In this 13th annual installment of the annual ‘Antibodies to Watch’ article series, we discuss key events in commercial antibody therapeutics development that occurred in 2021 and forecast events that might occur in 2022. Regulatory review of antibody therapeutics that target the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus proceeded at an unprecedented pace in 2021, resulting in both emergency use authorizations and full approvals for sotrovimab, regdanvimab, REGEN-COV2, as well as others, in numerous countries. As of November 1, a total of 11 antibody therapeutics had been granted first approvals in either the United States or European Union in 2021 (evinacumab, dostarlimab loncastuximab tesirine, amivantamab, aducanumab, tralokinumab, anifrolumab, bimekizumab, tisotumab vedotin, regdanvimab, REGEN-COV2). The first global approvals of seven products, however, were granted elsewhere, including Japan (pabinafusp alfa), China (disitamab vedotin, penpulimab, zimberelimab), Australia (sotrovimab, REGEN-COV2), or the Republic of Korea (regdanvimab). Globally, at least 27 novel antibody therapeutics are undergoing review by regulatory agencies. First actions by the Food and Drug Administration on the biologics license applications for faricimab, sutimlimab, tebentafusp, relatlimab, sintilimab, ublituximab and tezepelumab are expected in the first quarter of 2022. Finally, our data show that, with antibodies for COVID-19 excluded, the late-stage commercial clinical pipeline of antibody therapeutics grew by over 30% in the past year. Of those in late-stage development, marketing applications for at least 22 may occur by the end of 2022.
Based on research from previous pandemics, studies of critical care survivors, and emerging COVID-19 data, we estimate that up to 30% of survivors of severe COVID will develop PTSD. PTSD is frequently undetected across primary and secondary care settings and the psychological needs of survivors may be overshadowed by a focus on physical recovery. Delayed PTSD diagnosis is associated with poor outcomes. There is a clear case for survivors of severe COVID to be systematically screened for PTSD, and those that develop PTSD should receive timely access to evidence-based treatment for PTSD and other mental health problems by multidisciplinary teams.
Lung tumor-infiltrating neutrophils are known to support growth and dissemination of cancer cells and to suppress T cell responses. However, the precise impact of tissue neutrophils on programming and differentiation of anticancer CD8 T cells in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we identified cancer cell-autonomous secretion of CXCL5 as sufficient to drive infiltration of mature, protumorigenic neutrophils in a mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Consistently, CXCL5 transcripts correlate with neutrophil density and poor prognosis in a large human lung adenocarcinoma compendium. CXCL5 genetic deletion, unlike antibody-mediated depletion, completely and selectively prevented neutrophils accumulation in lung tissues. Depletion of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils promoted expansion of tumor-specific CD8 T cells, differentiation into effector cells and acquisition of cytolytic functions. Transfer of effector CD8 T cells into neutrophil-rich tumors, inhibited IFN-ϒ production, indicating active suppression of effector functions. Importantly, blocking neutrophils infiltration in the lung, overcame resistance to checkpoint blockade. Hence, this study demonstrates that neutrophils curb acquisition of cytolytic functions in lung tumor tissues and suggests targeting of CXCL5 as a strategy to restore anti-tumoral T cell functions.
Background: Veterinary professionals (VPs) are often exposed to distressing and ethically challenging events in their line of work, yet little is known about whether they may experience moral injury and the impact potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) may have on their wellbeing. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between PMIEs and the mental health outcomes of U.K. VPs. Method: Assessments of PMIE exposure and self-report measures of common mental disorders were administered using an anonymous online questionnaire to 90 U.K. VPs between December 2020 and May 2021. Results: Exposure to PMIEs was reported by almost all VPs (89.0%), with acts of omission most frequently reported. Experiences of PMIEs were significantly associated with symptoms of PTSD (p < 0.01) and experiencing a betrayal event was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms (p<0.05). However, there was no significant association found between PMIE exposure and alcohol misuse or CMD (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides some of the first evidence that experiences of moral injury are significantly associated with adverse mental health outcomes in U.K. VPs. Future work is needed to design effective pathways for prevention and intervention for VPs exposed to highly challenging events. Highlights: U.K. veterinary professionals were found to experience moral injury.Experiences of moral injury were significantly associated with symptoms of PTSD.
The paper provides insights into the mental health consequences of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Central, Eastern, Nordic, Southern, and Western subregions of Europe, represented by five member countries of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS). On the basis of the existing national research and experiences in these countries, we propose five lessons learned. (1) There is no evidence of a mental health pandemic so far in the countries in focus. No increase in severe mental disorders but some increase in the symptoms of common mental health disorders are observable. More high-quality longitudinal studies are needed to understand the mental health burden of the pandemic. (2) The pandemic affects countries (including the mental health situation) differently, depending on the level of the exposure, management policies, pre-pandemic structural characteristics, and healthcare resources. (3) The pandemic affects people differently: the exposure severity to pandemic-related stressors differs between individuals, as well as individual resources to cope with these stressors. There are winners and losers as well as identifiable at-risk groups that need particular attention. (4) Besides the negative consequences, the pandemic has had a positive impact. The rapidly applied innovations within the system of healthcare responses provide a window of opportunity for positive changes in mental healthcare policies, strategies, and practices. The increased focus on mental health during the pandemic may contribute to the prioritization of mental health issues at policy-making and organizational levels and may reduce stigma. (5) A stress- and trauma-informed response to COVID-19 is required. The European community of psychotraumatologists under the leadership of ESTSS plays an important role in promoting stress- and trauma-informed healthcare and policies of pandemic management. Based on the lessons learned, we propose a stepped-care public mental health model for the prevention of adverse mental health outcomes during pandemics. Highlights: Population mental health is affected differently in the COVID-19 pandemic: there are winners and losers, as well as identifiable at-risk groups that need particular attention.A stress- and trauma-informed public mental health stepped-care model can address pandemic-related mental health burden in a systematic way.
B cells are emerging as key players of anti-tumor adaptive immune responses. We investigated regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokine-expressing B cells in patients with melanoma by flow cytometric intracellular cytokine, CyTOF, transcriptomic, immunofluorescence, single-cell RNA-seq, and B:T cell co-culture analyses. We found enhanced circulating regulatory (TGF-β+ and PD-L1+) and reduced pro-inflammatory TNF-α+ B cell populations in patients compared with healthy volunteers (HVs), including lower IFN-γ+:IL-4+ and higher TGF-β+:TNF-α+ B cell ratios in patients. TGF-β-expressing B cells in the melanoma tumor microenvironment assembled in clusters and interacted with T cells via lymphoid recruitment (SELL, CXCL13, CCL4, CD74) signals and with Tregs via CD47:SIRP-γ, and FOXP3-promoting Galectin-9:CD44. While reduced in tumors compared to blood, TNF-α-expressing B cells engaged in crosstalk with Tregs via TNF-α signaling and the ICOS/ICOSL axis. Patient-derived B cells promoted FOXP3+ Treg differentiation in a TGF-β-dependent manner, while sustaining expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α by autologous T-helper cells and promoting T-helper cell proliferation ex vivo, an effect further enhanced with anti-PD-1 checkpoint blockade. Our findings reveal cytokine-expressing B cell compartments skewed toward regulatory phenotypes in patient circulation and melanoma lesions, intratumor spatial localization, and bidirectional crosstalk between B and T cell subsets with immunosuppressive attributes.
Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear. Methods Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes. Results Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions. Conclusion This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
Background Although prior reports have evaluated the clinical and cost impacts of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for low-to-intermediate-risk patients with suspected significant coronary artery disease (CAD), the cost-effectiveness of CMR compared to relevant comparators remains poorly understood. We aimed to summarize the cost-effectiveness literature on CMR for CAD and create a cost-effectiveness calculator, useable worldwide, to approximate the cost-per-quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) of CMR and relevant comparators with context-specific patient-level and system-level inputs. Methods We searched the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and PubMed for cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year-saved studies of CMR to detect significant CAD. We also developed a linear regression meta-model (CMR Cost-Effectiveness Calculator) based on a larger CMR cost-effectiveness simulation model that can approximate CMR lifetime discount cost, QALY, and cost effectiveness compared to relevant comparators [such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)] or invasive coronary angiography. Results CMR was cost-effective for evaluation of significant CAD (either health-improving and cost saving or having a cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year result lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold) versus its relevant comparator in 10 out of 15 studies, with 3 studies reporting uncertain cost effectiveness, and 2 studies showing CCTA was optimal. Our cost-effectiveness calculator showed that CCTA was not cost-effective in the US compared to CMR when the most recent publications on imaging performance were included in the model. Conclusions Based on current world-wide evidence in the literature, CMR usually represents a cost-effective option compared to relevant comparators to assess for significant CAD.
Background In the simulation community, colleagues who are no longer clinically practicing were often proximal to the COVID-19 response, not working in the frontlines of patient care. At the same time, their work as simulationists changed dramatically or was halted. This research explored the experiences of those simulationists who have clinical backgrounds but did not provide direct patient care during the initial pandemic response. The aim of this study was to allow those simulationists to share and have their stories heard. Methods This qualitative research used a narrative approach to answer the research question: What were the experiences of those in the simulation community who did not contribute to the frontline patient care response during the early stages of the pandemic? A semi-structured questionnaire aimed at eliciting a story was disseminated through online simulation discussion boards. Data was collected through PHONIC with options to type or speak responses. Responses were analyzed using an inductive analytical process to identify themes or patterns in the narratives. Results Thirty-six respondents completed the survey between August 1, 2020 and November 30, 2020. Narrative arcs were identified that illustrated the events, actions, thoughts and feelings representative of experiences shared by many simulationists. Two major themes emerged: Challenges and Opportunities. Challenges included feelings of guilt; frustration; overwhelmed, stressed and exhausted; being away from the action, being unused and underappreciated. Opportunities included leadership (evolution and innovation), personal development, and being a part of something. Conclusions The findings reflect a snapshot in time of how simulation was viewed and used in the world during a pandemic through the personal stories of simulationists with clinical backgrounds who did not provide direct patient care. Sharing these narratives may inform future simulation development; however, it is vitally important that the emotions are recognized and acknowledged. Managers should ensure mental health resources and support are available to all staff, including those not deployed to the frontline.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling mental illness that can be divided into frequent primary and rarer organic secondary forms. Its association with secondary autoimmune triggers was introduced through the discovery of Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and Pediatric Acute onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS). Autoimmune encephalitis and systemic autoimmune diseases or other autoimmune brain diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, have also been reported to sometimes present with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS). Subgroups of patients with OCD show elevated proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies against targets that include the basal ganglia. In this conceptual review paper, the clinical manifestations, pathophysiological considerations, diagnostic investigations, and treatment approaches of immune-related secondary OCD are summarized. The novel concept of “autoimmune OCD” is proposed for a small subgroup of OCD patients, and clinical signs based on the PANDAS/PANS criteria and from recent experience with autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune psychosis are suggested. Red flag signs for “autoimmune OCD” could include (sub)acute onset, unusual age of onset, atypical presentation of OCS with neuropsychiatric features (e.g., disproportionate cognitive deficits) or accompanying neurological symptoms (e.g., movement disorders), autonomic dysfunction, treatment resistance, associations of symptom onset with infections such as group A streptococcus, comorbid autoimmune diseases or malignancies. Clinical investigations may also reveal alterations such as increased levels of anti-basal ganglia or dopamine receptor antibodies or inflammatory changes in the basal ganglia in neuroimaging. Based on these red flag signs, the criteria for a possible, probable, and definite autoimmune OCD subtype are proposed.
The use of digital tools to measure physiological and behavioural variables of potential relevance to mental health is a growing field sitting at the intersection between computer science, engineering, and clinical science. We summarised the literature on remote measuring technologies, mapping methodological challenges and threats to reproducibility, and identified leading digital signals for depression. Medical and computer science databases were searched between January 2007 and November 2019. Published studies linking depression and objective behavioural data obtained from smartphone and wearable device sensors in adults with unipolar depression and healthy subjects were included. A descriptive approach was taken to synthesise study methodologies. We included 51 studies and found threats to reproducibility and transparency arising from failure to provide comprehensive descriptions of recruitment strategies, sample information, feature construction and the determination and handling of missing data. The literature is characterised by small sample sizes, short follow-up duration and great variability in the quality of reporting, limiting the interpretability of pooled results. Bivariate analyses show consistency in statistically significant associations between depression and digital features from sleep, physical activity, location, and phone use data. Machine learning models found the predictive value of aggregated features. Given the pitfalls in the combined literature, these results should be taken purely as a starting point for hypothesis generation. Since this research is ultimately aimed at informing clinical practice, we recommend improvements in reporting standards including consideration of generalisability and reproducibility, such as wider diversity of samples, thorough reporting methodology and the reporting of potential bias in studies with numerous features.
The epicardium constitutes an untapped reservoir for cardiac regeneration. Upon heart injury, the adult epicardium re-activates, leading to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration, and differentiation. While interesting mechanistic and therapeutic findings arose from lower vertebrates and rodent models, the introduction of an experimental system representative of large mammals would undoubtedly facilitate translational advancements. Here, we apply innovative protocols to obtain living 3D organotypic epicardial slices from porcine hearts, encompassing the epicardial/myocardial interface. In culture, our slices preserve the in vivo architecture and functionality, presenting a continuous epicardium overlaying a healthy and connected myocardium. Upon thymosin β4 treatment of the slices, the epicardial cells become activated, upregulating epicardial and EMT genes, resulting in epicardial cell mobilization and differentiation into epicardial-derived mesenchymal cells. Our 3D organotypic model enables to investigate the reparative potential of the adult epicardium, offering an advanced tool to explore ex vivo the complex 3D interactions occurring within the native heart environment.
Clinical High Risk for Psychosis (CHR-P) services have been primarily developed to support young people with attenuated symptoms (indicated prevention). No evidence-based appraisal has systematically investigated to what extent these clinics may implement other preventive approaches. PRISMA 2020-compliant systematic review of Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Reviews, and Ovid/PsychINFO, from inception until 14th June 2021, identifying original studies describing public health strategies: (a) service characteristics (configuration of mental health service, outreach, pathways to care); (b) universal interventions (general population); (c) selective interventions targeting CHR-P service-users or family/carers. Public health preventive initiatives were systematically stratified according to core social determinants of mental disorders associated with the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals promoted by the United Nations Member States (UN 2030 SDG) and good mental health outcomes. A total of 66 publications were included, providing data on 13 standalone, 40 integrated, three networks, and six regional or international surveys of CHR-P services across Europe, Asia, Oceania, Africa, North and South America, providing care to >28 M people. CHR-P services implement numerous public health initiatives targeting social and cultural (16 initiatives), economic (seven initiatives), demographic (six initiatives), environmental events (four initiatives) and neighbourhood (three initiatives) UN 2030 SGD determinants of mental disorders. There is additional evidence for CHR-P services promoting good mental health. The main barriers were the lack of resources for expanding public health prevention at a large scale. CHR-P services implement numerous public health prevention initiatives and promotion of good mental health beyond indicated prevention of psychosis.
Background: Whilst cranial autonomic symptoms (CAS) are typically associated with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TAC's), they have also been reported in migraine. Identification and understanding of these symptoms in migraine is important to ensure timely diagnosis and effective management. Methods: Migraineurs seen in a tertiary headache service between 2014 and 2018 (n = 340): cohort one, and a separate cohort of headache patients seen between 2014-May 2021 reporting voice change, or throat swelling, or both, as CAS were selected (n = 64): cohort two. We performed a service evaluation of our records regarding age, sex, diagnosis, headache and CAS frequency and laterality as acquired from the first consultation, during which a detailed headache history is taken by a headache trained physician. Results: Cohort 1: Mean age 43 (range 14-94, SD 15). The most common diagnosis was chronic migraine (78%). Median monthly headache frequency was 26 days (IQR 15-75). At least one CAS was reported in 74%, with a median of two (IQR 0-3). The most common were nasal congestion (32%), lacrimation (31%) and aural fullness (25%). Most patients reported their most common headache as unilateral (80%) and with it strictly unilateral CAS (64%). There was a positive association between headache and CAS laterality (χ21 = 20.7, P < 0.001), with a positive correlation between baseline headache frequency and number of CAS reported (r = 0.11, P = 0.047). Cohort two: mean age 49 (range 23-83, SD 14). Diagnoses were chronic migraine (50%), chronic cluster headache (11%), undifferentiated continuous lateralised headache (9%), SUNCT/SUNA (8%), hemicrania continua (8%), episodic migraine (8%), episodic cluster headache (3%) and trigeminal neuropathies (3%). Most (89%) described trigeminal distribution pain; 25% involving all three divisions. Throat swelling was reported by 54, voice change by 17, and both by 7. The most common CAS reported were lacrimation (n = 47), facial swelling (n = 45) and rhinorrhoea (n = 37). There was significant agreement between the co-reporting of throat swelling (χ21 = 7.59, P = 0.013) and voice change (χ21 = 6.49, P = 0.02) with aural fullness. Conclusions: CAS are common in migraine, are associated with increasing headache frequency and tend to lateralise with headache. Voice change and throat swelling should be recognized as possible parasympathetically-mediated CAS. They may be co-associated and associated with aural fullness, suggesting a broadly somatotopic endophenotype.
Background Current pharmacologic prophylactic strategies for migraine have exhibited limited efficacy, with response rates as low as 40%–50%. In addition to the limited efficacy, the acceptability of those pharmacologic prophylactic strategies were unacceptable. Although noninvasive brain/nerve stimulation strategies may be effective, the evidence has been inconsistent. The aim of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare strategies of noninvasive brain/nerve stimulation for migraine prophylaxis with respect to their effectiveness and acceptability. Methods The PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, ProQuest, ClinicalTrials.gov , ClinicalKey, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were systematically searched to date of June 4th, 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Patients with diagnosis of migraine, either episodic migraine or chronic migraine, were included. All NMA procedures were conducted under the frequentist model. Results Nineteen RCTs were included ( N = 1493; mean age = 38.2 years; 82.0% women). We determined that the high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over C3 yielded the most decreased monthly migraine days among all the interventions [mean difference = − 8.70 days, 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs): − 14.45 to − 2.95 compared to sham/control groups]. Only alternating frequency (2/100 Hz) transcutaneous occipital nerve stimulation (tONS) over the Oz (RR = 0.36, 95%CIs: 0.16 to 0.82) yielded a significantly lower drop-out rate than the sham/control groups did. Conclusions The current study provided a new direction for the design of more methodologically robust and larger RCTs based on the findings of the potentially beneficial effect on migraine prophylaxis in participants with migraine by different noninvasive brain/nerve stimulation, especially the application of rTMS and tONS. Trial registration CRD42021252638. The current study had been approval by the Institutional Review Board of the Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center (TSGHIRB No. B-109-29).
Tuberculosis (TB) primarily affects the lungs, but some of its most devastating clinical consequences arise because of its ability to spread from the lungs to other organs. Extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) constitutes 15–20% of all TB cases. Imaging findings are not always specific and can mimic many diseases; therefore, EPTB should be considered in the differential diagnosis, particularly in patients with immune system disorders (AIDS, patients receiving chemotherapy, etc.) and those in other high-risk groups including people with diabetes. The bacterium's passage to the regional lymph nodes is essential for developing a protective T-cell-mediated immune response, but the bacterium can spread hematologically and via the lymphatic system, leading to extrapulmonary involvement. Diagnosis of EPTB in high-risk patients is made based on suspected clinical and radiological findings, but further positive culture and histopathological confirmation may be required in some instances. Radiological evaluations are critical for diagnosis and crucial in planning the treatment and follow-up. This paper aims to review the typical and atypical imaging features and the differential diagnosis of EPTB.
Cancer therapies with anthracyclines have been shown to induce cardiovascular complications. The aims of this study were to establish an in vitro induced pluripotent stem cell model (iPSC) of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) from patients with an aggressive form of B-cell lymphoma and to examine whether doxorubicin (DOX)-treated ACT-iPSC cardiomyocytes (CM) can recapitulate the clinical features exhibited by patients, and thus help uncover a DOX-dependent pathomechanism. ACT-iPSC CM generated from individuals with CD20⁺ B-cell lymphoma who had received high doses of DOX and suffered cardiac dysfunction were studied and compared to control-iPSC CM from cancer survivors without cardiac symptoms. In cellular studies, ACT-iPSC CM were persistently more susceptible to DOX toxicity including augmented disorganized myofilament structure, changed mitochondrial shape, and increased apoptotic events. Consistently, ACT-iPSC CM and cardiac fibroblasts isolated from fibrotic human ACT myocardium exhibited higher DOX-dependent reactive oxygen species. In functional studies, Ca²⁺ transient amplitude of ACT-iPSC CM was reduced compared to control cells, and diastolic sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ leak was DOX-dependently increased. This could be explained by overactive CaMKIIδ in ACT CM. Together with DOX-dependent augmented proarrhythmic cellular triggers and prolonged action potentials in ACT CM, this suggests a cellular link to arrhythmogenic events and contractile dysfunction especially found in ACT engineered human myocardium. CamKIIδ inhibition prevented proarrhythmic triggers in ACT. In contrast, control CM upregulated SERCA2a expression in a DOX-dependent manner, possibly to avoid heart failure conditions. In conclusion, we developed the first human patient-specific stem cell model of DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction from patients with B-cell lymphoma. Our results suggest that DOX-induced stress resulted in arrhythmogenic events associated with contractile dysfunction and finally in heart failure after persistent stress activation in ACT patients.
While digital technologies like the internet offer new and less cost-intensive ways to seize international opportunities, when it comes to traditional firms selling tangible products, little is known about their use of online channels for servicing foreign markets. This is especially the case for their choice between customized (active) or general (default) forms of corporate internationalization websites (viz. virtual presence modes). Building on the entrepreneurial orientation literature, we propose that firms that are more entrepreneurially orientated are more likely to capture internationalization opportunities with active internationalization websites. We further suggest that the threat of competitive pre-emption will moderate this relationship. Using a sample of Austrian SME exporters, we find support for the positive effect of entrepreneurial orientation on the use of active internationalization websites, but do not find a significant moderating effect of competitive pre-emption. In this way, we add to the growing research on digital internationalization by explaining the circumstances in which traditional firms choose between different internationalization website formats.
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