LUISS Guido Carli, Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali
Recent publications
Cities have increasingly asserted their central role in the national economy and in developing and promoting knowledge and innovation at local and national levels. Scholars, economists, and policymakers have examined the effects of innovation in this field as well as the resulting impact on the competitiveness and attractiveness of cities, regions, and urban areas. In the knowledge age, the importance of new generations and the trend towards high-skilled human capital are key factors in urban and national development. In this study, we aim to examine the role played by high-tech firms in the city context and its influence on the attraction of knowledge flow and analyse the moderating role of youth entrepreneurship in those relationships. Using the Spatial Panel data model, we evaluated the student flow interconnections in 30 Italian cities for a 10-year period (2009–2019). As a result, we found that the city attractiveness in terms of student mobility is influenced by the capacity of cities to generate and promote innovation in terms of high-tech firms at the local and spatial levels. These findings suggest that local high-tech firms in cities can influence the knowledge inflow and students' mobility while youth entrepreneurship in cities positively affects this relationship. The obtained results could serve as a good basis to enhance the city development policies in terms of innovation and knowledge, as well as the implementation of smart city projects.
The present study aims to examine customer responses to negative (vs. positive) service outcome with an autonomous vehicle (AV) vis‐à‐vis human agent. In the first study we manipulate the outcome of the service (negative vs. positive) and the type of service agent (AV vs. human) to evaluate customers' satisfaction with the service. Based on the results of the first study, in the second study we focus only on the negative outcome scenario and we examine how the perceived blame of the AV (vs. human agent) affects customers' satisfaction. Finally, in the third study we introduce another mediator, namely perceived competence, which explains why people attribute less blame to the AV (vs. human agent). Customers' satisfaction is higher for the AV only in the case of a negative service outcome, while no differences emerge when the service had a positive outcome. Additionally, AVs (vs. human agent) are perceived as less competent and blameworthy, leading to a higher customer satisfaction with the service in case of a negative outcome. These results show a customer under‐reaction to negative service outcome with AVs. This has relevance for the design and policy implications related to AVs. Our results also provide insights into the psychological underpinnings of acceptance of AVs replacing human agents. This study extends previous literature by showing circumstances in which customers are more (or less) satisfied with an AVs (vs. human agents) and the psychological drivers of these asymmetrical responses.
This research details the development of the perception of being observed scale. Consumers may think that their actions are being observed (i.e., seen, watched, recorded, tracked) by other parties (i.e., companies, governments, people) regardless of the actual knowledge about the existence of it. We develop a 10‐item, uni‐dimensional perception of being observed scale. Following the assessments of the scale, we conduct a series of studies to test the scale's convergent, discriminant, nomological, and predictive validity. We show that technology anxiety, self‐consciousness and privacy concerns predict the perception of being observed. Further, people who experience the perception of being observed are more conservative in information disclosure.
What are the legal principles of German idealism in the long nineteenth century; and what conception(s) of international law do they offer? Opposing Kantian rationalism and its formalist law, two idealist reactions do emerge in the early decades of the nineteenth century. The first is offered by Hegel whose conception of state law will make him the principal representative of the future deniers of an objective international law. The second reaction comes from the German Historical School, whose moral and legal understanding of the people(s) does – on the contrary – develop a positive conception of international law based on a ‘society’ of nations. How, and to what extent, were these two idealistic approaches reflected in the international law textbooks of the age? This article investigates this question and finds that it is unquestionably the Historical School that came to dominate international law thinking in the long nineteenth century – and that not just in Germany but also in Italy and Great Britain. The nineteenth century is thus decidedly, under the influence of Savigny and the Historical School, a metaphysical century centred on an intrinsic connection between morality and law.
This article throws light on a crucial, yet overlooked, aspect of global entanglements that significantly came to shape modern politics: the global spread of Catholic ideas that, from the late nineteenth century and through the twentieth century, became translated into various political platforms and, eventually, into Christian Democratic parties. The article will cover three broad periods where such global entanglements took shape: the mid-nineteenth century up until World War I, the interwar period, and the aftermath of World War II. We primarily address developments across the Atlantic in Europe and Latin America, while briefly touching upon Asian developments. The article aims to show the role of non-secular ideologies in political globalization processes and the co-existence of centric and multi-polar tendencies in such processes.
Despite receiving much attention in the literature, existing analyses on the impact of Covid-19 on European societies and politics do not investigate the consequences for party competition over the European Union (EU) dimension. To this end, this article asks whether the pandemic affected the salience of the EU issue and the related party positions in Italy during the ‘first wave’ of the crisis. The analysis relies on an original CrowdTangle dataset comprising around 24000 posts from parties’ official Facebook pages, which are thematically coded and subsequently employed in time-series cross-section regression models. The findings show that the pandemic caused a significant increase in salience and polarisation of the EU issue in the Italian party system.
Different theoretical perspectives support opposite views on convergence: although the dominant view is that convergence is the inevitable outcome of globalization, divergentists (that is, world-system economists and, potentially, also evolutionary geographic ones) argue that convergence forces could be annihilated by the need to keep power relationships within the international division of labor. Even when limiting the convergence issue to international trade, the debate has so far been inconclusive, because various studies have dealt with different and/or short time series or selected too small and different sets of countries. Moreover, none of these studies have analyzed trade patterns and have instead been limited to the aggregate value. Here, through a social network analysis, we examine the world trade patterns from 1980 to 2016 (1980–1992, 1993–2007 and 2008–2016) of at least 164 countries, which have been divided into import and export patterns and into four groups of countries: from core countries to far periphery ones. We test the convergence hypothesis in two directions: the level and trend of convergence, and its possible determination by means of structural or economic globalization, measured in terms of exchanges density and economic values, respectively. We have found that the convergence hypothesis only seems to be confirmed when considering the pure structural aspect and core countries. Conversely, economic convergence—which also includes the structural dimension—has been found to be high for core countries and to increase over time. Moreover, our analysis shows that economic globalization influences convergence, albeit in a strongly negative way. Therefore, our findings seem to support divergentists and the convergence hypothesis should be rejected.
Companies are increasingly relying on influencer marketing as a relevant pillar of their marketing communication strategy. It is therefore of vital importance to practitioners to understand better under what conditions a larger number of followers can trigger more positive responses in consumers than a smaller number and vice versa. Through a laboratory study, the authors recorded simultaneously eye‐tracking and electroencephalogram data from 109 participants to test the research question with a 2 (type of influencer: micro vs. meso) × 2 (argument quality: weak vs. strong) between‐subject design using mediated moderated linear regression analysis. The results highlight that the photo of the influencer using the product attracts more attention (i.e., fixation percentage) in the weak (vs. strong) argument quality only for micro‐ and not for meso‐influencers. Moreover, we found a statistically significant index of moderated mediation through the level of attention, which suggests that the percentage of fixations on the photo mediates the joint effect of influencer type and argument quality on behavioral activation system (BAS). Specifically, we found that when the advertising post presents weak argument quality the enhanced attention to the photo of the micro‐influencer leads to an increase in the BAS, with possible implications on advertising effectiveness and online message design. Our findings offer important theoretical and practical contributions to the influencer marketing domain by showing how the different verbal and visual elements of influencer posts affect Instagram users' responses to such posts.
Based on coverage of over 660m news stories from LexisNexis News & Business between 2015–2021, we provide two new indices around the growing area of Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC): the CBDC Uncertainty Index (CBDCUI) and CBDC Attention Index (CBDCAI). We show that both indices spiked during news related to new developments in CBDC and in relation to digital currency news items. We demonstrate that CBDC indices have a significant negative relationship with the volatilities of the MSCI World Banks Index, USEPU, and the FTSE All-World Index, and positive with the volatilities of cryptocurrency markets, foreign exchange markets, bond markets, VIX, and gold. Our results suggest that financial markets are more sensitive to CBDC Uncertainty than CBDC Attention as proxy by these indices. These findings contain useful insights to individual and institutional investors, and can guide policymakers, regulators, and the media on how CBDC evolved as a barometer in the new digital-currency era.
In this chapter, we aim at exploring the corporate disclosure landscape as non-financial information becomes increasingly paramount. We start by summarising the recent evolutions in the unfolding scenario of non-financial reporting and ESG disclosure. Then, we reflect on two important recent developments that have impacted the European corporate disclosure landscape, namely, the Non-Financial Reporting Directive and the revised Shareholder Rights Directive. Looking at the main pillars of ESG disclosures under the existing legislation, we have been trying to adopt a cross-sectoral approach to bridge the gaps between different legislative sources and the related disclosures. Consistent, relevant, and standardised ESG disclosures are of utmost importance to ensure a smooth and quick transition towards improved market practice.
There is a considerable body of work on managing the governance interface in project organizing, yet there has been little consideration of how the organizational identity of the project owner might shape the design of that interface. This is important because organizational identity is known to shape various aspects of project organizing, such as how an organization is perceived by team members, so we might expect it also influence the performance of projects. We explore this question through a case study of how the Venice Biennale owner organization governs one of its temporary project events – the 2019 Venice International Film Festival. Through our empirical fieldwork, based on multiple data sources including a participant ethnography of the 76th Venice International Film Festival and semi-structured interviews, we found that the organizational identity of the project owner organization influences choices made for the governance of a delivery project. The study contributes to theory on project organizing by highlighting the importance of owner organizational identity for the design of the governance interface in project organizing and identifying the importance of an interpersonal approach to governance interface design for an owner organization with an identify of innovation and experimentation on its delivery projects.
Literature on organizational learning (OL) shows that even firms who self-perceive themselves to have appropriate organizational structures still fail to generate appropriate learning outcomes. In this article, we claim that one of the neglected key factors explaining learning failures are organizational defensive routines (ODRs). Drawing on the literature, our theoretical inference is that high levels of ODRs can negatively moderate the relationship between organizational structures and OL. To test this moderation hypothesis, the study employs hierarchical regression analysis on a sample of 358 respondents from various industries in the United Kingdom. The result confirms that formalization negatively affects OL, and the effect of formalization on OL is negatively moderated by ODRs regardless of organizational age, size, and sector.
In response to the Covid‐19 crisis, the European Central Bank (ECB) has relaunched a massive asset purchase programme within its combined‐arms monetary strategy. This paper surveys and discusses the theory and the evidence of the central bank's unconventional monetary tools for the euro area. It analyses the role of the asset purchase programmes in the ECB's toolkit and the associated risks, focusing specifically on the gradual unwinding of these unconventional initiatives. Finally, the paper offers some insight into the possible evolution of the ECB's monetary policy.
The strategy role of the board of directors is a contentious topic in both theory and practice and the debate on what boards should or should not do around firm strategy has intensified with changes in global corporate governance. Boards face interventionist regulatory developments, calls for changes in their composition, growing owner engagement, and societal questioning on the corporation's very purpose. With this review, we aim to assess how the research agenda in this area has evolved with these developments. Our analysis of 152 articles published in 45 high‐quality journals between 2008 and 2020 reveals that the board‐strategy literature remains dominated by traditional input–output approaches using archival data. There are, however, some green shoots opening up the debate by recognizing the importance of the firm's specific context, applying alternative or complementary theoretical lenses, exploring the underlying dynamics and processes, and using more sophisticated modeling techniques. We identify three research directions with the potential to advance the research agenda, namely, untangling the complex, multilevel interplay between stakeholders involved in the strategy process, embracing the processual and temporal nature of the board‐strategy relationship, and unpacking the impact of social context to understand when boards matter for strategy. Our results indicate that the strategy role of the board is evolving and broadening. Most notably the integration of CSR‐related themes into the board‐strategy debate, and the leveraging of board diversity in strategic decision‐making appear to be important issues for contemporary boards.
The article reconstructs the current status and development prospects of CAR-T therapies. It further explores the legitimacy of some production and administration paths of these therapies by national networks of hospital centers equipped with cellular workshops, according to an "in-house" model. Specific attention is paid to CAR-T produced in the context of clinical trials and according to the so-called "hospital exception", disciplined in Italy by a ministerial decree adopted in 2015 aiming at guaranteeing sustainability and accessibility of these innovative advanced therapies.
Corruption is widespread and preventive strategies to reduce corruption need to be adapted within the local context. Considering the United Nations (UN) Convention against corruption as our starting point, the paper presents a literature review based on 118 articles on corruption prevention initiatives in the public sector. The analysis indicates a substantial alignment between the guidelines deriving from the UN Convention, except for a lack of work on the risk-based approach to corruption prevention. Further, the review indicates problems with research designs. Based on the insights generated from the analysis, we develop an agenda for future research.
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Gianni Toniolo
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Andrea Prencipe
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