In the search for alternatives to chlorine-containing gases, tetrafluoroethane, CF3CH2F (R134a), a widely used refrigerant gas, has been recognized as a promising substitute for dichlorodifluoromethane, CCl2F2 (R12). When R12 is replaced by R134a, the global warming potential drops from 8100 to 1430, the ozone depletion potential changes from 1 to 0, and the atmospheric lifetime decreases from 100 to 14 years. Electron interactions in the gas phase play a fundamental role in the atmospheric sciences. Here, we present a detailed study on electron-driven fragmentation pathways of CF3CH2F, in which we have investigated processes induced by both electron ionization and electron attachment. The measurements allow us to report the ion efficiency curves for ion formation in the energy range of 0 up to 25 eV. For positive ion formation, R134a dissociates into a wide assortment of ions, in which CF3+ is observed as the most abundant out of seven ions with a relative intensity above 2%. The results are supported by quantum chemical calculations based on bound state techniques, electron-impact ionization models, and electron-molecule scattering simulations, showing a good agreement. Moreover, the experimental first ionization potential was found at 13.10 ± 0.17 eV and the second at around 14.25 eV. For negative ion formation, C2F3- was detected as the only anion formed, above 8.3 eV. This study demonstrates the role of electrons in the dissociation of R134a, which is relevant for an improvement of the refrigeration processes as well as in atmospheric chemistry and plasma sciences.
A drift tube capable of simultaneously functioning as an ion funnel is demonstrated in proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for the first time. The ion funnel enables a much higher proportion of ions to exit the drift tube and enter the mass spectrometer than would otherwise be the case. An increase in the detection sensitivity for volatile organic compounds of between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude is delivered, as demonstrated using several compounds. Other aspects of analytical performance explored in this study include the effective E/N (ratio of electric field to number density of the gas) and dynamic range over which the drift tube is operated. The dual-purpose drift tube/ion funnel can be coupled to various types of mass spectrometers to increase the detection sensitivity and may therefore offer considerable benefits in PTR-MS work.
The routine analysis of frozen-hydrated biological material is a goal that is highly sought after in the ToF-SIMS community. To this end we have developed a system based on an existing protocol developed elsewhere, but with several crucial advances. Here we report on the major design initiatives, some early performance characteristics and experimental data obtained. The system was designed with ease-of-use and reliability in mind in addition to performance, this should make the results repeatable. The device works on a freeze-fracture type method to expose pristine surface for SIMS analysis.An important performance characteristic that has emerged is one of time; the fracture stage can be cooled down to operating temperature within 30 min beginning of cooling. This is important as it minimises dead time at the beginning of an experimental session. We also present here images of freeze-fractured liposomes obtained with this hardware, showing two differing fracture regimes, we believe they are of similar quality to those obtained using other techniques.
A chemical imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer is described. It consists of a liquid metal ion gun, medium energy resolution reflectron mass analyzer, liquid nitrogen cooled sample stage, preparation chamber and dual stage entry port. Unique features include compatibility with laser postionization experiments, large field of view, cryogenic sample handling capability and high incident ion beam current. Instrument performance is illustrated by the characterization of scanning electron microscopy grids, silver and functionalized polystyrene beads and the postionization of an organic overlayer on a gold substrate.
A chemical imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer is described. It consists of a liquid metal ion gun, medium energy resolution reflectron mass analyzer, liquid nitrogen cooled sample stage, preparation chamber and dual stage entry port. Unique features include compatibility with laser postionization experiments, large field of view, cryogenic sample handling capability and high incident ion beam current. Instrument performance is illustrated by the characterization of scanning electron microscopy grids, silver and functionalized polystyrene beads and the postionization of an organic overlayer on a gold substrate. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The benefits of on-site analysis of environmental pollutants are well known, with such techniques increasing sample throughput and reducing the overall cost of pollution level monitoring. This article describes a transportable time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer, based upon a converging, annular TOF (CAT) arrangement. The instrument, the transportable CAT or T-CAT is battery powered and self-contained. The vacuum chamber is never vented and is kept at a very low pressure, even during analysis. Sample gases are admitted to the mass spectrometer via a membrane inlet system. Data collection and analysis are accomplished via a portable PC. The T-CAT is capable of detection limits approaching those of more conventional, nonportable design. The device shows reasonable linearity over wide concentration ranges. Initial results indicate that the T-CAT will be capable of use in a wide range of applications, particularly for environmental monitoring. This article describes the features of the T-CAT, and presents initial results from the membrane inlet/T-CAT system. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.
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