Background Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is one of the most momentous carbonaceous nanoparticles which is widely used for various applications such as electronics, vehicles, and therapeutics. However, their possible toxicity and adverse effects convert them into a major health threat for humans and animals. Results In this study, we employed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify the co-expressed gene groups and dysregulated pathways due to the MWCNT exposure. For this purpose, three weighted gene co-expression networks for the microarray gene expression profiles of the mouse after 1, 6, and 12-month post-exposure to MWCNT were constructed. The module-trait analysis specified the significant modules related to different doses (1, 10, 40, and 80 µg) of MWCNT. Afterward, common genes between co-regulated and differentially expressed genes were determined. The further pathway analysis highlighted the enrichment of genes including Actb , Ube2b , Psme3 , Ezh2 , Alas2 , S100a10 , Ypel5 , Rhoa , Rac1 , Ube2l6 , Prdx2 , Ctsb , Bnip3l , Gp6 , Myh9 , Ube2k , Mbnl1 , Kbtbd8 , Riok3 , Itgb1 , Rap1a , and Atp5h in immune-, inflammation-, and protein metabolism-related pathways. Conclusions This study discloses the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity effects of various doses of MWCNT which also affect the metabolism system. The identified genes can serve as potential biomarkers and therapeutic candidates. However, further studies should be performed to validate them in human cells.
The Morelli–Callaway model was used to calculate the lattice thermal conductivity (LTC) of indium arsenide in both zinc blende and wurtzite phases of bulk and nanowire (NW) forms under applied hydrostatic pressures. Calculations were performed for NWs with diameters of 50, 63, 66, 100, and 148 nm in the temperature range of (0–400) K. The melting temperature and hydrostatic pressure phase diagram of the bulk and NW forms were predicted using the Clapeyron equation. A new method was developed to examine various related parameters, such as bulk modulus and mass density. The influence of pressure on melting temperature, melting enthalpy, melting entropy, surface energy, and stress. Results indicate that the calculated values of group velocity increased with the increase in NW size. The melting temperature dropped sharply with the rise in pressure. The pressure and temperature dependencies of the LTC were obtained, and they decreased with applied hydrostatic pressure.
This work investigates properties of PEDOT:PSS on flexible black silicon (bSi) for hybrid solar cell on textured polyimide (PI) substrate. The flexible bSi is formed by thinning down crystalline silicon (cSi) wafers to 65 μm thickness, followed by fabrication of bSi nanowires (NWs) on the wafer surface using one-step metal-catalyzed electroless etching (MCEE) technique. The resulting bSi NWs exhibit an average diameter of around 90-100 nm and length of 900 nm. Then, PEDOT:PSS with a thickness of 150 nm is coated on the flexible cSi and bSi NWs. For texturing of PI, copper-seeding technique is used. The planar and textured PI substrates are then attached to the back of the flexible cSi and bSi. The PEDOT:PSS/flexible bSi on PI substrate shows lower broadband reflection when compared to PEDOT:PSS/flexible cSi. This is due to the presence of bSi NWs on wafer surface which leads to refractive index grading effect. The PEDOT:PSS/flexible bSi solar cell on the textured PI substrate demonstrates conversion efficiency of 2.58%. This is contributed by the increased short-circuit current density (Jsc) in the device (when compared to the device on planar PI), owing to the enhanced light absorption above wavelength of 800 nm.
Optimization of photovoltaic (PV) active layers is usually carried out in terms of the energy bandgap (Eg) variation of the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers. However, the non-monotonic change in the Eg does not guarantee the achievement of a maximum absorption capability at the optimum condition, despite the broadened absorption spectrum. Hence, alternative strategies need to be researched in order to assign the best possible condition at which the active layer can convert the highest possible number of exposed photons to free electrons when it is employed in PV devices. Therefore, in this work, we propose a new approach that can be effectively used to optimize the BHJ active layers in terms of photon to electron conversion, considering the absorption profile of the system. Herein, the area under the curve (AUC) of the absorption profile is utilized to optimize the active layers of photovoltaic devices. A ternary system based on P(TRI-co-TER):Beetroot dye:PINDOLE was investigated and analyzed to formulate the proposed technique. Results showed that a linear correlation was produced between the AUC and photocurrent density (Jph), which can be ultimately used to optimize the active layers of PV devices.
Most current research investigating traumatic stress is focused on its effects at the individual level, utilizing the implicit assumption that trauma-related disorders are mutually independent within families and communities. However, there is reason to assume that trauma-related symptoms within couples are influenced by each partner's risk factors and symptoms. Using the actor-partner interdependence model, this study aimed to test whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression were predicted by participants' partner's exposure to traumatic events over and above the influence of the participant's own experiences. For this purpose, we interviewed 687 heterosexual, married Iraqi and Syrian couples in Iraq's Kurdistan region who had been forcefully displaced. We assessed symptoms of PTSD and depression using locally validated scales. Nearly all participants (98.8%) reported exposure to at least one traumatic event, with husbands reporting exposure to a higher number of traumatic events than wives, d = 0.48, p < .001. More than half of the participants met the criteria for a probable PTSD (61.1%) or major depressive disorder diagnosis (60.4%). Within couples, significant actor effects of experienced trauma exposure on personal PTSD and depressive symptoms were observed for both husbands and wives. Further, there were significant partner effects of wives' traumatic experiences on husbands' PTSD and depressive symptoms as well as of husbands' traumatic experiences on wives' PTSD and depressive symptoms. The findings argue for the interdependence of trauma-related symptoms within dyads in a dual-trauma context, suggesting the presence of intracouple transmission of trauma-related symptoms.
The water has an importance in environmental studies because of its daily usage by human and its ability to transport pollutants, such as radionuclides that can pose a health risk to human. The radiological quality of ²²⁶ Ra, ²³² Th and ⁴⁰ K in some samples of water tap collected in kirkuk area, Iraq, has been measured by direct gamma ray spectroscopy using high purity germanium detector Result: or radium equivalent activity, internal hazard index (Hin), external hazard index (Hex),representative level index Iγr, Dose rate (nGyh ⁻¹ ),indoor and outdoorAnnual effective dose (AEDE) in the air,respectively, due to gamma radiation and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) were calculated, it was lowerthe world average value 300μSv.y ⁻¹ , recommended by UNSCEAR. Also, the values of radiation hazard expressed by (Raeq) varied from (223.2445 to 369.9037) mBq.kg ⁻¹ with a mean of 339.9506 mBq.kg ⁻¹ which is less, lower than the worldwide average. These values are far below the allowable limit (370 Bq.kg –1 ) recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). And the calculated external hazard indices were found to be less than 1 which shows a low dose. These results can be contributed to the database of this area
In this research work, a symmetrical four-capacitance loaded complementary circular split ring resonator is proposed, which uses an ultra-thin Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) substrate to realize a low-profile triple-band metamaterial (MTM) perfect absorber for application in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. The electromagnetic properties of the proposed structure were calculated and investigated using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT). The proposed structure exhibited three highly absorptive (nearly perfect) peaks at the resonance frequencies of 15.68 THz, 37.48 THz, and 39.55 THz. Furthermore, the absorber was found to be insensitive to the polarization and incident wave angles, due to its symmetrical design. The effects of the conductor type, substrate thickness, unit cell dimension, resonator gap, and substrate type on the reflection and absorption spectra were investigated. To validate the numerical results, the proposed design was analyzed using High-Frequency Simulation Software (HFSS) and Advanced Design System (ADS). The surface current, electric field, and magnetic field distributions at the three-resonance frequency were analyzed. It was concluded that the overall performance of the proposed MTM structure was superior compared to those reported in the literature. The proposed design could be a good candidate for application in stealth technology, imaging, and thermal energy harvesting.
Although the structure-activity relationship indicates that the 4-thioxoimidazolidin ring is essential for antibacterial activities and pharmaceutical applications, there were no enough studies on the derivatives of this compound. Evaluating the new hydantoin compounds C5 (3-((2-bromobenzylidene) amino)-2- thioxoimidazolidin-4-one) and C6 (3-((4- methoxybenzylidene) amino)-2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one) that were prepared against clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates for antibacterial, antibiofilm, and antihemagglutination activities is the aim of this study. Therefore, the potential clinical resistance of the strains was evaluated by their ability to form biofilms, antibiotic resistance, and agglutinate erythrocytes macroscopically and microscopically; besides, the bacterial biofilm was screened for any association with the patient’s serum immunoglobulin levels and complements. Despite the effective concentration for C5 and C6 compounds, which is ≤ 31.25 μg/ml, the reduction rate is not concentration-dependent; it depends on the molecular docking of the hydantoin compounds. Hence, the effect of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) is variable. In this study, the results for the compounds (with the concentration of 31.25–62.5 μg/mL for C5 and 62.5–125 μg/mL for C6) significantly manifest the antibacteria, antibiofilm, and antihemagglutination effects against the virulent strains of S. aureus due to the high percentage of biofilm inhibition that was caused by the new hydantoin compounds. Besides, time-kill kinetics studies showed that these compounds pose bactericidal action. Overall, this study revealed that the new hydantoin derivatives have an interesting potential as new antibacterial drugs through the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. The infections of these isolates activate the complement system through the lectin pathway. Nevertheless, these compounds can be improved in order to be used at even lower concentrations.
In this study, capacitive humidity sensors based on grown poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-alt-4,7-bis(thiophen-2-yl)benzo-2,1,3-thiadiazole] (PFO-DBT) nanotubes and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template is fabricated and characterized. The active layer of the device consists of infiltrated PFO-DBT solution on AAO template, thereby growing the PFO-DBT nanotubes. Infiltration was performed by three different deposition methods, namely spin coating, immersion of AAO template in polymeric solution and deposition by vortex mixer. Results showed that each method yielded a large-scale production of PFO-DBT nanotubes with different specifications. The open-end of the PFO-DBT nanotubes at the top surface of the template acts as porous, which provides a larger sensing area for device, thus enhancing the performance of the device. Furthermore, the infiltrated PFO-DBT in the porous has significantly increased the sensitivity of the device compared to that of the used empty AAO template. The impact of distinct morphology of the structure on the electrical properties such as device sensitivity, hysteresis and its respond and recovery time are also investigated and elaborated.
Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), broadly, is one of the leading evidence-based treatments for youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Generally, few culturally adapted TF-CBT interventions have been examined among war trauma-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries. Using a randomized clinical trial design, a total of 48 war trauma-exposed women in Iraq, Mage (SD) = 32.91 (5.33), with PTSD were randomly assigned to either TF-CBT or wait-list control (WLC) conditions. The intervention group received 12 individual weekly sessions of a culturally adapted TF-CBT intervention. Significant reductions in PTSD symptom severity were reported by women in the TF-CBT condition from pre- to posttreatment. Women in the TF-CBT condition reported significantly greater reductions in PTSD symptoms compared to WLC at 1-month follow-up. Additionally, levels of depression, anxiety, stress, and use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were significantly lower in the TF-CBT condition at posttreatment and 1-month follow-up, compared to the WLC condition. Women in the TF-CBT condition also reported significant improvements in various domains of quality of life at posttreatment and 1-month follow-up. This clinical trial provides preliminary cross-cultural support for the feasibility and efficacy of TF-CBT for the treatment of PTSD symptoms among women in non-Western cultures. Future directions and study limitations are discussed.
In this work, 4-(((4-ethyl-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-yl)thio)methyl)-7,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one was synthesized by acetone-mediated condensation of 4-ethyle-5-(thiophen-2-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and 4-(chloromethyl)-7,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one. The molecule results (3) were experimentally characterized using FT-IR, ¹H-, and ¹³C-NMR spectroscopy. Density Functional Theory (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ) was used to investigate the ideal molecule structure, vibrational frequencies, and ¹H with ¹³C-NMR (theoretically) chemical shifts. Theoretical and experimental spectroscopy results were compared and agreed with each other, which indicated the validity of the used developed molecular structure. The Dipole moment, hardness, softnes, electronegativity, electrophilicity index, nucleophilicity index, and chemical potential as electronic structural parameters linked to corrosion inhibition efficacy were investigated for the prepared compound. Furthermore, the fraction of transferred electrons was calculated to determine the interaction between the iron surface and organic molecules. The results indicated a favorable relationship between organic-based corrosion inhibitors and quantum chemical parameters processes. The corrosion inhibitors' behavior can be predicted without the need for experimental investigation.
This study examines ionospheric total electron content (TEC) perturbations from six International Global Navigation Satellite System stations (GNSS) including GUAT-Guatemala, SSIA-El Salvador, INEG-Mexico, MANA-Nicaragua, MDO1-United States of America, and BOGT- Colombia for several days around the occurrence of a major earthquake (M 7.4 and depth 20.0 km) in Mexico, June 23, 2020 at 10:29 Local Time (LT). The INEG station in the North-Northwest of the epicenter at a distance of about 936 km indicated a positive TEC anomaly on June 18, 2020, which can be possibly viewed as an earthquake precursor due to its occurrence during a quiet geomagnetic storm and inactive solar activity. Study findings reveal that other TEC perturbations may not be related to the earthquake, because they appeared during geomagnetic activities. Moreover, the atmospheric parameters have significant and synchronous deviations from the earthquake epicenter on June 13, 2020. The highest atmospheric chemical potential (ACP) is about 0.010 eV, atmospheric air temperature has positive deviation of 3.937 °C at 15:00 LT, the lowest atmospheric relative humidity has negative deviation of 25.387% at 13:00 LT and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) 27.58 W.m⁻². Observations validate that in the earthquake preparation zone, variations in atmospheric air temperature and relative humidity reach at peak value during 10 days prior to the impending earthquake event with the later perturbations in the ionosphere.
The earthquake in Ranya City took place at local time 16:42 (GMT+3) on August 23rd 2017, with a magnitude of 5.3 Richter scale in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The earthquake with an approximate duration of 5 seconds occurred near Lake Dokan with a depth of 10 km below the surface of the earth. It caused a lot of damages to the structures in the region. The most vulnerable buildings were unreinforced hollow-block masonry houses which are composed of hollow-concrete blocks. This paper discusses the performance of unreinforced masonry houses of Ranya City with illustrative photos taken during on-site investigation for a number of damaged houses subjected to seismic actions. The main structural deficiencies that caused the wall cracks were highlighted, such as; very low tensile and shear resistance of the walls, large openings and their positioning, weak mortar and binding between the masonry units, existing weak joints between the crossing walls.
This study aims to examine the impact of People related TQM which consist of (management commitment, employee empowerment, involvement, training, and teamwork) and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR (economical, ethical, legal, and philanthropic) on employee job satisfaction. In conducting this study data is collected through primary source using a random survey questionnaire employee in the construction companies located in Sulaymaniyah City/ Kurdistan Region- Iraq. At the time of conducting this study, there were (40) construction companies registered with the Board of Investment of Kurdistan-Iraq and had permission to operate in Sulaymaniyah City. 200 questionnaires were distributed among 25 companies out of which a total of 130 were usable. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS program. The result of this study reveals that there is a positive significant impact of TQM and CSR individually and simultaneously on employee job satisfaction. The proposed model showed an acceptable fit.
Alum sludge (AS) generated from water treatment plants as a byproduct waste is increasingly becoming a significant issue with the growing world population and high demand for drinking water. Alum sludge waste management needs an economically and environmentally effective solution instead of landfilling in the world. This paper experimentally studied the influence of AS content, from Taq Taq water treatment plant in the Kurdistan region of Iraq, on the density and compressive strength of concrete made of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% cement replacement by mass. The water/ binder ratio was kept constant at 0.45. The possibility of AS reuse in concrete slab structures tested for two way shear was investigated as well. Five different mixtures were made, and ten slab panels (2 for each mix) were cast. The slab panels (500x500x50) mm with different recess depths were simply supported and tested under concentrated column load. The results showed a slight reduction in density and compressive strength with increasing AS content at the curing age of 7 and 28 days. Also, Failure mode, load–deflection response, punching perimeter, shear load, shear strength, and ductility of tested slab panels containing AS are discussed and compared with international codes. It can be concluded that both recess depth and AS contents affect the two way shear behaviors. The results of experimental shear strength for tested slabs showed better performance up to 5% alum sludge.
A novel electrochemical sensor for determining trace levels of Hg2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ ions in water using square wave voltammetry (SWV) is reported. The sensor is based on a platinum electrode (Pt) modified by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and Nα,Nα-bis-(carboxymethyl)-l-lysine hydrate (NTA lysine) PEDOT/NTA. The modified electrode surface (PEDOT/NTA) was prepared via the introduction of the lysine-NTA group to a PEDOT/N-hydroxyphthalimide NHP electrode. The (PEDOT/NTA) was characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of scan rates on the electrochemical properties of the polymer electrode were also investigated. The electrochemical results were used to estimate the coverage of the electrode polymer surface and its electrostability in background electrolyte solutions. Several analytical parameters, such as polymer film thickness, metal deposition time, and pH of the electrolyte, were examined. Linear responses to Hg2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ ions in the concentration range of 5–100 μg L–1 were obtained. The limits of detection (LODs) for the determination of Hg2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+ ions were 1.73, 2.33, and 1.99 μg L–1, respectively. These promising results revealed that modified PEDOT/NTA films might well represent an important addition to existing electrochemical sensor technologies.
Deep eutectic solvents are a unique type of solvent with interesting physical properties, which made them comply with the green solvents criteria such as safety, non-toxicity in case of natural DESs, non-flammability, non-volatility, thermal stability, sustainability, biodegradability, and low cost. In this review, the physicochemical characteristics of deep eutectic solvents under the effect of molar ratio of HBAs/HBDs, size of anion, alkyl chain length, and molar mass on the melting point, density, viscosity, conductivity, surface tension, and refractive index have been revealed. Moreover, the polarity, pH, toxicity, biodegradability, and effect of water on the formation of DESs have been illustrated.
This study was carried out to measure the radioactivity of radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th, and 40 K) in tap water (drinking water) of 18 houses in Chamchamal town, Kurdistan Iraqi region by using the gamma-ray spectrometry (HPGe detector). The concentrations of 226Ra in drinking water sample varied from 42.335 Bq·L−1 in TW3 to 102.209 Bq·L−1 in TW13 with an average of 75.675 Bq·L−1; the concentrations of 232Th varied from 35.895 Bq·L−1 in TW3 to 96.269 Bq·L−1 in TW13 with an average of 68.678 Bq·L−1; and the concentrations of 40 K ranged from 367.885 Bq·L−1 in TW3 to 527.759 Bq·L−1 in TW13 with an average of 447.058 Bq·L−1. Thus, the highest activity concentration ratio was found in TW13 (40 K (74%) > 226Ra (14%) > 232Th (12%)). Nonetheless, the maximum concentration of 226Ra (102.209 Bq·L−1) was relatively lower than the maximal admissible value of 370 Bq·L−1, as suggested by UNSCEAR. The maximum values of radium equivalent activity (Raeq), external hazard index (Hex), internal hazard index (Hin), outdoor external dose (Dout), and indoor absorbed dose (Din) rate in the drinking water samples were determined to be 280.511 Bq·L−1, (0.757, 1.033, 127.37) nGyh−1 and 242.14 nGyh−1, respectively. Iγ of gamma and Iα of gamma were measured to be 0.998 and 0.511, respectively. Strong correlation was found between the activity concentrations of Ra-226 and Raeq in the drinking water. Natural radionuclide in drinking water is 0.1 mSv·year−1 established by the WHO. Therefore, drinking water samples in location under study are considered safe from radiological health hazard.
Little is known regarding the amount of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emitted during refinery process under different management systems. Therefore, two refinery fields were investigated to explain their H2S emission, as they were managed using non-standardized and standardized protocols. In addition, three units of standardized refinery were investigated to correlate the amount of emitted H2S with oil quality. Both of non-standardized and standardized oil refineries emitted H2S, but the former contributed more; in fact, it was orders of magnitude higher. At non-standardized and standardized oil refineries, the highest concentration of H2S measured was 35.6 ± 2.4 and 2.6 ± 0.3 mg/m3, respectively, and the concentrations steadily declined with the distance from the refinery subunits until it was not detected at 550 and 130 m, respectively. In addition, refinery subunits: distillation tower, flare gas, and storage tank, emitted H2S, but the former was the dominant source. The crude oil quality affected H2S concentration in the air, the higher sulfur content the more H2S released. Furthermore, there was diurnal pattern of H2S concentrations, with higher H2S emitted during nighttime than the daytime. This study demonstrates that H2S emitted into atmosphere, and it most likely affects refinery workers health, surrounding area, and this can lead to further environmental consequences.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic endocrine disorder that affecting 5%–10% of adults globally. Recently, the disease has rapidly spread throughout the Kurdistan Region. This study investigates DNA methylation status in the ABCC8 gene among the study population, and it possibly used as a biomarker. One hundred and thirteen individuals were included in this study, and they were divided into three categories (47 diabetes, 36 prediabetic, and 30 controls). Blood samples were collected to investigate DNA methylation status in patients who attended private clinical sectors in Koya city, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, between August and December 2021. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) uses paired primers for each methylated and unmethylated region. In addition, the X2 Kruskal–Wallis statistical and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were run with a significance level of p 0.05. In comparison to the healthy group, hypermethylation of DNA is detected in the promoter region of diabetes and prediabetes. In addition, age, gender, BMI, alcohol use, family history, and physical activity all influence the degree of DNA methylation in people who have had coronavirus illness. The abovementioned findings suggest that DNA methylation alterations in the ABCC8 promoter region might be exploited as a possible predictive biomarker for type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis.
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