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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial ATP-dependent K channel (mitoKATP) has been shown to play a role in cellular protection against apoptosis, or programmed cell death. This channel has been identified and characterized in a number of cell and tissue types but to date the possible existence of mitoKATP in osteoblastic cells has not been investigated. The aim of this investigation was to establish whether the mitochondria of human osteosarcoma-derived osteoblasts (SaOS-2 cells) contain the putative mitoKATP subunits Kir6.1 and Kir6.2. Ultrathin sections of SaOS-2 cells were prepared for transmission electron microscopy using an adaptation of the Tokuyasu method, and immunolabelled using goat anti-Kir6.1 or anti-Kir6.2 antisera as the primary label, and a 10nm colloidal gold-conjugated donkey anti-goat secondary antibody. The suitability of the antisera and the immunostaining protocol were confirmed by using a sample of rat cardiac muscle as a positive control. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that SaOS-2 cells contain Kir6.2 but not Kir6.1, and that Kir6.2 is present in the mitochondria, but in extremely low abundance. These findings suggest that human osteoblast-like cells might contain mitoKATP channels in which Kir6.2 is the pore-forming subunit, although it appears that these channels are likely to be present in extremely low abundance.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition)
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    ABSTRACT: The invasive blood stage of malaria parasites, merozoites, are complex entities specialized for the capture and entry of red blood cells. Their potential for vaccination and other anti-malaria strategies have attracted much research attention over the last 40 years, and there is now a considerable body of data relating to their biology. In this article some of the major advances over this period and remaining challenges are reviewed.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Parasitology
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    ABSTRACT: Four megaspore genera: Cystosporites, Rotatisporites, Zonalessporites, and Valvisisporites were isolated from palaeokarst fill deposits of early Middle Pennsylvanian age, hosted within Ordovician limestones at Central Quarry in Central, Kendall County, Illinois, U.S.A. Five uncompacted megaspore species were identified and studied using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). The species Valvisisporitessculptus Bhardwaj is emended based on improved morphological and new ultrastructural data. The genus Pseudovalvisisporites Lachkar is recognized as a junior synonym of Valvisisporites. The ontogenetic development of aborted and functional Cystosporitesdiabolicus megaspores is investigated and the timing of sporopollenin deposition in both the exine and massa is reported. In Carboniferous megaspores, the importance of detailed investigation of the periapertural region is emphasized by the discovery of fusiform lamellate thickenings in Valvisisporites and Rotatisporites. The taxonomic and systematic importance of these features are considered in light of the otherwise highly conserved ultrastructure that is recognized in many lycopsid megaspores of this age.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology
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