Laboratoire d'Informatique de Grenoble
Recent publications
The estimation of seismic damages and debris at the urban scale - at a precise building-by-building level- is challenging for several reasons. First, commonly used methodologies for seismic damage estimation rarely take into account the local site effects, precisely at the building-level. Second, the available methods for debris estimation fail to estimate at the same time the quantity of debris generated per building according to its damage level and the distribution of the debris (extent and height) around buildings. Finally, the lack of comprehensive data on the building stock and the relevant building properties and their taxonomy further increases the complexity of assessing possible earthquake consequences at an urban scale. This paper addresses these challenges and proposes improvements to the assessment of seismic damages and debris at the building level, along with the development of a 3D building model based on satellite images and heterogeneous data. These developments, applied to the city of Beirut, Lebanon, highlight the control of the site effects on the seismic damage spatial distribution throughout the city and the large volume and extent of debris to be expected in the city for a strong earthquake.
Introduction Le diagnostic de syndrome des anticorps antiphospholipides (SAPL) est un diagnostic clinicobiologique répondant aux critères de Sidney de 2006. Cependant, des biomarqueurs dit « non conventionnels » sont de plus en plus utilisés dans la pratique clinique, dont les anticorps anti-prothrombines. Nous nous intéresserons à l’intérêt du dosage de ces anticorps dans les formes dites « obstétricales » du SAPL, à la fois sur le plan du diagnostic et pour évaluer le suivi de ceux-ci. Patients et méthodes Il s’agit d’une étude descriptive rétrospective monocentrique d’une période de deux ans incluant des patientes du premier janvier 2016 au 31 décembre 2017. Toutes les patientes ayant bénéficié d’une consultation en médecine interne pour la positivité d’un auto-anticorps ont été retenus ; toutes les patientes étaient en âge de procréer, et leurs caractéristiques cliniques et biologiques ont été recueillies. Résultats Cent soixante-cinq patientes ont bénéficié d’une consultation en médecine interne pour la présence d’au moins un auto-anticorps sérique, dosés dans un contexte de trouble de la fertilité ou de morbidité obstétricale. Parmi elles, 47 patientes présentaient au moins à deux reprises un taux sérique d’IgM et/ou d’IgG AP supérieur à la norme. Quinze patientes présentaient une infertilité secondaire avec des anomalies d’implantation embryonnaire au cours de la prise en charge en PMA, dont 5 avaient déjà présenté une fausse-couche, et 4 répondaient aux critères obstétricaux du SAPL. Quatorze présentaient une infertilité primaire avec au moins deux échecs d’implantation embryonnaire en fécondation in vitro (FIV) ou FIV-ICSI. Enfin, 18 patientes (38 %) présentaient un critère obstétrical isolé de SAPL (15 patientes avaient présenté plus de 3 fausses-couches spontanées précoces du premier trimestre de la grossesse sans autre cause retrouvée, et 3 au moins une mort fœtale in utero tardive et inexpliquée avec des anomalies vasculoplacentaire). Le taux d’aAP semblait corrélé aux nombres de fausse-couche sans atteindre la significativité (rho = 0,37, p : 0,07), mais surtout à l’âge de la patiente (rho = 0,39, p : 0,02). En termes de traitement, la positivité des anticorps a motivé la prescription d’aspirine seule chez 13 patientes (28 %), de l’association aspirine et enoxaparine pour 14 patientes (30 %), de l’association d’aspirine, enoxaparine et hydroxychloroquine pour 11 patientes (23 %), et enfin d’aspirine, d’enoxaparine et de corticoïdes pour 6 patientes (13 %) ; une patiente n’a pas été traitée (car n’ayant plus de volonté de grossesse), et deux patientes ont reçu de l’azathioprine, en association avec l’aspirine et l’enoxaparine. En ce qui concerne les résultats thérapeutiques globaux, 29 patientes ont mené au moins une grossesse à terme sous traitement (dont 2 grossesses pour 8 patientes), 3 ont présenté une récidive de fausse-couche (dont une patiente ayant fait 2 fausses-couches), et 13 patientes n’ont pas présenté de grossesse ; 2 patientes ont été perdues de vue. Dans la population de patientes répondant aux critères obstétricaux de SAPL (22 patientes), 16 (73 %) ont mené au moins une grossesse à terme sous traitement (dont 2 grossesses pour 2 patientes), 1 a présenté une récidive de fausse-couche (2 fausses-couches), et 4 patientes (18 %) n’ont pas présenté de grossesse ; une patiente a été perdue de vue. Le pronostic obstétrical des patientes répondant aux critères du SAPL était significativement meilleur que celles présentant des troubles de la fertilité sous traitement (p : 0,05). Conclusion L’utilisation du dosage des anticorps anti-prothrombines (isotype IgM et/ou IgG) dans des situations obstétricales spécifiques permet de poser un diagnostic biologique de SAPL et de prendre en charge les patientes de manière identique aux anticorps dits « conventionnels », avec un pronostic obstétrical proche du SAPL sérodéfini. Le dosage de ce type d’anticorps semble donc adapté dans les situations très évocatrices de SAPL, avec une négativité des trois biomarqueurs de la classification actuelle. L’utilité du dosage des aPT dans la maladie thromboembolique, de même que la sensibilité et la spécificité de ce test, n’ont pas été évalués dans cette étude du fait des critères de recrutement, mais cela nécessiterait une exploration prospective avec un effectif important pour valider ce critère biologique dans le consensus diagnostic du SAPL.
This article presents the Theseus Framework designed for the automatic creation of knowledge graphs (KGs) that describe the evolution of geographical divisions (GD) over time. This framework is based on an ontological model dedicated to the representation of evolving GD (e.g., divisions into regions, districts, municipalities). Both the detection and annotation of changes are automated using an algorithm based on several tests that measure the similarity between geographic areas. Theseus supports a complete processing chain that ranges from the preparation of the geographic data, including the detection and annotation of changes (using semantic tags such as fusion, split, etc.), to the generation of KGs ready to be immersed in the Linked Data Web.
Objective: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAAION) is the most common acute pathology of the optic nerve in patients over 50 years of age and loss of vision is irreversible in the vast majority of cases. The role of nocturnal arterial hypotension in the occurrence of NAAION remains a topic of debate. Indeed, studies on this subject are rare and the results contradictory. In this study, we ubject the nychthemeral variations in blood pressure (BP) in a large cohort of patients with acute NAAION to determine the presence and extent of nocturnal arterial hypotension in this population, and thus determine whether nocturnal arterial hypotension could be involved in the pathophysiology of NAAION. Design and method: BP was recorded for 24 h (ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, ABPM) in 65 patients with acute NAAION. Three definitions of nighttime periods were used: definition 1, 1 a.m.-6 a.m.; definition 2, 10 p.m.-7 a.m.; and definition 3, 10 p.m.-8 a.m.. For each of these definitions, patients were classified according to the value of nocturnal reduction in BP into dippers (10-20%), mild dippers (0-10%), reverse dippers (< 0%), and extreme dippers (> 20%). Results: The proportions of dippers, mild dippers, reverse dippers, and extreme dippers varied significantly depending on the definition chosen. We found the highest number of patients with extreme dipping (23%) when using the strictest definition of nighttime period (definition 1, 1 a.m.-6 a.m.), as compared with 6.2% and 1.5% for the other definitions, respectively. Overall, 13 of 33 patients without known systemic hypertension (39%) were diagnosed with hypertension (systolic and/or diastolic hypertension) after ABPM. No risk factor for NAAION was associated with the extreme-dipping profile. Finally, the prevalence of systemic hypertension was high (69%). Conclusions: In our population of patients who had an episode of NAAION, the proportion of extreme dippers was higher than that usually found in the literature. The definition of the nighttime period used in this study had an impact on the proportion of extreme dippers and might probably explain the contradictory results from the few studies on this ubject.
Moral reasoning was investigated with respect to individual characteristics (i.e., education level, political orientation and sex) and school-related (i.e., university/college) factors using multilevel modeling and data mining analysis. We used the multilevel modeling to detect school effects on moral reasoning as well as individual effects for 16,334 students representing 79 different higher education institutions across the U.S. The school-related factors, such as the racial composition, student–faculty ratio, average SAT score, institution type, institutions’ geographical region, frequencies of morally relevant words in college course catalog, college mission and value statements were collected through website searches. Data mining analysis was utilized to extract and calculate the frequencies of morally relevant words from the website content. There were significant effects for the individual characteristic of political orientation. Additionally, all school-related factors were significant. Only main effects were observed for some school-related factors (i.e., average SAT score, institution type, frequency of morally relevant words in mission statements, value statements and course catalogs). For other school-related factors (i.e., the region, student–faculty ratio and racial composition), main effects were also observed; however, these effects were particularly illuminating given their interactions with political orientation. Implications for educational communities are discussed.
OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS Since cobots (collaborative robots) are increasingly being introduced in industrial environments, being aware of their potential positive and negative impacts on human collaborators is essential. This study guides occupational health workers by identifying the potential gains (reduced perceived time demand, number of gestures and number of errors) and concerns (the cobot takes a long time to perceive its environment, which leads to an increased completion time) associated with working with cobots. In our study, the collaboration between human and cobot during an assembly task did not negatively impact perceived cognitive load, increased completion time (but decreased perceived time demand), and decreased the number of gestures performed by participants and the number of errors made. Thus, performing the task in collaboration with a cobot improved the user’s experience and performance, except for completion time, which increased. This study opens avenues to investigate how to improve cobots to ensure the usability of the human-machine system at work.
Mechanics has been a central focus of physical biology in the past decade. In comparison, how cells manage their size is less understood. Here we show that a parameter central to both the physics and the physiology of the cell, its volume, depends on a mechano-osmotic coupling. We found that cells change their volume depending on the rate at which they change shape, when they spontaneously spread are externally deformed. Cells undergo slow deformation at constant volume, while fast deformation leads to volume loss. We propose a mechano-sensitive pump and leak model to explain this phenomenon. Our model and experiments suggest that volume modulation depends on the state of the actin cortex and the coupling of ion fluxes to membrane tension. This mechano-osmotic coupling defines a membrane tension homeostasis module constantly at work in cells, causing volume fluctuations associated with fast cell shape changes, with potential consequences on cellular physiology.
The primary goal of patient and public involvement (PPI) in healthcare is to improve individual and population health outcomes. This study reports on the successful training of patients to be involved in patient education as peers and clinical research at Grenoble Patients’ School (GPS). GPS was founded by patients as an independent association to train patients to the above objectives tasks. The training team was multi-professional and included expert PPI who were part of the professional team. Medical faculty members and 45 patients, 59% females, 52 ± 6.4 years old, trained between 2016 and 2017, showed high satisfaction at the end of the training courses. Almost all the trained patients were involved as peer educators and 4 were involved in clinical research projects at different stages under the guidance of medical teams. Patient involvement at GPS provided strong benefits to trainees and had some impact on education and obtaining research grants. The outcome of this patient training program resulted in the creation of a Patients’ Department within the Medical and Pharmacy Schools at the Université Grenoble Alpes in 2020, https://medecine.univ-grenoble-alpes.fr/departements/departement-universitaire-des-patients/ .
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of clonal hematopoietic stem-cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis leading to peripheral cytopenias and in a substantial proportion of cases to acute myeloid leukemia. The deletion of the long arm of chromosome 11, del(11q), is a rare but recurrent clonal event in MDS. Here, we detail the largest series of 113 cases of MDS and myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) harboring a del(11q) analyzed at clinical, cytological, cytogenetic and molecular levels. Female predominance, a survival prognosis similar to other MDS, a low monocyte count and dysmegakaryopoiesis were the specific clinical and cytological features of del(11q) MDS. In most cases, del(11q) was isolated, primary and interstitial encompassing the 11q22-23 region containing ATM, KMT2A and CBL genes. The common deleted region at 11q23.2 is centered on an intergenic region between CADM1 (also known as TSLC1, Tumour Suppressor in Lung Cancer 1) and NXPE2. CADM1 was expressed in all myeloid cells analyzed in contrast to NXPE2. At the functional level, the deletion of Cadm1 in murine Lineage-Sca1+Kit+ cells modifies the lymphoid to myeloid ratio in bone marrow although not altering their multi-lineage hematopoietic reconstitution potential after syngenic transplantation. Together with the frequent simultaneous deletions of KMT2A, ATM and CBL and mutations of ASXL1, SF3B1 and CBL, we show that CADM1 may be important in the physiopathology of the del(11q) MDS, extending its role as tumor-suppressor gene from solid tumors to hematopoietic malignancies.
Managing invasive exotic plant species is a complex challenge, especially for Asian knotweeds (Reynoutria spp.). Tarping is a regularly cited but poorly documented control method, which consists of covering the ground with a tarp (agricultural tarp, geotextile, geomembrane, etc.) to create a physical barrier to hinder plant growth and deprive the plants of light in order to deplete their rhizomatous reserves. To improve our knowledge of tarping in order to identify the key factors of its success or failure, we reviewed the relevant grey and scientific literature and conducted an international survey among managers to collect feedback on tarping experiments. In the literature, as well as in the field, practices are quite heterogeneous, and the method’s effectiveness is highly contrasted. A better consideration of knotweed biology may improve the efficacy of the method. Based on the bibliography and survey work, we propose practical recommendations including covering the entire stand, extending the tarping up to 2.5 m beyond its edges for a period of at least six years, and ensuring regular monitoring. Even though tarping does not seem to be a one-size-fits-all solution to eradicate knotweed, it could still be a useful control method once knotweed has become a critical management issue.
Nowadays, society and business rely heavily on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems, which are progressing faster than ever. To stay on pace with them, focus is shifted towards integration of individual ICT systems into complex systems, which offers more functionality than simply the sum of individual systems. In this regard, Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) have gained significant importance and System-of-Systems (SoS) approach has been suggested for modeling complex CPSs to achieve a higher level goal, by dynamically building a large system with existing autonomous, and heterogeneous constituent systems (CSs). An important challenge in a system of Cyber-Physical Systems (SoCPSs) is to develop seamless collaboration between autonomous constituent-CPSs (CCPSs) to coordinate their operations. In this paper, we propose an agent based coordination mechanism to coordinate resource allocation and demand in SoCPSs. The approach models each CCPS as an agent and describes how multiple autonomous CCPSs, i.e., Virtual Power Plant (VPP), Commercial Greenhouse Growers (CGGs), communicate and collaborate with each other asynchronously through negotiation and how potential conflicts between CCPSs with conflicting goals are resolved. The efficacy of the proposed mechanism is validated through simulation of different real-world acyclic SoCPSs topologies. The results show that proposed approach is able to balance the individual requirements of multiple connected CPSs while achieving SoCPSs’ mission.
Meta-heuristics are powerful tools for solving optimization problems whose structural properties are unknown or cannot be exploited algorithmically. We propose such a meta-heuristic for a large class of optimization problems over discrete domains based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) paradigm. We provide a comprehensive formal analysis of the performance of this algorithm on certain “easy” reference problems in a black-box setting, namely the sorting problem and the problem O ne M ax . In our analysis we use a Markov model of the proposed algorithm to obtain upper and lower bounds on its expected optimization time. Our bounds are essentially tight with respect to the Markov model. We show that for a suitable choice of algorithm parameters the expected optimization time is comparable to that of known algorithms and, furthermore, for other parameter regimes, the algorithm behaves less greedy and more explorative, which can be desirable in practice in order to escape local optima. Our analysis provides a precise insight on the tradeoff between optimization time and exploration. To obtain our results we introduce the notion of indistinguishability of states of a Markov chain and provide bounds on the solution of a recurrence equation with non-constant coefficients by integration.
Résumé Les patients sont devenus en 2002 des usagers du système de santé en France. Ils sont potentiellement plus actifs et participants en 2021 comme le montre ce point de vue. Ils peuvent apporter leur savoir expérientiel de la maladie et de leurs traitements avec la volonté de le partager. Ils peuvent intervenir en 2021 dans le domaine de la représentation des usagers, de l’éducation thérapeutique afin d’accroître l’autonomie de tous, patients et public, de la formation des professionnels, de la recherche clinique ainsi que dans l’évolution du système de santé. La justification de l’engagement des patients, leurs rôles dans le système de santé, la formation, la recherche en santé sont analysés dans une perspective française. Enfin, les obstacles à surmonter et les progrès à accomplir sont revus pour promouvoir une plus grande démocratie sanitaire par l’engagement des patients en France. En 2021, la place des patients reste modeste dans la conception et l’animation de l’ETP et est très limitée dans le curriculum des études médicales sauf exception compte tenu d’un défaut d’information mais aussi de résistances des professionnels de la santé et de l’Université. Les patients pourraient jouer un rôle significatif et contribuer à l’évolution du système de santé vers plus d’efficacité et de justice.
To determine the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), the gold standard treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), on gait control in severe OSAS patients. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, sham-controlled monocentric study in Grenoble Alpes University Hospital, France. Gait parameters were recorded under single and dual-task conditions using a visuo-verbal cognitive task (Stroop test), before and after the 8-week intervention period. Stride-time variability, a marker of gait control, was the primary study endpoint. Changes in the determinants of gait control were the main secondary outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: (NCT02345694). 24 patients [median (Q1; Q3)]: age: 59.5 (46.3; 66.8) years, 87.5% male, body mass index: 28.2 (24.7; 29.8) kg. m ⁻² , apnea–hypopnea index: 51.6 (35.0; 61.4) events/h were randomized to be treated by effective CPAP (n = 12) or by sham-CPAP (n = 12). A complete case analysis was performed, using a mixed linear regression model. CPAP elicited no significant improvement in stride-time variability compared to sham-CPAP. No difference was found regarding the determinants of gait control. This study is the first RCT to investigate the effects of CPAP on gait control. Eight weeks of CPAP treatment did not improve gait control in severe non-obese OSAS patients. These results substantiate the complex OSAS-neurocognitive function relationship.
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62 members
Benjamin Lecouteux
  • Study Group for Machine Translation and Automated Processing of Languages and Speech (GETALP)
Dominique Vaufreydaz
  • Pervasive Interaction
Damien Pellier
  • Marvin Team
Véronique Aubergé
  • Study Group for Machine Translation and Automated Processing of Languages and Speech (GETALP)
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Grenoble, France