The Transfer-appropriate Processing (TAP) framework has demonstrated enhanced recognition memory when processing operations engaged at encoding and at test match. Our research applied TAP to study the illusory truth effect (ITE). We investigated whether the match/mismatch of evaluative goals at encoding and at test affects the ITE. At encoding, participants saw target words (Experiments 1-3; or full trivia claims Experiments 4-5) and completed an evaluative goal: imagery task or vowel-counting. At test, participants saw target words embedded in trivia claims that were old or new and completed the same (matching) or different (mismatching) evaluative goal that they completed at encoding, before making truth or memory ratings. We found a typical TAP effect for memory judgements when people saw words at encoding, but no TAP effect when people saw claims at encoding. We also found an ITE when people saw claims at encoding, but no ITE when people saw words at encoding (no evidence of TAP moderating truth judgments). Together these results extend both the TAP and ITE literatures, suggesting boundary conditions for TAP and the conditions under which the ITE emerges.
The purpose of this exploratory case study is to consider from peer tutors’ perspective the relevance of information literacy (IL) in their roles as tutors, students and in their everyday lives. The research used a qualitative methodology, wherein nine participants shared thoughts and reflections in course discussion forums in response to six online modules, each outlining one the the six frames of the ACRL information literacy framework. The data-gathering phase of the study was bookended by focus groups that were also recorded. Analysis of these various discussions reveals that while tutors see the relevance of IL in their everyday lives, their responses in terms of their roles as tutors and students varies depending on the nature of their program. The need to budget research time efficiently in response to a heavy course load prevents some from pursuing information more broadly or deeply than strictly necessary. The paper considers implications of these insights for further inquiry into the library’s role in advancing IL development in a polytechnical environment.
In this article art is used as inquiry to ask powerful questions, untangle paradoxes, and help us navigate loss and grief in the Anthropocene. Several central questions are considered and animated through narrative and poetry. How do we live poetically (Leggo, 2005) in a world that we need to exploit in order to survive? How do we engage in a more-than-human world full of ambiguity and paradox? How might nature become a teacher or mentor (Jickling et al., 2018), and what anthropocentric barriers do we face? How can stories and poems facilitate holistic expression and place-based connection? As we elucidate the wonder and loss of cottonwood, and the mentorship of ponderosa, Carl Leggo (2004, 2005, 2012, 2016, 2019a, 2019b) serves as a guide for artful attending and hopeful imagination for living poetically. Joanna Macy’s (Macy & Johnstone, 2012; Macy & Brown, 2014) work that reconnects and Leggo’s curriculum of joy offer parallel paths of grief and hope so that we might find our way through the Anthropocene.
There is limited knowledge regarding the cardiovascular impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on emerging adults aged 18-25, a group which disproportionately contracts COVID-19. To guide future cardiovascular disease (CVD) research, policy, and practice, a scoping review was conducted to: i) examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cardiovascular health of emerging adults; and ii) identify strategies to screen for and manage COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications in this age group. A comprehensive search strategy was applied to several academic databases and grey literature sources. An updated search yielded 6738 articles, 147 of which were extracted and synthesized. Reports identified COVID-19-associated cardiac abnormalities, vascular alterations, and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in emerging adults; based on data from student-athlete samples, prevalence estimates of myocarditis and cardiac abnormalities were 0.5-3% and 0-7%, respectively. Obesity, hypertension, CVD, congenital heart disease, and marginalization are potential risk factors for severe COVID-19, related cardiovascular complications, and mortality in this age group. As a screening modality for COVID-19-associated cardiac involvement, it is recommended that cardiac magnetic resonance imaging be indicated by a positive cardiac history and/or abnormal ‘triad’ testing (cardiac troponin, electrocardiogram, and transthoracic echocardiogram) to improve diagnostic utility. To foster long-term cardiovascular health among emerging adults, cardiorespiratory fitness, health literacy and education, and telehealth accessibility should be priorities of health policy and clinical practice. Ultimately, surveillance data from the broader emerging adult population will be crucial to assess the long-term cardiovascular impact of both COVID-19 and vaccination, guide screening and management protocols, and inform CVD prevention efforts.
This article explores the contours of McLuhan’s prescience in the present media ecology at the intersection of the simultaneous global crises represented by authoritarian nationalism, the COVID-19 pandemic and anthropogenic climate change. This article considers the emergence of new forms of collective political subjectivity and tribalism occasioned by the internet and social media and reflects on the apparent limits of our ability to leverage technical expertise or knowledge to solve persistent problems in the material world. Finally, this article reflects on the historical instance of electronic communications media and how it intensively accelerates and compresses time in the conceptual, cultural and affective space in what Neil Postman termed ‘Technocracy’ to rethink twentieth-century ideas of the citizen subject.
This study assessed whether indicators of humanistic optimal functioning were predictive of lower levels of violence among youth across a 6-month period. Youth ( N = 346) aged 12 to 14 years completed measures of authenticity and of positive regard for others (generalized trust, forgiveness, and gratitude). Approximately 6 months later, the youth reported violence, criminal offenses, and indicators of potential violence, and for some ( n = 266), a teacher provided ratings of aggression. Authentic living, some elements of generalized trust, forgiveness, and gratitude predicted lower levels on indicators of aggression or violence or readiness for violence 6 months later. The relation between humanistic predictors and violence-related outcomes was larger for youth at elevated risk for violence. Unexpectedly, a subtype of authenticity, “resisting external influence,” predicted higher violence, but other outcomes were in the expected direction. Thus, a humanistic lens may have value in examinations of societal violence.
Correction: Does the Internet Have an Unconscious? Slavoj Žižek and Digital Culture & Algorithmic Desire: Toward a New Structuralist Theory of Social Media: Clint Burnham, Bloomsbury, 2018, 221 pp., $42.95, paperback, ISBN 978-1-5013-4129-8 & Matthew Flisfeder, Northwestern University Press, 2021, 228 pp., $34.95, paperback, ISBN 9780810143333
Traditionally, education has been largely delivered in an in-person format; however, an increasing number of courses are being delivered entirely online or with a blend of online and in-person components. These formats differ along various dimensions, such as the quantity and quality of interpersonal interactions and connections, which will likely lead to different student experiences. Using a sample of 200 undergraduate student responses from an online survey, we compared five different course formats (in-person, synchronous online, asynchronous online, blended with alternating weeks and blended exam only) on students’ perceptions of various elements of their learning environment, including teaching presence, cognitive presence, social presence, sense of community and teamwork. A between groups ANOVA demonstrated significant differences for seven of the eight variables examined. In each case, the in-person format was rated the most positively and the blended exam only format tended to receive the poorest ratings. Overall, our results suggest that live interaction among students, and between students and instructors, whether it is from an in-person format or a blended alternating format, appears to be linked to more positive perceptions of the social learning environment.
We examined the relationship between men’s perceptions of their bodies and how they see themselves sexually. The goals of this study were to explore the following: (1) the relationship between dimensions of body esteem and sexual esteem, (2) the influence of adherence to male gender norms on the relationship between body esteem and sexual esteem, (3) the influence of body-focused anxiety on the relationship between body esteem and sexual esteem. In a convenience sample of 298 male participants (Mage = 32.34; SD = 13.34), we found that sexual attractiveness, upper body strength, and physical condition predicted sexual esteem, and that male gender norms and body image anxiety moderated this relationship. Exploratory items of body esteem for the jaw, wrists, height, and nose also significantly predicted sexual esteem. Given our findings of the role of various facets of body esteem in predicting sexual esteem, and the moderating effects of endorsement to male gender norms and body image anxiety on healthy sexual esteem, we maintain the importance of addressing these issues in the development of psychosocial, clinical, and sexual education programs for men, particularly in settings where men grapple with body and sexual esteem, and the implications of their masculinity.
The resilience of agricultural production is perpetually challenged by a wide range of disturbances from the impacts of climate change, to political instability and urbanization. At the same time, agriculture production also depends on relatively stable socio-ecological conditions to ensure quality and yield. Understanding how producers in agricultural landscapes can increase adaptive capacity, and remain resilient in the face of these challenges has become a priority for farmers, for researchers and national political agendas on a global scale. The current state of knowledge on adaptation tends to focus overwhelmingly on “hard” adaptation, such as infrastructure and technological inputs, rather than “softer” strategies, such as agroecological management or social capital, which are less easily measured. This research aims to explore soft strategies for adaptive capacity, in particular, the effect of social capital on the adaptive capacity of agricultural systems, using a case study of the agricultural landscape in the Okanagan Bioregion. The findings suggest that soft adaptation is a vital strategy for cultivating agricultural resilience, and underpins the ability of producers to use other soft and hard adaptation strategies. Participants in this research highlighted the importance of social connection, networks, reciprocity, learning and knowledge transferral, as key tools used to increase their adaptive capacity. They also highlight social capital as a building block for other forms of capital, such as financial, physical and environmental capitals. Despite this importance of soft adaptation, participants also indicated that they would be more likely to focus on implementing “harder” strategies that respond more directly and tangibly to key disturbances, rather than “soft” strategies. These results suggest a contradiction between the importance and value that producers place on social capital and “soft” adaptation, and the strategies they actually plan to implement. Further research is required to understand this contradiction, and to explore how to communicate the value of “soft” adaptation to producers in a way that makes the benefits more concrete and observable, and allows them to capitalize on the currency of connection.
Introduction: This study explored the magnitude of professional industrial investigators’ bias to attribute cause to a person more readily than to situational factors (i.e., human error bias). Such biased opinions may relieve companies from responsibilities and liability, as well as compromise efficacy of suggested preventative measures. Method: Professional investigators and undergraduate participants were given a summary of a workplace event and asked to allocate cause to the factors they found causal for the event. The summary was crafted to be objectively balanced in its implication of cause equally between two factors: a worker and a tire. Participants then rated their confidence and the objectivity of their judgment. We then conducted an effect size analysis, which supplemented the findings from our experiment with two previously published research studies that used the same event summary. Results: Professionals exhibited a human error bias, but nevertheless believed that they were objective and confident in their conclusions. The lay control group also showed this human error bias. These data, along with previous research data, revealed that, given the equivalent investigative circumstances, this bias was significantly larger with the professional investigators, with an effect size of dunb = 0.97, than the control group with an effect size of only dunb = 0.32. Conclusions: The direction and strength of the human error bias can be quantified, and is shown to be larger in professional investigators compared to lay people. Practical Applications: Understanding the strength and direction of bias is a crucial step in mitigating the effects of the bias. The results of the current research demonstrate that mitigation strategies such as proper investigator training, a strong investigation culture, and standardized techniques, are potentially promising interventions to mitigate human error bias.
Scatter-hoarding birds provide effective long-distance seed dispersal for plants. Transporting seeds far promotes population spread, colonization of new areas, and connectivity between populations. However, whether seeds transported over long distances are deposited in habitats favorable to plant regeneration has rarely been investigated, mainly due to methodological constraints. To investigate dispersal patterns and distances of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) seeds we utilized advances in tracking technology to track the movements of their sole disperser, the spotted nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes). We found routine individual movements between single seed harvesting and seed caching site. Harvesting sites of individual birds overlapped, whereas seed caching sites were separated and located on average 5.3 km away from the harvesting site. Interestingly, most distant caching sites were located at low elevations and in spruce forest, where Swiss stone pine does not naturally occur. This suggests that nutcrackers disperse seeds over long distances but that a large portion of these seeds are cached outside the known pine habitat. Therefore, we conclude that the implications of such long-distance seed dispersal movements for plant populations should be carefully considered in combination with the effects of habitat quality on plant recruitment.
Increasing competition among various companies has led supply chain managers to devise ways to reduce costs and production times. An important branch of the supply chain, namely the pharmaceutical supply chain network, which plays a significant role in people's lives, is considered in this paper. When it comes to human life, time and accuracy are the most important factors. In this paper, a multi-objective stochastic model is developed to reduce the time of delivering drugs to patients and minimize operating costs of the supply chain, considering congestion in production centers and scheduling jobs in flexible flow shop systems. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is also addressed in this research. Two multi-objective methods, LP-metric and goal attainment, are used to solve the proposed multi-objective model. Finally, to illustrate the performance of the proposed model, several numerical test problems from small to a large extent are solved with a detailed sensitivity analysis. Through analyzing the computational results, confliction among objective functions is analyzed. Moreover, it is concluded that LP-metric outperforms the goal attainment approach profoundly by comparing two solution approaches.
The heterosexual male gaze is often credited with producing bodily anxieties among women, yet empirical and popular cultural evidence suggest gay men have especially negative views toward women’s bodies, particularly women’s genitalia. Across two studies (N = 6,129; Mage = 27.58; 2,047 women, 4,082 men) we conducted secondary analyses of existing datasets to test the hypotheses that gay men would evaluate labia more negatively than heterosexual men, and that lesbian women would evaluate labia more positively than heterosexual women. We conducted fixed-effects mini meta-analyses to estimate summary effect sizes for perceptions of normalcy and fit with societal ideals; we additionally assessed an outcome of disgust in Study 2. We found support for our hypotheses: For normalcy and societal ideal, we found small summary effects such that gay men evaluated labia more negatively than heterosexual men, and medium summary effects such that lesbian women evaluated labia more positively than heterosexual women. Gay men also rated labia as more disgusting than any other demographic group, and lesbian women rated the stimuli as less disgusting than heterosexual women, supporting our hypotheses. The current findings suggest a pressing need to acknowledge and incorporate gay men’s perceptions of women’s bodies into literatures on misogyny, objectification, and body image more generally.
This review reads two recent books that approach the Internet through Marxist and psychoanalytic theory, Matthew Flisfeder’s Algorithmic Desire: Toward a New Structuralist Theory of Social Media and Clint Burnham’s Does the Internet Have an Unconscious? Slavoj Žižek and Digital Culture. The latter allows us to grasp the structured discourse of the Internet that produces the subject, while the former allows us to grasp the subject’s excess that signals the lack in the Internet as social structure.
Background Food energy under-reporting is differentially distributed among populations. Currently, little is known about how mental health state may affect energy-adjusted nutrient intakes among food energy under-reporters. Methods Stratified analysis of energy-adjusted nutrient intake by mental health (poor vs. good) and age/sex was conducted using data from Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) respondents (14–70 years; n = 8,233) who were deemed as under-reporters based on Goldberg's cutoffs. Results Most were experiencing good mental health (95.2%). Among those reporting poor mental health, significantly lower energy-adjusted nutrient intakes tended to be found for fiber, protein, vitamins A, B 2 , B 3 , B 6 , B 9 , B 12 , C, and D, and calcium, potassium, and zinc (probability measures ( p ) < 0.05). For women (51–70 years), all micronutrient intakes, except iron, were significantly lower among those reporting poor mental health ( p < 0.05). For men (31–50 years), B vitamin and most mineral intakes, except sodium, were significantly lower among those reporting poor mental health ( p < 0.05). Among women (31–50 years) who reported poor mental health, higher energy-adjusted intakes were reported for vitamin B 9 and phosphorus ( p < 0.05). Conclusions Among food energy under-reporters, poor mental health tends to lower the report of specific energy-adjusted nutrient intakes that include ones critical for mental health. Future research is needed to discern if these differences may be attributed to deviations in the accurate reports of food intakes, measurement errors, or mental health states.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.