Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
Recent publications
We report on the effects of Ru addition on the formation of topologically close-packed (TCP) phases in a Ni-based superalloy during high-temperature exposure. The Ru addition reduces the lattice misfit between the γ and TCP phase, unexpectedly promoting nucleation of the TCP phase. Furthermore, the γ matrix is destabilized by Ru, while the stability of TCP phase is less affected according to the prediction of an electronic structure map. The results of this work indicate that γ destabilization is another important factor for the role of Ru in TCP phase formation.
Most studies on dynamic ridesharing, which allows any driver to ferry separate passengers with overlapping routes in a single trip, have focused on developing efficient algorithms. While dynamic ridesharing demands extensive computing infrastructure, this paper suggests a simple taxi ridesharing approach that allows only passengers from certain taxi hotspots to share a ride with another who has a similar destination and measures the effects, spatiotemporal patterns and its benefits. Compared to dynamic ridesharing, the proposed method does not require dedicated driver fleets, networked communication system, or monopoly of all passenger information. We identify taxi pickup hotspots and analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of the simple ridesharing approach. The results show that 48 % of rides from hotspots could be shared, reducing the overall vehicle-km traveled by 1.2 km for each shared ride. We also find that spatiotemporal patterns of the ridesharing could represent urban characteristics. For example, places with high ridesharing potential and low saved-trip distances could imply low public transportation accessibility while areas with high shareability during working hours on both weekdays and weekends could represent public transportation hubs. The proposed method is expected to be useful to identify taxi stands that have high ridesharing opportunities. Policy makers can use our approach to support simple ridesharing scheme. Moreover, with the characterized taxi stands, such as longer saved-trip distance and nightlife peaks, the proposed method could be used as decision support tools for temporary allowed ridesharing. In addition, spatiotemporal patterns of the taxi stands would be used in designing public transportation systems.
The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) in high-grade glioma (HGG) exhibits high spatial heterogeneity. Though the tumor core and peripheral regions have different biological features, the cause of this spatial heterogeneity has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we examined the spatial heterogeneity of HGG using core and peripheral regions obtained separately from the patients with HGG. We analyzed infiltrating immune cells by flow cytometry from 34 patients with HGG and the transcriptomes by RNA-seq analysis from 18 patients with HGG. Peripheral region-infiltrating immune cells were in vitro cultured in hypoxic conditions and their immunophenotypes analyzed. We analyzed whether the frequencies of exhausted CD8⁺ T cells and immunosuppressive cells in the core or peripheral regions are associated with the survival of patients with HGG. We found that terminally exhausted CD8⁺ T cells and immunosuppressive cells, including regulatory T (TREG) cells and M2 tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), are more enriched in the core regions than the peripheral regions. Terminally exhausted and immunosuppressive profiles in the core region significantly correlated with the hypoxia signature, which was enriched in the core region. Importantly, in vitro culture of peripheral region-infiltrating immune cells in hypoxic conditions resulted in an increase in terminally exhausted CD8⁺ T cells, CTLA-4⁺ TREG cells, and M2 TAMs. Finally, we found that a high frequency of PD-1⁺CTLA-4⁺CD8⁺ T cells in the core regions was significantly associated with decreased progression-free survival of patients with HGG. The hypoxic condition in the core region of HGG directly induces an immunosuppressive TIME, which is associated with patient survival.
Coronavirus disease 2019, caused by SARS-CoV-2, remains an on-going pandemic, partly due to the emergence of variant viruses that can “break-through” the protection of the current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), highlighting the needs for broadly nAbs and next-generation vaccines. We report an antibody that exhibits breadth and potency in binding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus spike glycoprotein across SARS coronaviruses. Initially, a lead antibody was computationally discovered and crystallographically validated that binds to a highly conserved surface of the RBD of wild-type SARS-CoV-2. Subsequently, through experimental affinity enhancement and computational affinity maturation, it was further developed to bind the RBD of all concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants, SARS-CoV-1 and pangolin coronavirus with pico-molar binding affinities, consistently exhibited strong neutralization activity against wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and the Alpha and Delta variants. These results identify a vulnerable target site on coronaviruses for development of pan-sarbecovirus nAbs and vaccines.
TIGIT is an immune checkpoint receptor that is expressed on subsets of activated T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Several ligands for TIGIT, including poliovirus receptor (PVR), are expressed on cancer cells and mediate inhibitory signaling to suppress antitumor activities of the immune cells. Many studies support that the TIGIT signaling is a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. We developed an IgG4-type monoclonal antibody against human TIGIT, designated as MG1131, using a phage display library of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). MG1131 interacts with TIGIT much more tightly than PVR does. The crystal structure of a scFv version of MG1131 bound to TIGIT was determined, showing that MG1131 could block the PVR-TIGIT interaction and thus the immunosuppressive signaling of TIGIT. Consistently, MG1131 is bound to TIGIT-expressing cells and interferes with PVR binding to these cells. Moreover, MG1131 increased NK cell-mediated tumor killing activities, inhibited immunosuppressive activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells from healthy donors, and restored interferon-γ secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from multiple myeloma patients. MG1131 also increased T cell infiltration to the tumor site and inhibited tumor growth in mice. Collectively, these data indicate that MG1131 modulates the effector functions of T cells and NK cells positively and Treg cells negatively.
Systems neuroscience is focused on how ensemble properties in the brain, such as the activity of neuronal circuits, gives rise to internal brain states and behavior. Many of the studies in this field have traditionally involved electrophysiological recordings and computational approaches that attempt to decode how the brain transforms inputs into functional outputs. More recently, systems neuroscience has received an infusion of approaches and techniques that allow the manipulation (e.g., optogenetics, chemogenetics) and imaging (e.g., two-photon imaging, head mounted fluorescent microscopes) of neurons, neurocircuits, their inputs and outputs. Here, we will review novel approaches that allow the manipulation and imaging of specific molecular mechanisms in specific cells (not just neurons), cell ensembles and brain regions. These molecular approaches, with the specificity and temporal resolution appropriate for systems studies, promise to infuse the field with novel ideas, emphases and directions, and are motivating the emergence of a molecularly oriented systems neuroscience, a new discipline that studies how the spatial and temporal patterns of molecular systems modulate circuits and brain networks, and consequently shape the properties of brain states and behavior.
Achieving high-performance p-type semiconductors has been considered one of the most challenging tasks for three-dimensional vertically integrated nanoelectronics. Although many candidates have been presented to date, the facile and scalable realization of high-mobility p-channel field-effect transistors (FETs) is still elusive. Here, we report a high-performance p-channel tellurium (Te) FET fabricated through physical vapor deposition at room temperature. A growth route involving Te deposition by sputtering, oxidation and subsequent reduction to an elemental Te film through alumina encapsulation allows the resulting p-channel FET to exhibit a high field-effect mobility of 30.9 cm ² V ⁻¹ s ⁻¹ and an I ON/OFF ratio of 5.8 × 10 ⁵ with 4-inch wafer-scale integrity on a SiO 2 /Si substrate. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) inverters using In-Ga-Zn-O and 4-nm-thick Te channels show a remarkably high gain of ~75.2 and great noise margins at small supply voltage of 3 V. We believe that this low-cost and high-performance Te layer can pave the way for future CMOS technology enabling monolithic three-dimensional integration.
Thin-film saturable absorbers (SAs) are extensively used in mode-locked fiber laser due to the robust and simple application methods that arise because SAs are alignment-free and self-standing. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are the most suitable low dimensional material uesd for SAs because of their high nonlinearity and the wavelength control of absorption based on tube diameters. The most challenging problem with the use of CNT-based thin film SAs is thermal damage caused during high power laser operation, which mainly occurs due to aggregation of CNTs. We have demonstrated improved thermal damage resistance and enhanced durability of a film-type SA based on functionalization of SWCNTs, which were subjected to a mechanical functionalization procedure to induce covalent structural modifications on the SWCNT surface. Increased intertube distance was shown by X-ray diffraction, and partial functionalization was shown by Raman spectroscopy. This physical change had a profound effect on integration with the host polymer and resolved aggregation problems. A free-standing SA was fabricated by the drop casting method, and improved uniformity was shown by scanning electron microscopy. The SA was analyzed using various structural and thermal evaluation techniques (Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, etc.). Damage tests at different optical powers were also performed. To the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive analysis of a film-type SA is reported here for the first time. The partially functionalized SWCNT (fSWCNT) SA shows significant structural integrity after intense damage tests and a modulation depth of 25.3%. In passively mode-locked laser operation, a pulse width of 152 fs is obtained with a repetition rate of 77.8 MHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of 75 dB. Stable operation of the femtosecond fiber laser over 200 h verifies the enhanced durability of the fSWCNT SA.
In this paper, we propose a design rule of rate-compatible punctured multi-edge type low-density parity-check (MET-LDPC) code ensembles with degree-one variable nodes for the information reconciliation (IR) of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) systems. In addition to the rate compatibility, the design rule effectively resolves the high error-floor issue which has been known as a technical challenge of MET-LDPC codes at low rates. Thus, the proposed design rule allows one to implement rate-compatible MET-LDPC codes with good performances both in the threshold and low-error-rate regions. The rate compatibility and the improved error-rate performances significantly enhance the efficiency of IR for CV-QKD systems. The performance improvements are confirmed by comparing complexities and secret key rates of IR schemes with MET-LDPC codes whose ensembles are optimized with the proposed and existing design rules. In particular, the SNR range of positive secrecy rate increases by 1.44 times, and the maximum secret key rate improves by 2.10 times as compared to the existing design rules. The comparisons clearly show that an IR scheme can achieve drastic performance improvements in terms of both the complexity and secret key rate by employing rate-compatible MET-LDPC codes constructed with code ensembles optimized with the proposed design rule.
To enable the computer-aided design of vertically stacked two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) heterostructure devices, we here introduce a non-equilibrium first-principles simulation method based on the multi-space constrained-search density functional formalism. Applying it to graphene/few-layer hBN/graphene field-effect transistors, we show that the negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics can be produced not only from the gating-induced mismatch between two graphene Dirac cones in energy-momentum space but from the bias-dependent energetic shift of defect levels. Specifically, for a carbon atom substituted for a nitrogen atom (C N ) within inner hBN layers, the increase of bias voltage is found to induce a self-consistent electron filling of in-gap C N states, which in turn changes voltage drop profiles and produces symmetric NDR characteristics. With the C N placed on outer hBN layers, however, the pinning of C N states to nearby graphene significantly modifies device characteristics, demonstrating the critical impact of atomic details for 2D vdW devices.
We report that recently synthesized NaZnBi is a new dual topological insulator, with Z2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$${\Bbb Z}_2$$\end{document} indices (ν0;ν1ν2ν3)=(1;000)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$(\nu _0;\nu _1\nu _2\nu _3) = (1;000)$$\end{document} and odd mirror Chern numbers ±1, based on the first-principles calculations. NaZnBi, which crystallizes in a tetragonal structure with the P4/nmm space group, consists of ZnBi layers and embedded Na atoms. The (100) surface electronic structure exhibits the gapless surface states, which connect the valence and conduction bulk bands. These gapless surface states form the topological Dirac point at the Brillouin zone center Γ¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline{\Gamma}$$\end{document}. This characteristic clearly shows the topological insulating phase in NaZnBi. Moreover, by applying an external magnetic field in various directions, we verify that the topological Dirac point at Γ¯\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\overline {\Gamma}$$\end{document} is protected by the time-reversal and mirror symmetries, and confirm that NaZnBi belongs to the class of dual topological insulators.
We propose a scheme to establish a surrogate model for optimizing the annealing duration of the self-assembled membrane-cavity structures from hole patterned silicon wafers. Although it has been reported that the design space of post-annealing shape can be extended by increasing the dimensions of hole arrays, the annealing duration for large hole arrays has not been well examined. A two-dimensional axisymmetric phase-field model in commercial FEM software is employed to establish the surrogate model with respect to three variables (i.e., radius, aspect ratio (AR), and normalized spacing). The established surrogate model based on the neural network indicates that the hole radius dominantly affects annealing duration and the temperature elevation (i.e., acceleration of diffusion speed) is necessary to achieve the practical annealing duration when the hole radius is larger than 1 μm.
Research to develop ideal sensing devices for toxic gases is on the rise, and amongst various materials, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have opened up promising vistas as chemiresistive sensors due to their high structural and functional tunability. Here, we report the composites of dimensionally (2D and 3D) and functionally (conductive and porous) different two MOFs in the form of a well-integrated core–shell structure. The hierarchically assembled [email protected] exhibits new interfacial properties that are responsible for synergetically enhanced sensing performances toward toxic H2S gas with the lowest recorded limit of detection (1.4 ppb), superior sensitivity (ΔR/R0 = 3.37), and outstanding selectivity at room temperature in air. The sensing mechanisms are proposed by combinational studies of experiments and calculation, which indicates that multiple changes (e.g., local structural change of the shell MOF, secondary binding sites generation from the core MOF, and free radicals formation) play a critical role in achieving synergetic chemiresistive sensing.
Responding to the ever-growing demand for environmental information, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) seeks to enter into contracts to purchase Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations produced by commercial vendors at a low-cost. GeoOptics is one commercial vendor awarded a contract with NOAA. GeoOptics operates the Community Initiative for Cellular Earth Remote Observation (CICERO) constellation of low-earth-orbiting (LEO) 6U CubeSats. The 6U-sized CICERO will enable the deployment of GNSS array consisting of RO satellites in the Earth’s atmosphere to obtain many atmospheric observations which can improve weather forecasting. Applying GeoOptics RO data to reliable weather forecasting requires an assessment of its performance. This study analyzes the performance of GeoOptics CubeSats measurements by comparing it with the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) missions (COSMIC-1 and COSMIC-2). The performance analysis was carried on data coverage capabilities and measurement quality. The analysis of data coverage confirmed that GeoOptics can acquire global observational coverage with adequate low-altitude penetration capability, while there should be updated in local time coverage. The analysis of RO measurement quality showed that GeoOptics RO measurements are comparable to those of COSMIC-2, even though GeoOptics exhibited a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The potential of GeoOptics allows for the development of a GNSS array in the Earth’s atmosphere and a large amount of effective RO measurements to be obtained for reliable weather forecasting. Graphical Abstract
Research on chiral nanomaterials (NMs) has grown radically with a rapid increase in the number of publications over the past decade. It has attracted a large number of scientists in various fields predominantly because of the emergence of unprecedented electric, optical, and magnetic properties when chirality arises in NMs. For applications, it is particularly informative and fascinating to investigate how chiral NMs interact with electromagnetic waves and magnetic fields, depending on their intrinsic composition properties, atomic distortions, and assembled structures. This review provides an overview of recent advances in chiral NMs, such as semiconducting, metallic, and magnetic nanostructures.
All-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs) possess attractive merits including superior thermal stability and mechanical flexibility for large-area roll-to-roll processing. Introducing flexible conjugation-break spacers (FCBSs) into backbones of polymer donor (PD) or polymer acceptor (P A) has been demonstrated as an efficient approach to enhance both the photovoltaic (PV) and mechanical properties of the all-PSCs. However, length dependency of FCBS on certain all-PSC related properties has not been systematically explored. In this regard, we report a series of new non-conjugated PAs by incorporating FCBS with various lengths (2, 4, and 8 carbon atoms in thioalkyl segments). Unlike common studies on so-called side-chain engineering, where longer side chains would lead to better solubility of those resulting polymers, in this work, we observe that the solubilities and the resulting photovoltaic/mechanical properties are optimized by a proper FCBS length (i.e., C2) in PA named PYTS-C2. Its all-PSC achieves a high efficiency of 11.37%, and excellent mechanical robustness with a crack onset strain of 12.39%, significantly superior to those of the other P As. These results firstly demonstrate the effects of FCBS lengths on the PV performance and mechanical properties of the all-PSCs, providing an effective strategy to fine-tune the structures of PAs for highly efficient and mechanically robust PSCs.
As city-level modal splits are outcomes of city functions, it is essential to understand whether and how city attributes affect modal splits to derive a modal shift toward low-emission travel modes and sustainable mobility in cities. This study elucidates this relationship between modal splits and city attributes in 46 cities worldwide, proposing a two-step data mining framework. First, using the K-Means method, we classify cities into private-vehicle-, public-transit-, and bicycle-dominant groups based on their modal splits. Second, we categorize city attributes into environmental, socio-demographic, and transportation planning factors and quantify their interlocked impacts on cities' modal splits via the decision tree method. We observe that the socio-demographic factor has the highest impact on determining the cities' modal splits. In addition, high population density and employment rate are positively associated with low-emission travel modes. High gasoline tax and low public transit and taxi fares often make people reconsider possessing private vehicles. On the other hand, extreme weather conditions (e.g., hot temperatures) can prevent bicycle usage. Our contribution expands the impact of introduced city planning and policies for modal shifts toward a real-world paradigm and we present implications of the proposed framework in developing practical modal shift strategies.
This study investigates an O2O-based exhibition, and specifically examines how the perceived trust toward the online exhibition affects the offline exhibition based on the trust transfer theory. To solve this research question, a survey was administered in the Korea Machinery Fair (KOMAF) exhibition from October 22 to October 25, 2019. A total of 205 responses from the participants of B2B firms were analyzed, and the results indicated that participants' perceived trust from the online influencers, including the O2O platform, organizer, and exhibitors, positively influenced online satisfaction. An increased online trust-satisfaction also positively affected offline value-satisfaction toward the exhibition consisting of reduced perceived risk as well as utilitarian, hedonic, and social value. Finally, the online and offline satisfaction of B2B firms toward the exhibition helped increase O2O loyalty in the Exhibition.
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7,769 members
Ghafar Ali
  • Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering
Sajid Iqbal
  • Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering
Seung Park
  • Department of Aerospace Engineering
YongKeun Park
  • Department of Physics
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