculum from BWWS, FeCl 3 and poultry manure on anaerobic digestion of BSG resulted in 46% and 52% increases in biogas and methane yields, respectively, compared with BSG mono-digestion. The biogas and biomethane production kinetics were well described by the dual pooled first order, logistic and modified Gompertz models.
Immunometabolism has emerged as a rapidly growing field of research, holding significant promise for personalised medicine and precision immunotherapy. This review explores the intricate relationship between immune function and metabolic processes, emphasising their profound impact on various immune-related disorders. Understanding how metabolic dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of these disorders remains a critical research gap. Therefore, this review aims to bridge that gap by examining the key metabolic pathways involved and their specific implications in immune cell function. Key metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, mitochondrial metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and amino acid metabolism, are discussed in the context of immune cell function. Dysregulation of these pathways can disrupt immune cell activation, differentiation, and overall function, contributing to disease pathogenesis. Understanding these metabolic alterations’ molecular mechanisms is essential for developing targeted therapeutic interventions. The review also emphasises the importance of personalised medicine in immune-related disorders. The unique metabolic profiles of individuals can influence treatment outcomes, highlighting the need for tailored approaches. Integrating metabolic profiling into clinical practice can enhance treatment efficacy and improve patient outcomes. Investigating the clinical significance of immunometabolism in diverse disease contexts will facilitate the translation of research findings into clinical practice. Moreover, refining treatment strategies based on individual metabolic profiles will contribute to advancing precision immunotherapy.
The surge of urbanization in the developing economies of the world has resultant effect on housing condition. However, housing is pivotal to the overall well-being and total quality of life of individuals and is believed to be both the cause and cure of Coronavirus pandemic, a respiratory problem plaguing the world today. This is due to the fact that people spend more time in houses during lockdown. This paper therefore examined the impact of housing conditions on the Coronavirus pandemic in the developing economies of the world in order to suggest strategies that will make architects create a sustainable environment for human habitation in the post-pandemic era. A historical survey method was employed and data was collected from secondary sources. The paper finds that there are various dimensions to housing condition which aid the spread of the pandemic and have impacts on residents’ health. The paper therefore suggests that architects need to provide functional and flexible spaces, connect houses to the outdoors and adopt the principle of universal design among others in order to allow air into the building.
Monkeypox is a zoonosis currently emerging and reemerging in some parts of the world. Though the disease is primarily transmitted to humans from infected animals, other modes of transmission include direct contact with rash or body fluids of an infected human (horizontal transmission) and direct transmission from an infected mother to fetus via placenta during pregnancy (vertical transmission). These modes of transmission are therefore considered in this paper by formulating a new nonlinear mathematical model in order to understand the disease dynamics further. The qualitative properties of the model are established. Existence of equilibrium points of the model are shown, and their stability properties which are completely determined by reproduction number are proved through well-constructed Lyapunov functionals. Using optimal control theory, extension of the model is done by including time-dependent controls such as public education, vaccination and treatment. Economic analyses of these controls show that combination of awareness campaign and antiviral treatment is the most cost-effective intervention that can be implemented to contain the transmission of monkeypox virus in the population.
Objective Schistosomiasis remains a chronic disease of global importance, especially in many rural areas of the world where co-infection with Plasmodium falciparum is common. It is critical to decipher the role of single or co-infected disease scenarios on immune system regulation in such individuals and how such co-infections can either ameliorate or complicate immune response and the consequent disease outcome. First, 10 ml of urine samples, collected between 10:00 am and 2:00 pm, was filtered for diagnosis of schistosomiasis, while egg count, indicative of disease severity, was determined by microscopy. Furthermore, genomic DNA samples extracted from dried blood spots collected on filter paper from one hundred and forty-four Schistosoma haematobium-infected school-children was tested for P. falciparum parasite positivity by an allele-specific nested-PCR analysis of merozoite surface protein (msp)-1 and -2 genes and a real-time PCR assay. In addition, among P. falciparum parasite-positive individuals, we carried out a Taqman SNP genotyping assay to extrapolate the effect of host CD14 (-159 C/T; rs2569190) genetic variants on schistosome egg count. Results Of the 144 individuals recruited, P. falciparum parasite positivity with msp-1 gene were 34%, 43% and 55% for MAD20, RO33 and K1 alleles respectively. Of the co-infected individuals, CD14 genetic variants ranged from 18.8% vs 21.5%, 33.3% vs 44.4%, 9.7% vs 11.8% for single versus schistosome co-infection for the wild type (CC), heterozygous (CT) and mutant (TT) variants respectively. Though the mean egg count for co-infected individuals with CD14 wild type (33.7 eggs per 10 ml of urine) and heterozygote variants (37.5 eggs per 10 ml of urine) were lower than that of schistosome infection alone (52.48 and 48.08 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively), it lacked statistical significance (p-value 0.12 and 0.29), possibly reflecting the benefit of the CD14 activation in schistosome plus malaria co-infection and not schistosome infection alone. In addition, the lower mean egg count in co-infected individuals reveal the benefit of downstream Th1 immune response mitigated by CD14 innate activation that is absent in schistosome infection alone.
Studies have implicated arsenic exposure in various pathological conditions, including metabolic disorders, which have become a global phenomenon, affecting developed, developing, and under-developed nations. Despite the huge risks associated with arsenic exposure, humans remain constantly exposed to it, especially through the consumption of contaminated water and food. This present study provides an in-depth insight into the mechanistic pathways involved in the metabolic derangement by arsenic. Compelling pieces of evidence demonstrate that arsenic induces metabolic disorders via multiple pathways. Apart from the initiation of oxidative stress and inflammation, arsenic prevents the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 and Thr308, leading to the inhibition of PDK-1/Akt insulin signaling, thereby reducing GLUT4 translocation through the activation of Nrf2. Also, arsenic downregulates mitochondrial deacetylase Sirt3, decreasing the ability of its associated transcription factor, FOXO3a, to bind to the agents that support the genes for manganese superoxide dismutase and PPARg co-activator (PGC)-1a. In addition, arsenic activates MAPKs, modulates p53/ Bcl-2 signaling, suppresses Mdm-2 and PARP, activates NLRP3 inflammasome and caspase-mediated apoptosis, and induces ER stress, and ox-mtDNA-dependent mitophagy and autophagy. More so, arsenic alters lipid metabolism by decreasing the presence of 3-hydroxy-e-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 1 and carnitine O-octanoyl transferase (Crot) and increasing the presence of fatty acid-binding protein-3 mRNA. Furthermore, arsenic promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial damage. This cascade of pathophysiological events promotes metabolic derangement. Although the pieces of evidence provided by this study are convincing, future studies evaluating the involvement of other likely mechanisms are important. Also, epidemiological studies might be necessary for the translation of most of the findings in animal models to humans.
Crude oil pollution poses a serious threat to the aquatic environment. Hence, there is an increasing interest in developing an efficient cleaner process technique for oil spill cleanup via agricultural biomass waste-organic sorbent utilization. This work evaluated the effects of independent biosorptive removal at three varying levels (initial concentration of crude oil (Z1, 7.8–15.6 g/L), seawater-oil temperature (Z2, 25–45 °C), sorbent dose (Z3, 1–3 g), and sorbent particle size diameter (Z4, 1.18–4.72 mm)) on the biosorptive removal efficiency and biosorptive capacity performance of maize cob sorbent for crude oil biosorptive removal from seawater. Experiments were designed based on Taguchi orthogonal array experimental design (L9(3⁴)) to study the effects and process optimization. The results revealed that the maize cob sorbent’s crude oil biosorptive removal efficiency is related to Z1, Z3, and Z4, while the biosorptive capacity is related to Z1 and Z3. The optimum biosorptive removal efficiency and the biosorptive capacity values were 96.53% and 12.64 g/g, respectively, achieved at optimum factors of Z1 (7.8 g/L), Z3 (3 g), and Z4 (1.18 mm), as well as at Z1 (15.6 g) and Z3 (1 g). The isotherm and kinetic data, respectively, followed the Langmuir isotherms and the pseudo-second-order kinetics with a maximum monolayer biosorptive capacity of 23.31 g g⁻¹. The mechanism of biosorptive crude oil removal was by physical sorption and film diffusion control. Therefore, the maize cob represents an inexpensive and effective natural sorbent for oil spill removal from water bodies.
Oxidative stress has been linked with lead toxicity, including lead-induced sexual dysfunction. On the contrary, sodium acetate has been proven to exert antioxidant activity. However, the effect of sodium acetate on lead-induced sexual dysfunction has not been fully explored. This study investigated the effect of sodium acetate on lead-induced sexual dysfunction, exploring the involvement of testosterone, eNOS/NO/cGMP, and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Twenty male Wistar rats with similar weights were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 5 rats/group) after two weeks of acclimatization. Animals were vehicle-treated (0.5 ml/day of distilled water, per os), acetate-treated (200 mg/kg/day, per os), lead-treated (20 mg/kg/day, per os), or lead + acetate-treated. The results revealed that sodium acetate treatment attenuated lead-induced rise in penile lead, malondialdehyde and oxidized glutathione concentrations, and acetylcholinesterase activity. In addition, lead exposure prolonged mount, intromission, and ejaculation latency and reduced mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency, as well as the motivation to mate and penile reflex, which were improved by acetate treatment. More so, acetate treatment ameliorated lead-induced reductions in absolute and relative penile weight, eNOS, NO, cGMP, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, dopamine, Nrf2, HO-1, and reduced glutathione concentrations, as well as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that sodium acetate attenuated lead-induced sexual dysfunction by upregulating testosterone-dependent eNOS/NO/cGMP and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. Despite the compelling data presented in this study, other possible associated mechanisms in the protective role of acetate should be explored.
Groundwater exploration in crystalline terrains depends on structural information among other factors like geology, rainfall, drainage, soil type, elevation and/or landuse classification. The spatial distribution of groundwater potential zones (GWPZs) in Asa and Oyun catchment areas, Kwara state, northcentral Nigeria was assessed using six thematic layers derived from satellite data and ancillary data. Landsat 8 OLI (2015), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and aeromagnetic data were used to extract lineaments. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data was used to generate spatially distributed rainfall using inverse distance weighted interpolation method. Slope and drainage were extracted from DEM. The natural colour composite of Landsat 8 was classified into 4 classes: Bareland, Vegetation, Waterbody, and settlement. The groundwater potential map of the study area was produced using a geographic information system (GIS) based Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) model of Lineament density, drainage density, rainfall data, slope, and landuse information. The resulting groundwater potential map was validated using ROC analysis of available groundwater yield data (l/s) from boreholes in the study area. AHP with consistency ratio (CR) of 0.077, making weightage viable for groundwater potential mapping, identified five (5) groundwater potential zones (GWPZs). The majority of very low and low GWPZs fell in the Asa catchment area, while majority of the moderate, high, and very high GWPZs fell in the Oyun catchment area. Validation revealed that low, moderate, high and very high GWPZs had yields of 0.3-1.5l/s, 0.35-1.8l/s, 3.00-3.60l/s, and > 3.60l/s, respectively. The AUC coefficient of 0.777 (77.7%) confirmed the efficacy of the adopted methodology.
Background: Cerebrovascular disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa, and using neuroimaging techniques has improved the diagnosis and management of this disease. However, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews of the role and effectiveness of neuroimaging techniques in the African context. Methods: We reviewed the literature to evaluate the role of neuroimaging in diagnosing and managing cerebrovascular disease in Africa. Our search included electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar from 2000 to April 2023. We included peer-reviewed studies written in English that reported on the use of neuroimaging in diagnosing and managing cerebrovascular disease in African populations. We excluded non-peer-reviewed articles, letters, editorials, and studies unrelated to cerebrovascular disease, neuroimaging, or Africa. A total of 102 potential articles were identified; after applying our exclusion criteria and removing duplicated articles, 51 articles were reviewed. Results: Our findings suggest that neuroimaging techniques such as CT, MRI, and Skull x-ray play a crucial role in diagnosing and managing cerebrovascular disease in Africa. CT and MRI were the most commonly used techniques, with CT being more widely available and less expensive than MRI. However, challenges to using neuroimaging in Africa include the high cost of equipment and maintenance, lack of trained personnel, and inadequate infrastructure. These challenges limit the widespread use of neuroimaging in diagnosing and managing cerebrovascular disease in Africa. Conclusion: Neuroimaging techniques are essential for diagnosing and managing cerebrovascular disease in Africa, but challenges to their use must be addressed to improve healthcare outcomes. Our policy recommendations can help improve the availability and accessibility of neuroimaging services in Africa.
The quality of the signal received at any location in communication channel depends on the degree of losses and attenuation experience along its path. The existing models are not suitable for 5G network propagation due to heavy channel interference and signal loss applicable at millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum. The issues of Path Loss (PL) and signal interference in 5G New Radio (NR) network needs special attention. It is expected that 5G NR and 4G LTE-A networks will coexist for a very long time using the existing infrastructure. Hence, it is important to develop a good model to mitigate signal attenuation and co-channel interference that comes with the deployment of the 5G NR network. The existing models and measured data were compared to find out the closest model to the measured value. This paper proposed a modify Okumura-Hata (Ok-Hata) model for signal propagation in new 5G network. Also, an improved Autoregressive Particle Swarm Intelligent (APSI) algorithm was presented to enhance the proposed model for better performance. The modified Ok-Hata model outperformed all the existing models. The modified model has the potential to mitigate the effect of interference in 5G NR at 3.5 GHz frequency. The proposed new model has the capacity to solve some network issues such as; path loss, co-channel interference in 5G network. The result shows that there was no signal interference between the existing, and modified models. The result also shows that enhanced APSI is suitable for 5G NR network planning in Abuja, Nigeria.
Background Infections caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) result in significant economic losses in poultry industry. APEC strains are known to form biofilms in various conditions allowing them to thrive even under harsh and nutrient-deficient conditions on different surfaces, and this ability enables them to evade chemical and biological eradication methods. Despite knowing the whole genome sequences of various APEC isolates, little has been reported regarding their biofilm-associated genes. A random transposon mutant library of the wild-type APEC IMT 5155 comprising 1,300 mutants was analyzed for biofilm formation under nutrient deprived conditions using Videoscan technology coupled with fluorescence microscopy. Seven transposon mutants were found to have reproducibly and significantly altered biofilm formation and their mutated genes were identified by arbitrary PCR and DNA sequencing. The intact genes were acquired from the wild-type strain, cloned in pACYC177 plasmid and transformed into the respective altered biofilm forming transposon mutants, and the biofilm formation was checked in comparison to the wild type and mutant strains under the same conditions. Results In this study, we report seven genes i.e., nhaA, fdeC, yjhB, lysU, ecpR, AJB35136 and fdtA of APEC with significant contribution to biofilm formation. Reintroduction of AJB35136 and fdtA, reversed the altered phenotype proving that a significant role being played by these two O-antigen related genes in APEC biofilm formation. Presence of these seven genes across nonpathogenic E. coli and APEC genomes was also analyzed showing that they are more prevalent in the latter. Conclusions The study has elucidated the role of these genes in APEC biofilm formation and compared them to adhesion expanding the knowledge and understanding of the economically significant pathogens.
Background: Economic situations in the third world nations had made waste scavenging a means of sustenance for millions of youth and women. Poor source segregation of wastes in developing countries has increased the potential for exposure to infections and other occupational hazards. Objectives: This study addressed issues relating to the potential occupational risks among scavengers in Ilorin metropolis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the scavengers working on wastes dumpsite in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State and 109 respondents were administered with questionnaires. The data was analysed using statistical package for social science for descriptive and inferential (t-test) at 5% level of significance. Results: Scavenging was found to be male dominated venture with over 90 percent respondents being of male gender and most respondents are in their prime as they are mostly between ages 21 – 30years and usage of PPE among scavengers was found to be very low. Most scavengers had not undergone any training prior to commencement of the job and prevalent diseases among them are fever, diarrhoea, cough and skin diseases with fever having highest occurrence. Conclusions: Regular trainings on occupational safety for scavengers, enforcement of personal hygiene practices, proper monitoring by regulatory agency and inclusion of scavengers in mandatory health insurance scheme will help to improve health status of scavengers.
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