Abstract Background Infertility is very common condition and almost 50% of cases are due to male factors. Several genetic and environmental factors are responsible for the poor quality and reduced number of sperms in several cases of infertility. The present study was designed to investigate the association between semen parameters, homocysteine, and the risk of C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene in infertile males of Iraqi population. Methods This Case–control study has been conducted from February 2019 to July 2021 at a molecular laboratory in the Anatomy and Histology Department/college of Medicine/University of Kufa/Najaf/Iraq. It was composed of 353 infertile male patients. They were divided into five groups: 90 azoospermic, 84 oligospermia, 64 asthenospermic, 50 oligoasthenospermic, and 65 teratospermic with an age range 20–46 years compared with 100 fertile males as control with age range 21–49 years. In order to detect homocysteine levels, we used Hcy ELISA Kit. C677T mutation of MTHFR gene was employed by PCR–RFLP technique. Results Our data revealed three genotypes of MTHFR C677T, 167 (47.3%) subjects had CC genotype, 116 (32.9%) subjects had CT genotype and 70 (21.1%) subjects had TT genotype. Furthermore, T allele was associated with higher risk of infertility in all patients groups for any genetic model. In total infertile subjects (codominant model: CT vs. CC, OR = 2.0, 95% C.I = 1.2–3.3, P = 0.011; TT vs. CC, OR = 4.8, 95% C.I = 3.3–8.2, P = 0.0003; dominant model: CT + TT vs. CC, OR = 2.8, 95% C.I = 1.7–4.5, P = 0.0001). Oligoasthenospermic patients associated with higher risk in CT heterozygous genotype (OR = 2.8, 95% C.I = 1.0–4.9, P = 0.03) and TT homozygous of mutant allele (OR = 6.3, 95% C.I = 1.9–9.2, P = 0.002). Homocystein level was elevated in all infertile groups when compared with control group (P
The increasing energy demand and continuous confrontation of energy generation costs are preceded by a terrible depletion of fossil fuel power reserves and increased environmental pollution. In the recent years, renewable energy grew quickly to face the responsibility of the unforeseen energy problem. Flat plate solar collectors (FPSC) are well-known and widely used, thus utilised in low and medium thermal different domestic applications. However, FPSCs are less efficient due to their limited ability of solar energy to be converted into thermal energy due to the inefficient heat transfer in solar fluids on the collector’s flow tubes. In recent decades, new technologies have enabled the manufacturing of particles in nanometre dimensions (usually less than 100 nm), suspended consistently and stable in traditional solar liquid or so-called nanofluid (NF) and have improved the effects of thermophysical features. The use of NFs as an innovative solar fluid can be reasonably considered as a powerful method of increasing the performance of the FPSC. This paper provides recent advances related to experimental and theoretical studies on NFs applications in the FPSC. Several parameters affecting the thermal efficiency of FPSC are extensively analysed, including the type of nanoparticles (NP)s, size/shape of the NPs, NPs concentration, mass flow rate and solar radiance. This paper also provides a comprehensive review and analysis of progress in the field of NFs, such as the applications of NFs, types, preparation, thermophysical properties, stability, chemical and physical methods for stability, mathematical formulas, and stability evaluation. Finally, the main challenges and future trends mentioned by the researchers while using NFs in solar thermal collectors such as the viscosity, instability, corrosion, operation cost, pumping power, pressure drop and behaviour of surfactant usage, which are assumed helpful to newcomers, are the focus areas of this research.
Developing energy efficiencies solutions from sunlight to electricity is a crucial solution for the world’s energy shortage and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, the typical photovoltaic (PV) flat module has a poor sunlight energy collection capability without a solar tracking system. Despite its advantages, solar PV technology has difficulties with land demand, capturing effectiveness and public image, especially in metropolitan areas due to the lack of pleasant aesthetics. This article presents an overview about the recently modified solar tree technology that can address these challenges efficiently. The main technology configurations, operational aspects and types are deeply presented and discussed. Many innovations and technologies of solar trees are analyzed and several commercial prototypes are discussed. Moreover, the main challenges and limitations that restrict the technology commercialization also highlighted in comparison with the traditional PV systems along with some remarks for future incomers. Analyzed studies show that solar tree technology is a good energy conversion method as it need only 1% land compared with traditional PV systems to produce power as more as 10%. Besides, this technology could efficiently collect off-peak sunshine and reflect light, and thus, create greater solar fraction.
This paper numerically investigates cooling of a cubic pack of nine cylindrical type lithium-ion batteries. The pack is first equipped with three separate ducts to convey alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluids (NFs), and all the assembly of battery cells and ducts are then dipped in a phase-change material (PCM). Simulations are carried out to investigate the effects of parameters including the volume fraction of nanoparticles (NPs) and the height of the ducts. The study is transiently performed in the time course of 0–60000 s to scrutinize the temperature of batteries and the nanofluid, the volume of molten PCM, and the heat transfer coefficient (U-value) in both PCM and nanofluid. Within the time courses studied, a maximum of 67.5% of PCM is transformed into the liquid. An increase in the height of the ducts diminishes the maximum temperature and the average temperature of the battery cells and inflated the temperature of the output nanofluid. The maximum heat transfer coefficient in the nanofluid is observed at the 20 mm height at 47th min, followed by the 12 mm height of the ducts. A raise in the duct height increases the U-value in the PCM in a continuous manner.
In this work, a battery pack (BAPA) containing 21 cylindrical battery cells was investigated. Active and passive approaches are used to regulate the battery's thermal management (THM). An enclosure packed with phase change material (PCM) surrounding the battery is employed for passive heat control. For the active method, forced airflow is utilized. PCM enclosure has two shapes of circular and elliptical, in which paraffin is used. In the active method, air flows into the BAPA at the velocity range of 0.0005 to 0.002 m/s. An economic analysis is performed for the electricity cost of the active method for several European countries. Battery temperature (T-B), pressure drop (PDP) in the BAPA at different air velocities, and two different shapes of the PCM enclosure are evaluated. The FEM is used for simulations. The results reveal that the use of an elliptical enclosure increases the maximum temperature (T-Mx) and average temperature (T-Av) of the battery and the amount of molten PCM also enhances compared to the circular enclosure. Also, the amount of PDP and power cost in the elliptical enclosure is more than that in the circular one. By increasing the velocity, the active technique decreases the amount of T-B while also increasing the amount of PDP and power cost.
This paper simulates a battery pack with 45 lithium-ion battery cells. As the coolant in the laminar flow range, the air fluid is responsible for cooling these cylindrical batteries. The battery cells are arranged in three different shapes, lozenge, rectangle and triangle. By changing the Re in the range of 500 to 2000, the temperature values of the battery cells and air, the drop in air pressure in the battery pack, as well as the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) between the battery cells and air have been studied for these three different models of battery cell arrangement. Investigations showed that increasing the Re decreases the maximum and average temperature of battery cells for all three models studied. However, the amount of pressure drop (∆Pa) has increased with increasing the Re for the three layout models. The triangular arrangement of the batteries together makes the maximum and average temperature of the battery cells lower than in other models, while the lozenge arrangement has the opposite effect. The triangular model had the highest ∆Pa and the lozenge arrangement had the lowest air ∆Pa in the battery pack. Triangular, rectangular and rhombic arrangement models have higher HTC values, respectively. Increasing the Re increases this coefficient but decreases the air temperature at the outlet (TOut). The rectangular model has the highest air TOut among the various models.
In this paper, the thermal management (THM) of a battery pack (BPK) with 9 cylindrical batteries is numerically modeled. The batteries are 18,650 lithium-ion (LIN) type, which are placed in an air duct. A capsule of Phase Change Materials (PCM) is placed around all the LIN battery cells. The PCM used was CaCl 2 .6H 2 O, which was oval in the PCM capsule. This study was performed when the entire PCM was molten, and the air stream was trying to solidify it. At all times, the LIN battery is working and generating heat. By changing the horizontal distance of the battery cells from each other, this study has been done for different times of battery operation. An economic analysis has also been performed on the cost of electricity consumed to generate airflow in the battery pack for different battery distances. For numerical modeling, multi-physics COMSOL software has been used. The enthalpy method was used to simulate the PCM freezing front. Examination of the PCM solidification front showed that the PCM solidification was formed from the air inlet side. The highest amount of solid PCM occurred at fixed times for the first column of the LIN battery, while the last column batteries had the lowest amount of frozen PCM. Increasing the distance of the LIN battery cells horizontally from each other causes the amount of PCM temperature (T PCM) and LIN battery temperature (T Bat) to decrease. At 120 min and at a horizontal distance of 8 cm from each other, the amount of molten PCM is 22.98% and at a distance of 11 cm the amount of molten PCM It has reached 8.73%. Changing the distance between the batteries may thus affect the quantity of molten PCM by 14.25% at this time. It was also found that increasing the distance between the batteries reduces the cost of electricity used to solidify the PCM.
The current study included an experimental examination of the structural behavior of standard wooden beams strengthened in flexure using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheet, and aimed at determining the effective length and width of the strengthening CFRP sheet. The study included testing of ten standard timber beams using four-point loading method. One of the standard timber beams was non-strengthened and the others were strengthened with CFRP sheets. The strengthened timber beams were divided into three groups depending on the width of the strengthening CFRP sheet. Each group contains three specimens with different lengths for the strengthening CFRP sheet. Experimental results showed that there is a range for the effective length of the strengthening CFRP sheet. Moreover, the research also find out that the increase in sheet width (CFRP area ratio) does not always lead to a consistent improvement in the flexural behavior of the timber beams. Finally, it can be concluded that the CFRP sheet could be more effective in strengthening the timber beam in flexural when the sheet length extends beyond the region of maximum bending moment but not further than the sections with moments lower than half the maximum moment and its width equal to beam width.
With recent technological advances in nanotechnology, solid particles in nanometer dimensions are being produced. Researchers have created a new nanofluid (NF) fluid with excellent thermal properties using these nanoparticles (NPs). This study examines the influence of the CuO NPs' length on the atomic conduct and phase transition duration of water-based fluid in a nanochannel with Cu walls using molecular dynamics simulation (MDS). The outcomes show that the phase transition duration decreases by adding CuO NP in the simulated base fluid (BF). Numerically , the phase transition duration decreased from 6.78 ns to 6.01 ns by adding CuO NPs with a 1.5 nm length. As the length of CuO NPs enhances from 1.5 to 5 nm, the phase transition duration decrease to 4.33 ns. Also, increasing the length of NPs to 5 nm leads to a decrease in the total energy (TE) from À44924.5 to À64214.3 eV. Finally, it was found that the highest density of BF/NF was detected in final and initial bins with 0.0187/0.01944 atom/Å 3 values. Also, the maximum velocity and temperature (T) of BF/NF were detected in middle-bins with 0.0011/0.0021 Å /fs and 688.25/753.69 K values. This atomic evolution shows that the CuO NPs have appropriate performance in the phase transition procedure. Ó 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
One eighth of the bird species in the world is considered globally threatened; the avifauna of Iraq comprises 409 species and is considered as the major indicator of the health of Iraq’s biological resources. The Iraqi geography falls into five main regions among which is the desert and semi-desert areas which cover much of the country area. Al-Najaf desert is still one of the poorly known regions from the biodiversity point of view. Birds of conservation concern are detected in Al-Najaf desert during 31 field trips to 20 sites conducted from August 2018 to April 2020, (citing literature records, and personal interviews with locals).The factors caused the bird numbers to decline in Al-Najaf desert include hunting and trapping, logging, invasive species, and climate change. Nine birds are found threatened with 3 EN and 6 VU comprising Saker Falcon Falco cherrug Gray, 1834 (Falconidae, Falconiformes), Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus Linnaeus, 1766 (Falconidae, Falconiformes), Steppe Eagle Aquila nipalensis Hodgson, 1833 (Accipitridae, Accipitriformes), Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Accipitridae, Accipitriformes), Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga (Pallas, 1811) (Accipitridae, Accipitriformes), Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris (Ménétrés, 1832) (Anatidae, Anseriformes), Macqueen's Bustard Chlamydotis macqueeni (Gray, 1834) (Otididae, Otidiformes), Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur (Linnaeus, 1758) (Columbidae, Columbiformes), and Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis aucheri Bonaparte, 1853 (Laniidae, Passeriformes). It is concluded that Al-Najaf desert is a region of top priority area for biodiversity conservation as it hosts large number of threatened bird species.
Background and Aim: Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella is a public health concern. Fluoroquinolones and extended-spectrum beta-lactams are widely used for the treatment of Salmonella infections. This study focused on the detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica isolated from broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 non-typhoidal S. enterica isolates were collected from 28 broiler chicken farms in four Iraqi Governorates. These isolates were examined for their susceptibility to 10 antimicrobial agents by disk-diffusion method followed by polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of PMQR determinants and ESBLs genes. Results: Salmonella strains revealed high levels of resistance to the following antibiotics: Nalidixic acid 100%, levofloxacin (LEV) 97.5%, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 95.0%, tetracycline 92.5%, and nitrofurantoin 80.0%. Otherwise, all isolates were susceptible to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone. All isolates were MDR, with 15 different profiles observed. Among 38 amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Salmonella isolates, 20 (52.6%) had the blaTEM gene, while blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaOXA genes were not detected. Only 5 (12.8%) out of 39 LEV-resistant isolates were positive for qnrB, three of which had blaTEM. No qnrC or qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, qunA, and oqxAB genes were found in any of the tested isolates. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that broiler chickens may be considered a potential source for spreading MDR non-typhoidal Salmonella and ESBL traits in poultry production. Therefore, it is important to continuously monitor ESBL and PMQR genes to avoid the spread of resistant strains in the food chain and impact public health.
Macrodomain-I of the NSP3 (non-structural protein 3) is responsible for immune response hijacking in the SARS-CoV-2 infection known as COVID-19. In the omicron variant (B.1.1.529), this domain harbors a new mutation, V1069I, which may increase the binding of ADPr and consequently the infection severity. This macrodomain-I, due to its significant role in infection, is deemed to be an important drug target. Hence, using structural bioinformatics and molecular simulation approaches, we performed a virtual screening of the traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) database for potential anti-viral drugs. The screening of 57,000 compounds yielded the 10 best compounds with docking scores better than the control ADPr. Among the top ten, the best three hits—TCM42798, with a docking score of −13.70 kcal/mol, TCM47007 of −13.25 kcal/mol, and TCM30675 of −12.49 kcal/mol—were chosen as the best hits. Structural dynamic features were explored including stability, compactness, flexibility, and hydrogen bonding, further demonstrating the anti-viral potential of these hits. Using the MM/GBSA approach, the total binding free energy for each complex was reported to be −69.78 kcal/mol, −50.11 kcal/mol, and −47.64 kcal/mol, respectively, which consequently reflect the stronger binding and inhibitory potential of these compounds. These agents might suppress NSP3 directly, allowing the host immune system to recuperate. The current study lays the groundwork for the development of new drugs to combat SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.
Background Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) show disorders in calcium metabolism. The α-klotho protein is predominantly expressed in tissues that are involved in calcium homeostasis, and lowered levels are associated with bone disease. The aim of the study is to examine the associations between low α-klotho status and calcium metabolism in relation to iron status in children with TDT. Methods Calcium, α-klotho, parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcyphosin, vitamin D3, phosphorous, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), as well as iron and erythron biomarkers were measured in 60 children with TDT and 30 healthy control children. Results A meaningful part of TDT patients showed lowered α-klotho levels, and those children also showed low serum total and ionized calcium concentrations. TDT patients showed increased PTH, FGFR2, and calcyphosin and lowered vitamin D3 as compared with healthy children. The α-klotho levels were significantly correlated with total and ionized calcium (positively) and with iron overload and transfusions biomarkers (inversely). Partial Least Squares path analysis showed that 40.1% of the variance in serum total calcium could be explained by the regression on α-klotho, vitamin D3 (both positively), and calcyphosin (inversely) and that the effects of the latter are mediated by iron overload and the number of blood transfusions. Conclusion In conclusion, the iron overload in TDT and its consequences may induce lowered levels of α-klotho which in turn may lead to lower calcium thereby explaining at least in part the effects of TDT on bone metabolism including spontaneous pathological fractures, osteoporosis, osteopenia, and skeletal deformities.
بحث یرکز على مفهومی العنایة الواجبة والإخطار فی ضوء قواعد المسؤولیة الدولیة، إذ لا یزال الجدل القانونی مستمراً فی تحدید الإطار القانونی لکلا المفهومین، وفی هذا السیاق کان البحث مهتما بالإشارة إلى حدود العنایة الواجبة وأحد أهم أشکالها الوقائیة، وهو الإخطار قبل حدوث الضرر، وما إذا کان معیاریًا صارمًا أو ظرفیًا مرتبطًا قبل وقوع الضرر و اثناء وما بعد وقوعه،و مع تفشی الأوبئة والجوائح ، کجائحة کورونا ، لا تزال الدراسات القانونیة تبحث فی التحقق من الامتثال فیما یتعلق ببذل العنایة الواجبة والإخطار من جهة، ومسؤولیة بلد المصدر عن انتشار هذه الجائحة وفقا لقواعد المسؤولیة الدولیة الاولیة والثانویة من جهة أخرى.
The use of waste polymers for modifying asphalt has remarkable environmental and economic advantages. However, limitation still exists in the resistance of these mixtures against moisture damage and ageing. This paper aims to explore the impact of ageing and moisture damage on the mechanical properties of modified asphalt mixtures with polymer wastes (plastic waste and crumb rubber). Asphalt mixtures designated asphalt concrete (AC14) were prepared using granite aggregate, 60/70 PEN asphalt, and filler (hydrated lime). The properties of indirect tensile strength, resilient modulus, dynamic creep, and rutting were calculated to examine the effect of short-, long-term ageing and moisture damage. The results of the mechanical tests for the modified mixtures were compared to the conventional dense-graded asphalt mixture. The find-ings showed that asphalt mixtures containing both polymers presented superior properties after short-term ageing. In contrast, long-term ageing has enhanced the control and plastic waste mixtures’ bonding properties while negatively impacting the rubberised asphalt. Long-term ageing has reduced the resistance of rubberised mixture against permanent deformation by about 33%. The moisture conditioning has significantly deteriorated the mixture’s resistance to cracking and permanent deformation, particularly for the control and rubberised mixtures. The modulus and rutting resistance of the asphalt mixtures modified by crumb rubber and waste plastic has decreased by up to 9% and 17% after moisture conditioning.
Quantum-dot Cellular Automata is one of the new nanoscale technologies that have been offered as a viable replacement for CMOS. QCA technology has many attractive features in terms of speed, size and power consumption. These features allow the technology an opportunity to be suitable for replacing CMOS technology. In the digital system, the adder circuit is important to do all arithmetic operations such as division, multiplication and subtraction. Therefore, this work introduces a new layout of full adder in QCA technology. The proposed design is built using a novel structure of a 3-input XOR gate. Then, the suggested adder is used to build an 8-bit Ripple Carry Adder (RCA). The presented full adder in this work provided 25%, 30%, and 78% improvement in terms of cell count, area, and cost, respectively, while the suggested 8-bit RCA gives 67%, 25%, 11% and 80% improvement in terms of cell count, area, delay and cost, respectively. In terms of total power consumption, the significant advantage offered by the proposed adder is energy-saving as it reduces the total dissipated energy by 26%, 37% and 45% at three levels of tunneling energy (0.5 Ek, 1 Ek and 1.5 Ek), respectively. The QCADesigner tool v2.0.3 has been used to design and simulate all circuits in this work and QCAPro tool is used for power calculations.
A new series of donor–π–acceptor–based dyes were proposed depending on 9-ethyl-9H-carbazole as a donor group and ortho-fluorine-substituted phenyl as the acceptor group that was linked via different groups as π–bridge. The density functional theory (DFT) together with time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) method was applied to conduct and analyze how the π–bridge type would impact the dye-sensitized solar cell performance. The calculations include important properties that have a major role in increasing the efficiency of the proposed organic dyes which contain electronic, geometric, density of state, molecular electrostatic potential, photovoltaic, open–circuit photo-voltage, electrochemical, injection driving force, dipole moment, and optical properties. Furthermore, one of the dyes (D6) that was tested for the analysis of the absorption process of which on the (TiO2)15 cluster models has reported the electron injection from the dye to TiO2 surface. The proposed D–π–A structure (D1–D6) demonstrated a marked improvement in properties of the dyes to be utilized for organic solar cells such as spontaneous electron injection, charge distribution, open–circuit voltage, redox, driving force, reasonable conversion, harvesting, strong sensitizing properties during the photo-excitation process, and absorbance spectra. Consequently, all the proposed D–π–A dyes were seen to have good efficiency and therefore promising dye for organic solar cells.
Breeding soundness examination (BSE) is a common evaluation to predict the reproductive ability of male livestock. The generated guideline for BSE is specified for each animal species to enhance the performance of BSE. However, there is no particular BSE guideline for bucks yet; then, the BSE guidelines for ram and bull are commonly used for bucks. This investigation was conducted to determine the main BSE characteristics and the appropriate age range for assessment in Boer goats. For this purpose, semen was collected using electro-ejaculation, and seminogram variables (semen-BSE traits) were evaluated using conventional methods. The association between common testicular biometric variables (TBVs) and semen-BSE traits were assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression. Logistic regression was used to test the validity of TBVs for the BSE of Boer goats. In this study, a strange appearance of the head of sperm, known as “rod-in-head” (RIH), was observed. The results showed that the appropriate age range for performing BSE in bucks is 12–30 months. Moreover, scrotal length in the range of 10–15.9 cm was the eligible TBV to be used as a predictor for semen-BSE traits. It was suggested that developing a BSE guideline for bucks is necessary for unbiased selection in performing BSE.
The primary purpose of this work is to analyze the intermediate behaviors in the thermal response of an absorber plate of a flat-plate solar collector, considering the non-Fourier effects. The Caputo fractional derivative is applied and the time-fractional single-phase-lag (FSPL) model is presented to study the non-diffusive process in the heat conduction through the absorber plates. In addition, the effect of variations in different parameters such as Vernotte number, dimensionless time, and thermo-physical parameter are studied on the temperature response of absorber plates. It has been apparent that the thermo-physical parameter can significantly affect the thermal behaviors of absorber plates, and that for small quantities of this parameter, the temperature distribution follows the wave-like behaviors. To validate this model, the fractional model is presented for a thin metal film, and non-diffusive heat conduction has been investigated in detail, and the results of the fractional model are compared to those of the dual-phase-lag (DPL) model, which proves the precision of the fractional model proposed in this work. Also, the effect of variation in the time rate of the initial condition has been conducted on the thermal distribution of metal films. It has been discussed that the fractional model proposed can describe a wide range of behavior in thermal response, including diffusive-like and wave-like behaviors. In addition, it has been found that the non-Fourier effects are quite remarkable at earlier times, so it would be important to consider such effects when the time instances are smaller than the relaxation time.
Not long ago, Researchers try to find a suitable alternative source from the cereal by-product instead of yellow corn. Today there is a global shortage in cereal production, so to archive goals to make less dependent on regular cereals which used in human feeding we have to examine using unusual feed staff like Rice bran. Our experiment was carried out in poultry farm, Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture/ University of Kufa to explore the broiler productive performance of Rose 308 fed rice bran diets with partly replacement of Yellow Corn. 225 chicks were used in our study by distributing them into 5 treatments as trails: (T1) control (50% yellow corn), T2, T3 substituted 5, 7.5 % of raw rice bran by yellow corn respectively, T4, T5 substituted 5, 7.5 % of Rice bran (treated with Ascorbic acid) by yellow corn. Our results show that: No significant differences in marketing live body weight, body weight gain, accumulative feed consumption and accumulative feed conversion ratio for experimental groups fed diet supplementing by Raw Rice bran or preserved by Ascorbic acid with control group, which main feeding broiler by rice bran diets has enhanced growth performance in broiler chicken. Our indication is substitution of 5 or 7.5 % rice bran with yellow corn had no bad effect on broiler performance.
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