Control of temperature and relative humidity in storage areas and exhibitions is crucial for long-term preservation of cultural heritage objects. This paper explores the possibilities for developing a proactive system, based on a machine-learning model (XGBoost), for predicting the occurrence of unwanted indoor environmental conditions: either a too high or a too low relative humidity, within the forthcoming 24 hours. The features used in the model was hourly indoor and outdoor climate recordings, and it was applied to two indoor heritage environments; a storage and a church building. The test accuracy (f1-score) of the model was good (0.92 for high RH; 0.93 for low RH) when applied to the storage building, but only 0.78; 0.62 (high RH; low RH) for the church building test. Challenges encountered include difficulties in obtaining good historical climate data sets for training and testing the model, and the dependency of external IT systems, which, if they fail, inactivates the model without a warning. Several issues call for more research: A desirable improvement of the model would be predictions for periods longer than 24 hours ahead, still maintaining a high test accuracy. Further perspectives of using machine learning for indoor environmental forecasting could be for indoor air pollution, or energy consumption due to climate control. This requires, however, more data to be collected, in order to get the basis for building valid machine-learning models of sufficient test accuracy.
The investigation and conservation of the Vienna Genesis, a Late Antique manuscript on purple parchment, included the study of parchment production and purple dyeing in the sixth century. The process of parchment making and of purple dyeing was recreated and compared with the Vienna Genesis and other manuscripts from the sixth and eighth centuries. Parchment made from the hides of young lambs and dyed with orchil resembled the folios of the Vienna Genesis. The results of material analysis and the study of parchment technology influenced decisions for the conservation and storage of the manuscript. Fragile areas of ink and parchment were stabilised with strips of adhesive coated Japanese tissue paper. The single folios are stored in folders of Japanese paper and museum matboard within a sink mat.
This article focuses on research into two ways of repairing holes found on parchment of Late Antique manuscripts. Their appearance and the reasons for these repairs are analysed and illustrated using the example of the Vienna Dioscorides, a Byzantine manuscript dated to 512. The reconstruction of the manufacturing method of thin Late Antique parchment prepared from lambskins shows clearly that these repairs were an important part of the production process and not subsequent repairs. Conservation of parchment may in some cases have a serious effect on the perception of this important technological evidence.
The Digital Preservation Storage Criteria (hereafter, the Criteria) grew out of a community discussion at the 12th International Conference on Digital Preservation (iPRES 2015) on the evolving landscape of digital preservation storage approaches. A Working Group convened to develop guidance for organizations that either use or provide digital preservation storage. The first version of the Criteria was presented at an iPRES 2016 workshop and outlined the Working Group’s preliminary results and sought feedback. The Working Group has shared iterative versions over the last three years that have been informed by community feedback gathered through conference sessions, online review and a survey. Possible uses of the Criteria include helping organizations to develop requirements for their digital preservation storage, evaluating digital preservation storage solutions, raising awareness about digital preservation storage, and providing training materials to inform practitioners and others, including a game to demonstrate how the Criteria might be adapted for use. A Usage Guide accompanied the release of the current public iteration of the Criteria to help apply the Criteria. This iteration of the Criteria contains 61 criteria grouped into categories: Content Integrity, Cost Considerations, Flexibility, Information Security, Resilience, Scalability and Performance, Support, and Transparency. The unreleased draft, Version 4, includes an additional category: System Security. In addition to introducing the Criteria and providing background about their evolution, this article highlights new areas of development. First, the preliminary results from an ongoing effort to map the Criteria to relevant international digital preservation and information technology standards are presented. Second, updates to the Usage Guide are discussed. The Usage Guide is a supplement to the Criteria that provides the contextual information necessary for implementing the Criteria and includes sections on considerations such as risk management, cost, understanding independence and ensuring bit safety. Finally, examples of using the Criteria in various contexts are provided to encourage organizations to apply the Criteria to their own situation. The Criteria, the Usage Guide, the Criteria game and related documents are open and available for review at https://osf.io/sjc6u/ , where future additions and updates will be shared.
Parchment is one of the most abundant resources in archives across the world and is a unique time-sensitive material through which centuries of livestock economies, trade and craft can be explored. We examine the impact of structural and chemical modifications during production to δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values in the skin, particularly the removal of cutaneous keratins and lipids and the conversion of amide functional groups into carboxyl groups via alkaline hydrolysis. Through the manufacture of 51 parchment skins (sheep, goat, calf and pig) using both historic and modern manufacturing techniques, we found production resulted in a small enrichment in ¹³C (average +0.12‰) and ¹⁵N (+0.26‰). Our results pave the way for the isotopic analysis of parchment in paleodietary and paleoenvironmental studies for the historic period and establish the acceptable C:N ratios in deamidated collagenous tissues.
The article briefly describes lockdown and reopening of the Royal Danish Library. The corona crisis has emphasised the primacy of the digital. Digital collections and digital services are more important than ever and are foundation stones of the library’s strategy for digital transformation.
The main objective of this article is to reflect upon the integration of digital media in museums by analysing how the digital is imagined and practised in co-design processes at three Danish art museums. With conceptual reference to Flichy’s ‘imaginaire’, we analyse project descriptions written by project participants to obtain funding. The project descriptions represent initial collective visions and reveal imaginations about the capabilities of digital technology. We find that two categories of imaginaires are similar across the cases and we analyse ethnographic data to identify challenges of practicing these. Our findings suggest that challenges mostly emerge in co-design activities or when such activities are not prioritised. The article concludes with reflections on the integration of digital media in museums and the paradoxical nature of the collective project vision as both a necessary driver and constrainer of collaborative museum design.
During the Cold War, the Soviet military carried out an ambitious mapping programme, which resulted in a global series of topographic maps. Although recent advances in scholarship have increased our knowledge of the production of these maps, we still know little about the organization behind them. Based on information from a set of 466 1:50 000-scale Soviet military topographic maps of Denmark, this article examines the Soviet mapping practices related to the large-scale mapping of Denmark. Results show that the Soviet military compiled large-scale topographic maps of Denmark between the 1950s and the 1980s. The maps were initially based on Danish maps, but later the Soviets began to prefer remotesensed data from satellite imagery. This allowed the Soviets to capture information about concealed military infrastructure. The article also shows the potential for using information from the map sheets in a transnational analysis of the Soviet mapping during the Cold War.
Compiled around the turn of the eighth century, in the Wearmouth-Jarrow monastery in Northumbria, the Codex Amiatinus is the oldest complete Vulgate translation that remains extant in one volume. Today, this manuscript remains awe-inspiring, not only because of its size, but also because of the number of animal skins that were necessary for its production. The Codex Amiatinus is now located in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence. It is the only one of the three codices, together known as Ceolfrid’s bibles, to survive. My research combines visual analyses of parchment with knowledge obtained from experimental parchment-making. While scholars have thus far thought that all three of Ceolfrid’s bibles were composed on calf skin, I argue that the Codex Amiatinus’s text block is composed only of goat and sheep skins, while the surviving folia from the other two bibles are made from calf parchment. My study of the parchment of the Codex Amiatinus and the fragments of Ceolfrid’s other bibles raises several questions about the production of these manuscripts: is it possible that the scriptorium of the twin monasteries in Wearmouth-Jarrow was able to produce parchment from local skins in a specific Italian style? Or was the Codex Amiatinus’s parchment imported from Italy?
Anserini is an open-source information retrieval toolkit built around Lucene to facilitate replicable research. In this demonstration, we examine different architectures for Solr integration in order to address two current limitations of the system: the lack of an interactive search interface and support for distributed retrieval. Two architectures are explored: In the first approach, Anserini is used as a frontend to index directly into a running Solr instance. In the second approach, Lucene indexes built directly with Anserini can be copied into a Solr installation and placed under its management. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with each architecture and report the results of a performance evaluation comparing indexing throughput. To illustrate the additional capabilities enabled by Anserini/Solr integration, we present a search interface built using the open-source Blacklight discovery interface.
Biocodicology, the study of the biological information stored in manuscripts, offers the possibility of interrogating manuscripts in novel ways. Exploring the biological data associated to parchment documents will add a deeper level of understanding and interpretation to these invaluable objects, revealing information about book production, livestock economies, handling, conservation and the historic use of the object. As biotechnological methods continue to improve we hope that biocodicology will become a highly relevant discipline in manuscript studies, contributing an additional perspective to the current scholarship. We hope that this review will act as a catalyst enabling further interactions between the heritage science community, manuscript scholars, curators and conservators.
Urbanization has long been recognized as a major driver for landscape change in the vicinity of major cities and urban systems. Studies of the historical process of urbanization often rely on spatial data or statistics and rarely include detailed historical socio-economic data. This research note aims to emphasize the potential of using digitized cultural heritage data in landscape research. The focus is on how a digital transdisciplinary approach, combining an array of large historical data sets, can provide insights into the link between socio-economic factors and landscape changes at the property level. Using the case of a single farm on the outskirts of Copenhagen, we demonstrate how linked historical data can help reconstruct the urbanization process on a local scale and trace the driving forces of landscape change. The results also suggest that there is enormous potential for landscape research to utilize such historical data.
Under uncertainty, firms risk bankruptcy. We ask, in symmetric duopoly with stochastic demand, what happens when one firm minimizes the probability of negative profits while the other maximizes expected profits. When fixed costs are small, a firm can reduce the likelihood of negative profits. However, under a large fixed cost, the chance of negative profits increases upon deviation from a profit-maximizing strategy. In any event, if one firm adopts a safety-first strategy, the other firm has higher profits and a better survival chance by maximizing expected profit. Finally, we compare a profit maximizing to a safety-first strategy in relation to ownership and control in firms.
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