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ABSTRACT: The paper is based on a large qualitative study of ethics, policy and regulation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) science in Iran. This case study in five academic research centres used semi-structured interviews to examine in depth the views of stem cell scientists, embryologists and ethics committee members on hESC research policy in this Shia Muslim country. Although Iran's policy approach has been considered 'intermediate', what is described here seems to be a 'more flexible' policy on hESC science. This article describes three arguments to explain why Iran has shaped such a policy. These are: (1) a flexibility of the Shia tradition has allowed for hESC science; (2) permissive policy related to other fields of biomedicine, such as new assisted reproductive technologies, facilitated approval of hESC research; and (3) a lack of public debate of bioscience in Iran influences how its hESC research policy is perceived. Based on the empirical data, this paper then expands and refines the conceptual bioethical basis for the co-production of science, policy, and society in Iran. The notion of co-production implies that scientists, policy-makers, and sometimes other societal actors cooperate in the exchange, production, and application of knowledge to make science policy.
Available from: Shereen Hussein
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ABSTRACT: The proportion of older people in Turkey is increasing steadily with a subsequent growth of long-term care (LTC) needs. There is a scarcity of formal care provisions for residential and particularly nonresidential settings. Thus, formal caregiving is not meeting LTC needs nor attracting workers as a labor option. The authors examine the hypothesis that LTC may offer work opportunities for women unfamiliar with caregiving as an occupation, and also examine the need and acceptance of different types of LTC beyond residential care. The authors evaluate an innovative project introducing these two elements to 76 women in İzmir, Turkey, using an analysis framework that incorporates factors related to applications and progression; management assessment; trainees' self-assessment reflecting on their views on aging; and older people's perception of the experience and its impact on their well-being. Trainees reported a major positive shift in their attitudes toward working in LTC and toward the aging process. Users reported discovering a new dimension to care, which directly affected their quality of life. Overall, this community-based initiative appeared effective in enhancing the awareness of the concept of adult day centers providing a social model of care, and appears promising in addressing the growing need for formal LTC in Turkey.
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