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    ABSTRACT: Previous research has described distinctive features for anxious and nonanxious forms of major depression. The concept of "mixed anxiety depression disorder" (MADD) refers to a milder degree of the anxious form of depression, since the depressive symptoms fall short of the number required for a diagnosis of major depression. It is argued that this can be thought of as a subclinical form of anxious depression, rather than a separate disorder in its own right. In view of its substantial prevalence in general medical settings, its associated disability and its public health importance, it deserves to be recognized, and seen as being continuous with the more severe forms of anxious depression. It will therefore be included in the Field Trials of the version of the ICD-11 (where ICD is the International Classification of Disease) intended for primary care. It is argued that current anxiety, depression (without anxiety), and anxious depression would cover most of the psychologically distressed patients seen in general medical settings, using a pseudodimensional system.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · Depression and Anxiety
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of implementation is insufficiently considered in clinical guideline development, leading to human and financial resource wastage. To develop (a) an empirically based standardised measure of the feasibility of complex interventions for use within mental health services and (b) reporting guidelines to facilitate feasibility assessment. A focused narrative review of studies assessing implementation blocks and enablers was conducted with thematic analysis and vote counting used to determine candidate items for the measure. Twenty purposively sampled studies (15 trial reports, 5 protocols) were included in the psychometric evaluation, spanning different interventions types. Cohen's kappa (κ) was calculated for interrater reliability and test-retest reliability. In total, 95 influences on implementation were identified from 299 references. The final measure - Structured Assessment of FEasibility (SAFE) - comprises 16 items rated on a Likert scale. There was excellent interrater (κ = 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.89) and test-retest reliability (κ = 0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.93). Cost information and training time were the two influences least likely to be reported in intervention papers. The SAFE reporting guidelines include 16 items organised into three categories (intervention, resource consequences, evaluation). A novel approach to evaluating interventions, SAFE supplements efficacy and health economic evidence. The SAFE reporting guidelines will allow feasibility of an intervention to be systematically assessed.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science
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    ABSTRACT: There is a well-established link between physical activity and psychological wellbeing, but less evidence on whether it can increase comfort in disclosure of mental health problems and help to reduce the perceived stigma of mental illness. To investigate whether exercise projects, funded by the time to change anti-stigma programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination in England, can improve (1) wellbeing, (2) participation in physical activity, (3) readiness to disclose mental health problems or (4) perceived reduction in levels of stigma and discrimination. Participants of exercise projects run in routine community settings by local Mind and Rethink Mental Illness associations completed the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) and questions addressing the other three outcomes at baseline and three month follow-up (N = 2663 baseline; N = 531 three month follow-up). There was significant improvement at three months on the WEMWBS (t(386) = −7.64, p
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Journal of Mental Health
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