Kirori Mal College
  • Delhi, India
Recent publications
In this article, the problem of reliability inference of multicomponent stress–strength (MSS) from Kumaraswamy-G (Kw-G) family of distributions under progressive first failure censoring is considered. The reliability of MSS is considered when both the stress and strength variables follow Kw-G distributions with different first shape parameters and common second shape parameter. The maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayes estimators of reliability are derived when all the parameters are unknown. Also, the ML, uniformly minimum variance unbiased and Bayes estimators of reliability are derived in case of common shape parameter is known. The Bayesian credible and HPD credible intervals of reliability are developed using Gibbs sampling method. The performance of various estimates developed are discussed by a Monte Carlo simulation study. At last, two real life examples are considered for illustrative purposes.
In the present study, polyaniline (PAni) thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by in-situ chemical polymerization method using simple dip-coating technique and their opto-electrical properties have been studied. The structure of deposited films have been analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques to investigate the effect of deposition times on the conjugation length, polaron/bipolaron concentrations and other molecular structure conformations. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal increase in both the conjugation length and the polaron/bipolaron carrier concentration with increasing deposition time of the prepared PAni films. The optical properties and optical band-gap of the deposited films have been estimated through UV–visible spectroscopy. The optical band-gap of the deposited films has been found to decrease from 3.31 eV to 3.13 eV with increase in deposition time from 1.5 h to 2.5 h, and further it has been increased slightly to 3.19 eV for the PAni film deposited for 3 h. The electrical conductivity of the deposited films has been found to increase with decrease in optical band gap. The parameters estimated from FTIR, Raman, UV–visible spectroscopy and electrical measurements are in good agreement with each other. It has been observed that the optical and electrical properties of the deposited films depend on the conjugation length of PAni. The polymerization time of 2.5 h has been found to be optimum for obtaining PAni thin films with good electrical conductivity and low optical band gap.
Purpose: The current research investigated the development and evaluation of dual drug-loaded nanostructure lipidic carriers (NLCs) of green tea extract and Ribociclib. Method: In silico study were performed to determine the effectiveness of combinational approach. The prepared NLCs were subjected to in vitro drug release, lipolysis, haemolysis and cell line studies to assess their in vivo prospect. Results: In silico study was done to get docking score of EGCG (-8.98) close to Ribociclib (-10.78) in CDK-4 receptors. The prepared NLCs exhibited particle size (175.80 ± 3.51 nm); PDI (0.571 ± 0.012); and %EE [RBO (80.91 ± 1.66%) and GTE 75.98 ± 2.35%)] respectively. MCF-7 cell lines were used to evaluate the MTT assay, cellular uptake and antioxidant (ROS and SOD) of prepared NLCs. In vitro drug release showed the controlled release up to 72 h. In vitro lipolysis and in vitro haemolysis studies showed the availability of drugs at absorption sites and the greater in vivo prospects of NLCs respectively. Pharmacokinetic study revealed a 3.63-fold and 1.53-fold increment in RBO and GTE bioavailability in female Wistar rats respectively. Conclusion: The prominent potential of green tea extract and RBO-loaded NLCs in enhancing their therapeutic efficacy for better treatment of breast cancer.
The solid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (s-SNEDDS) is a growing platform for the delivery of drugs via oral route. In the present work, tamoxifen (TAM) was loaded in SNEDDS with resveratrol (RES), which is a potent chemotherapeutic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and P-gp inhibitor for enhancing bioavailability and to obtain synergistic anti-cancer effect against breast cancer. SNEDDS were developed using capmul MCM as oil, Tween 80 as surfactant and transcutol-HP as co-surfactant and optimized by central composite rotatable design. Neusilin US2 concentration was optimized for adsorption of liquid SNEDDS to prepare s-SNEDDS. The developed formulation was characterized and investigated for various in vitro and cell line comparative studies. Optimized TAM-RES-s-SNEDDS showed spherical droplets of a size less than 200 nm. In all in vitro studies, TAM-RES-s-SNEDDS showed significantly improved (p ˂ 0.05) release and permeation across the dialysis membrane and intestinal lumen. Moreover, TAM-RES-s-SNEDDS possessed significantly greater therapeutic efficacy (p < 0.05) and better internalization on the MCF-7 cell line as compared to the conventional formulation. Additionally, oral bioavailability of TAM from SNEDDS was 1.63 folds significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of combination suspension and 4.16 folds significantly higher (p < 0.05) than TAM suspension. Thus, findings suggest that TAM- RES-s-SNEDDS can be the future delivery system that potentially delivers both drugs to cancer cells for better treatment.
Among the various emerging contaminants, pharmaceuticals (PhACs) seem to have adverse effects on the quality of water. Even the smallest concentration of PhACs in ground water and drinking water is harmful to humans and aquatic species. Among all the deaths reported due to COVID-19, the mortality rate was higher for those patients who consumed antibiotics. Consequently, PhAC in water is a serious concern and their removal needs immediate attention. This study has focused on the PhACs' degradation by collaborating photocatalysis with membrane filtration. TiO2-based photocatalytic membrane is an innovative strategy which demonstrates mineralization of PhACs as a safer option. To highlight the same, an emphasis on the preparation and reinforcing properties of TiO2-based nanomembranes has been elaborated in this review. Further, mineralization of antibiotics or cytostatic compounds and their degradation mechanisms are also highlighted using TiO2 assisted membrane photocatalysis. Experimental reactor configurations have been discussed for commercial implementation of photoreactors for PhAC degradation anchored photocatalytic nanomembranes. Challenges and future perspectives are emphasised in order to design a nanomembrane based prototype in future for wastewater management.
In this paper, we define new real wavelets based on the Hartley kernel and Boas transforms. These wavelets have possible application in analyzing both the symmetries of an asymmetric real signal. We give various results to obtain their higher vanishing moments. Finally, we give a sufficient condition under which Hartley-Boas-Like wavelets associated with Riesz projector forms a convolution filter with transfer function vanishing for the positive frequencies.
This article investigates a nonlinear fifth-order partial differential equation (PDE) in two-mode waves. The equation generalizes two-mode Sawada-Kotera (tmSK), two-mode Lax (tmLax), and two-mode Caudrey–Dodd–Gibbon (tmCDG) equations. In 2017, Wazwaz [1] presented three two-mode fifth-order evolutions equations as tmSK, tmLax, and tmCDG equations for the integrable two-mode KdV equation and established solitons up to three-soliton solutions. In light of the research above, we examine a generalized two-mode evolution equation using a logarithmic transformation concerning the equation’s dispersion. It utilizes the simplified technique of the Hirota method to obtain the multiple solitons as a single soliton, two solitons, and three solitons with their interactions. Also, we construct one-lump solutions and their interaction with a soliton and depict the dynamical structures of the obtained solutions for solitons, lump, and their interactions. We show the 3D graphics with their contour plots for the obtained solutions by taking suitable values of the parameters presented in the solutions. These equations simultaneously study the propagation of two-mode waves in the identical direction with different phase velocities, dispersion parameters, and nonlinearity. These equations have applications in several real-life examples, such as gravity-affected waves or gravity-capillary waves, waves in shallow water, propagating waves in fast-mode and the slow-mode with their phase velocity in a strong and weak magnetic field, known as magneto-sound propagation in plasmas.
Boron-doped SnO2 (B:SnO2) has been synthesized via a facile wet chemical method to deal with increasing energy demand and environment-related issues. Powder XRD confirmed the rutile phase of the synthesized B:SnO2 nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping confirmed 1% B doping into SnO2 lattice. A red shift was observed during the analysis of Raman and FTIR spectral data. The bands in FTIR and Raman spectra confirmed the in-plane and bridging oxygen vacancies in SnO2 lattice introduced due to B doping. These nanoparticles showed proficiency in photocatalytic hydrogen generation and degradation of crystal violet (CV) and rhodamine B (RhB) dyes. The degradation of CV and RhB dyes in the presence of B:SnO2 NPs and ethane-1,2-diaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) was found to be 83 and ~ 100%, respectively. To escalate the efficiency of dye degradation, the experiment was performed with different sacrificial agents (EDTA, methanol, and triethanolamine). The maximum hydrogen production rate (63.6184 µmol g⁻¹ h⁻¹) was observed for B:SnO2 along with Pd as co-catalyst, and methanol and EDTA solution as sacrificial agents.
Background Mental stresses and adoption of poor coping strategies can be a cause of suicidal behavior in medical students. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of suicidal behavior, and effects of the components of coping strategies on suicidal behavior among medical students Methodology An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students of a college located in North India for a period of 2 months from February to March 2021. A total of 531 study participants (calculated sample size) were selected, and then allocated proportionally to each academic year, both through stratified random sampling technique. Then, the participants were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic characteristics, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R), and coping inventory. A pretest was done to modify the coping inventory and then exploratory factor analysis was performed on it to classify the components of coping strategies. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors and their association with suicidal behavior. Results A total of 104 (19.6%) respondents had reported SBQ-R cutoff score > 7 and had suicidal behavior. The rate of lifetime suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt was 20.3, 10.3, and 2.3%, respectively, among medical students, with 1-year prevalence of suicidal ideation at 33%. The mean age of the participants was 21.26 years (standard deviation = 1.99). The identified risk factors significantly associated with higher suicidal behavior were depression (odds ratio [OR] = 9.6), dissatisfaction with academic performances (OR = 4.9), and coping with mental disengagement (OR = 4.6), while coping with supportive strategies (OR = 0.57) was investigated as a preventive factor for the suicidal behavior. Conclusion The prevalence of suicidal behavior is found to be highly alarming, revealing that depression and poor coping strategies are risk factors among medical students. The analysis recommends that quantification of the problems, treatment at an early stage, and proactive student counseling to help them embrace the appropriate coping strategies, should be the first steps in prevention of suicidal behavior.
A bionanocomposite comprising of magnetic chitosan doped with algae isolated from native habitat was fabricated and utilized as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of hazardous azo dyes, namely, Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 28 (DR28). The algal doped magnetic chitosan ([email protected]) was comprehensively characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDAX), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). On the sorption of dyes, the influence of various process variables such as pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature, and initial dyes concentration were addressed. The adsorbent demonstrated maximal removal of DR31 and DR28 at pH 5 and 3, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity of DR31 and DR28 was observed at [email protected] dose of 0.6 g L⁻¹ and 7 g L⁻¹ in 10 and 20 min, respectively. The Redlich Peterson isotherm model was shown to be appropriate for dye adsorption, indicating monolayer coverage of the dyes on the adsorbent surface (R² > 0.99). The adsorption process followed pseudo-second-order kinetics (R² > 0.99). Based on 320 experimental datasets from batch studies and interpolated data, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were utilized to estimate dye elimination (percent). A number of parameters were calculated to validate the model's applicability. The [email protected] was proven to be a useful adsorbent for eliminating toxic and harmful azo dyes from aqueous solutions.
Tissue engineering is a research domain that deals with the growth of various kinds of tissues with the help of synthetic composites. With the culmination of nanotechnology and bioengineering, tissue engineering has emerged as an exciting domain. Recent literature describes its various applications in biomedical and biological sciences, such as facilitating the growth of tissue and organs, gene delivery, biosensor-based detection, etc. It deals with the development of biomimetics to repair, restore, maintain and amplify or strengthen several biological functions at the level of tissue and organs. Herein, the synthesis of nanocomposites based on polymers, along with their classification as conductive hydrogels and bioscaffolds, is comprehensively discussed. Furthermore, their implementation in numerous tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications is also described. The limitations of tissue engineering are also discussed here. The present review highlights and summarizes the latest progress in the tissue engineering domain directed at functionalized nanomaterials.
Biosynthesis of nanostructured materials is an arising feature of the interdisciplinary relationship between nanotechnology and biotechnology and acquiring consideration because of developing interest to foster ecologically favorable innovations in material preparation. In the present study, we synthesized an environmentally friendly and green method for the synthesis of gold/silver bimetallic nanostructure using Eichhornia crassipes leaf extract as reducing and capping agent. Au/Ag nanostructures were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and power X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy images also confirmed the formation of Au/Ag nanostructures. Antibacterial activity of Au/Ag nanostructures was studied and it has been found that Ag/Au nanostructure at 100 µM concentration significantly inhibited the bacterial growth of Escherichia coli bacteria. Moreover, the Hoechst 33342 staining method was used to study the effect of Ag/Au nanostructure particles on the morphological changes in breast cancer cell (MDA-MB-231) nucleus. Staining of the Ag/Au nanostructure particle–treated MDA-MB-231 cells (4 h treatments) showed the appearance of emblematic features of apoptosis such as cell membrane blabbing and shrinkage. Graphical Abstract
Polyaniline (PAni) thin film has been synthesized using chemical oxidation route to be used as highly sensitive and selective ammonia (NH3) sensors. In situ dip-coating chemical polymerization method has been used to grow PAni thin films on glass substrates. The morphological and structural properties of deposited thin film have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy techniques. Raman and FTIR analysis confirm the successful growth of PAni with long-chain conjugation, whereas SEM micrograph reveals the growth of nanofibrous structured polyaniline. An amorphous structure of the prepared polyaniline with perpendicular periodicity of the conjugated polymer chains has been observed through XRD analysis. The ammonia gas sensing properties, in terms of change in electrical resistance, of the prepared thin film sensor have been investigated at room temperature for different concentrations (25–150 ppm) of ammonia. The deposited film has sensitivity as high as 245% and selectivity (%) of ~ 67% towards ammonia gas (at 150 ppm). The gas sensing response of the deposited film is found to be increased with increasing concentration of ammonia and the observed behaviour is well corroborated with modified Freundlich’s sensitivity versus chemical concentration relation. The effect of humidity on the sensing response and other parameters associated with the figure of merits of sensor like response time, recovery time, selectivity, stability etc. have also been studied. The compensation of charge carriers, i.e. polarons and bipolarons, under the electron donating ammonia gas is considered to be the mechanism of gas sensing for the deposited PAni film. The synthesized PAni thin film sensor with low cost, high sensitivity, selectivity and durability can be utilized for the development of industrial ammonia sensor.
The aim of this article is to present a novel method for constructing wavelet frames on locally compact Abelian (LCA) groups by employing the frame multiresolution analysis (FMRA) structure of L2(G). The objective is accomplished in two steps: firstly, we show that there always exist a pair of functions ψ1 and ψ2 in the detailed subspace W0 of an FMRA such that their translates constitute a frame for W0, and in general, {DjTλψℓ:j∈Z,λ∈Λ,ℓ=1,2} forms a frame for L2(G). Secondly, we establish sufficient conditions for an FMRA on LCA groups to acknowledge that a single function ψ∈W0 can generate a frame for W0. Nevertheless, the underlying procedure is demonstrated via some illustrative examples.
Soil functions as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals, and humans. Soil is not an inert medium, but it contains living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and other microbes that are foundation of an elegant symbiotic ecosystem. The majority of plants live in close association with the diversity of soil microorganisms. They play an essential role in establishing symbiotic associations and thereby contributing to the growth of plant and indeed help in maintaining soil health. In the rhizosphere, a myriad of plant–microbe interactions occurs; therefore, the microorganisms that inhabit the rhizosphere are of great significance. Among a variety of soil microorganisms, the microbes such as rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play very significant role in facilitating nutrient supply to their host plants and improve soil fertility. The use of plant materials in soil works as a conditioner and influences the carbon, phosphorus, and nitrogen cycles in soil–plant system. The process of mineralization in the soil contributes to the circulation of these nutrients, which is actually achieved by the action of saprophytic and pathogenic microorganisms. Shrinking cultivable land coupled with increasing population has created an increasing and immediate demand for new technologies. In recent era, nanofertilizers are a booming field. Nanotechnology acts as driver for modern-day smart and efficient practice. They are also helping in the maintenance of soil nutrients, stimulate plant growth, and provide resistance to disease. In the present review, a holistic view of the interaction of soil, plant, and microbes, sequestration of minerals, and role of nanotechnology in maintaining the soil health have been discussed.
In most cancers, tumor hypoxia downregulates the expression of C‐C motif chemokine 2 (CCL2), and this downregulation has been implicated in monocyte infiltration and tumor progression; however, the molecular mechanism is yet not clear. We compared non‐cancerous and lung‐adenocarcinoma human samples for hypoxia‐inducible factor 1‐alpha (HIF‐1A), microRNA‐210‐3p (mir‐210‐3p) and CCL2 levels. Mechanistic studies were performed on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and 3D tumor spheroids to understand the role of hypoxia‐induced miR‐210‐3p in the regulation of CCL2 expression and macrophage polarization. HIF‐1 A stabilization increases miR‐210‐3p levels in lung adenocarcinoma and impairs monocyte infiltration by inhibiting CCL2 expression. Mechanistically, miR‐210‐3p directly binds to the 3'untranslated region (UTR) of CCL2 mRNA and silences it. Suppressing miR‐210‐3p substantially downregulates the effect of hypoxia on CCL2 expression. Monocyte migration is significantly hampered in miR‐210‐3p mimic‐transfected HIF‐1A silenced cancer cells. In contrast, inhibition of miR‐210‐3p in HIF‐1A‐overexpressed cells markedly restored monocyte migration, highlighting a direct link between miR‐210‐3p level and tumor monocyte burden. Moreover, miR‐210‐3p inhibition in 3D tumor spheroids promotes monocyte recruitment and skewing towards an anti‐tumor M1 phenotype. Anti‐hsa‐miR‐210‐3p‐locked nucleic acid (LNA) delivery in a lung tumor xenograft zebrafish model caused tumor regression, suggesting that miR‐210‐3p could be a promising target for immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies against lung adenocarcinoma.
Electromagnetic radiation pollution is a severe problem in the modern world, which is not only a great nuisance for electronic devices but also for human beings. Rectification of this problem is a key interest of researchers as well as technologists. In light of this, in the present work, pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-doped polyaniline nanocomposites are chemically prepared. The molecular bonding and topological changes observed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy studies are correlated with electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding properties of chemically prepared nanocomposites. The EMI blocking/shielding efficiency of the synthesized nanocomposites is measured using a vector network analyzer in X-band (8.2–12.4 GHz frequency) mode, and excellent shielding effectiveness is observed. The total shielding efficiency of pure polyaniline is ∼26 dB, and is greatly enhanced to 48 dB with the inclusion of 8 wt% MWCNTs in polyaniline. Such a high value of shielding effectiveness of the nanocomposites leads to blocking of more than 99% of the electromagnetic radiations and protects the electronic devices from interference. The observed value (∼48 dB) of shielding effectiveness for the nanocomposites is much greater than the commercial requirement of about 30 dB.
Heterogeneity is a characteristic feature of solid tumors. Intra-tumor heterogeneity includes phenotypic diversity, epigenetic abnormalities, cell proliferation, and plasticity that eventually drives disease progression. Studying tumor heterogeneity in 2D culture is challenging as it cannot simulate the microenvironmental features, such as hypoxia, nutrient unavailability, and cell-ECM interactions. We propose the development of multicellular (tri-culture) 3D spheroids using a hanging drop method to study the non-tumorigenic (BEAS-2B) vs. tumorigenic NSCLC (A549/NCI-H460)cells’ interaction with lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and monocytes (THP-1). Unlike the non-tumorigenic model, the tumorigenic 3D spheroids show significant induction of cell proliferation, hypoxia, pluripotency markers, notable activation of cancer-associated fibroblasts, and tumor-associated macrophages. CD68+ macrophages isolated from tumorigenic spheroids exhibited profound induction of phenotypic endothelial characteristics. The results are zebrafish tumor xenograft model and by using human patient samples. This multicellular 3D tumor model is a promising tool to study tumor-stroma interaction and cellular plasticity, targeting tumor heterogeneity, and facilitating cancer therapy success against NSCLC.
The appearance of Hindu gods was an essential feature of various indigenous Indian art tradition. The rise of hybrid Indo-Western art schools, notably Patnakalam heralded a fundamental shift in the way gods appeared in art and the meaning their iconography carried. This may be understood as one of the ways in which a kind of modernity took shape in nineteenth century Indian art.
Fabrication of n-TiO2/p-Si heterojunction devices for the fast solar-blind self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors has been reported. To produce these devices, n-type TiO2 thin films of thickness 50 nm and 200 nm have been deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering technique on p-type silicon substrates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies reveal the growth of anatase phase of TiO2 and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies confirm the deposition of rod-like nanostructures of TiO2 of length about 10 μm and diameter 1 μm. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the prepared heterojunction devices demonstrate the non-ohmic diode like behavior. The obtained values of ideality factor from I-V characteristics for both the devices are greater than 2, which suggest a trap states assisted space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction of charge transport. The I-V characteristics recorded under the illumination of UV-A radiations (λ ≈ 365 nm), demonstrate the photo-diode like behavior of the fabricated devices. The transient photoresponse of the fabricated devices of thickness 50 nm and 200 nm of TiO2 films, recorded under zero bias conditions are as high as ~795% and 180% respectively. The response and recovery times less than unity suggest the fast photodetection ability of the fabricated devices for the next generation photodetectors.
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168 members
Bipin Singh Koranga
  • Department of Physics
Dr Jai Prakash Chaudhary
  • Department of Chemistry
Reena Saxena
  • Department of Chemistry
Shiv Kumar Kaushik
  • Department of Mathematics
Ishpal Rawal
  • Department of Physics
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Delhi, India