This study developed a new dual delivery system of naringenin (NRG), a polyphenol, and doxofylline (DOX), a xanthine derivative, as an inhaled microsphere system. In this system, NRG has been first loaded into glyceryl tristearate-based solid lipid nanoparticles (NRG SLN), which were further loaded with DOX into swellable chitosan-tripolyphosphate-based microspheres (NRG SLN DOX sMS). The system was characterised based on particle size, PDI, zeta potential, surface morphology (SEM, AFM, and TEM), solid-state and chemical properties (XRD, IR, and NMR), aerodynamic parameters, drug loading, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release study. The optimised NRG SLN DOX sMS exhibited particle size, zeta potential, and PDI of 2.1 µm, 31.2 mV, and 0.310, respectively; a drug entrapment efficiency > 79%; a drug loading efficiency > 13%; cumulative drug releases of about 78% for DOX and 72% for NRG after 6 and 12 hours, respectively; good swelling and desirable aerodynamic properties. In addition, in vivo studies conducted in mice, a murine model of asthma showed significant reductions in serum bicarbonate and eosinophil counts and improvement in respiratory flow rate, tidal volume, and bronchial wall lining compared with the asthmatic control group. Overall, this novel inhalable dual-delivery system may represent a good alternative for the effective treatment of asthma.
In this study, phycoremediation of textile wastewater (TWW) by freshwater cyanobacterial strains such as sp., Oscillatoria sp. F01 and Oscillatoria sp. F02 was evaluated, and lipids were simultaneously extracted from biomass for biodiesel production. Onset of the study, Phormidium sp. and Oscillatoria sp. F01 has better growth rates, increased biomass production, high chlorophyll content, and efficient nutrient utilization in TWW compared to Oscillatoria sp. F02. Phormidium sp. showed 1.41 g/L dry weight, followed by Oscillatoria sp. F01 with 1.39 g/L and Oscillatoria sp. F02 with 1.02 g/L biomass. Both strains demonstrated their capability to elevate the pH level while reducing TDS and eliminating/reducing several nutrients such as nitrates, nitrites, phosphates, sulphates, sulphides, chlorides, calcium, sodium, and magnesium. Further, the total lipids extracted from the TWW-grown Phormidium sp., Oscillatoria sp. F01 and Oscillatoria sp. F02 was estimated to be 8.20, 13.70 and 11.20 %, respectively, on day 21, which was higher than the lipid content obtained from control cultures. Further, biodiesel produced from the lipids of all strains showed higher levels of C12:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 among all the fatty acids. Therefore, they can potentially offer a valuable source of lipids and diverse fatty acids for high-quality biodiesel production. This integrated system not only offers a solution for TWW treatment but also provides a feedstock for renewable fuel production simultaneously.
The escalating prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in sports necessitates innovative strategies for ACL reconstruction. In this study, we propose a multiphasic bone-ligament-bone (BLB) integrated scaffold as a potential solution. The BLB scaffold comprised two polylactic acid (PLA)/deferoxamine (DFO)@mesoporous hydroxyapatite (MHA) thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) scaffolds bridged by silk fibroin (SF)/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)@Poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) nanofiber yarn braided scaffold. This combination mimics the native architecture of the ACL tissue. The mechanical properties of the BLB scaffolds were determined to be compatible with the human ACL. In vitro experiments demonstrated that CTGF induced the expression of ligament-related genes, while TIPS scaffolds loaded with MHA and DFO enhanced the osteogenic-related gene expression of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and promoted the migration and tubular formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In rabbit models, the BLB scaffold efficiently facilitated ligamentization and graft-bone integration processes by providing bioactive substances. The double delivery of DFO and calcium ions by the BLB scaffold synergistically promoted bone regeneration, while CTGF improved collagen formation and ligament healing. Collectively, the findings indicate that the BLB scaffold exhibits substantial promise for ACL reconstruction. Additional investigation and advancement of this scaffold may yield enhanced results in the management of ACL injuries.
The wire coating method is an engineering development to cover a wire for wadding, motorized forte and ecological protection. In wire coating analysis, moreover, the polymer extruded on the wire is hauled into interior of a die occupied with melted polymer. By considering this significance, the magneto-hydrodynamic flow and heat transmission of Oldroyd-8 constant fluid with suspension of nanoparticles in the wire coating development had been investigated. The fluid with fixed viscosity is considered in porous medium. The flow is conducted with uniform magnetic field. The arising physical governing system is modelled mathematically. The mathematical model is executed by incorporation of thermal radiation and nanoparticles (Embedded in [Formula: see text] nanoparticles). The wire coating is scrutinized mathematically with four cases ([Formula: see text] with constant viscosity and also included in the Reynolds model for constant viscosity. The subsequent flow and heat transmission system were elucidated via the Runge–Kutta technique and the possessions of appropriate governing factors are presented in graphically. The outcome of the current investigation was equated with the previous available outcomes as a specific situation. The results were executed with nanofluid and without nanofluid as well as with positive and negative pressure gradients [Formula: see text]. It is seen that the temperature circulation is augmented due to the upsurge in magnetic parameter M. It is interesting to note that the positive pressure gradient with nanofluid has less momentum distribution compared to rest of the cases. It is also noted that the with negative pressure gradient, the distribution is more compared to positive pressure gradient case.
Cancer is one of the most widespread and severe diseases with a huge mortality rate. In recent years, the second-leading mortality rate of any cancer globally has been breast cancer, which is one of the most common and deadly cancers found in women. Detecting breast cancer in its initial stages simplifies treatment, decreases death risk, and recovers survival rates for patients. The death rate for breast cancer has risen to 0.024 % in some regions. Sensitive and accurate technologies are required for the preclinical detection of BC at an initial stage. Biomarkers play a very crucial role in the early identification as well as diagnosis of women with breast cancer. Currently, a wide variety of cancer biomarkers have been discovered for the diagnosis of cancer. For the identification of these biomarkers from serum or other body fluids at physiological amounts, many detection methods have been developed. In the case of breast cancer, biomarkers are especially helpful in discovering those who are more likely to develop the disease, determining prognosis at the time of initial diagnosis and choosing the best systemic therapy. In this study we have compiled various clinical aspects and signaling pathways associated with protein-based biomarkers and gene-based biomarkers.
Plastic and biomass waste pose a serious environmental risk; thus, herein, we mixed biomass waste with plastic bottle waste (PET) to produce char composite materials for producing a magnetic char composite for better separation when used in water treatment applications. This study also calculated the life cycle environmental impacts of the preparation of adsorbent material for 11 different indicator categories. For 1 functional unit (1 kg of pomace leaves as feedstock), abiotic depletion of fossil fuels and global warming potential were quantified as 7.17 MJ and 0.63 kg CO2 equiv for production of magnetic char composite materials. The magnetic char composite material (MPBC) was then used to remove crystal violet dye from its aqueous solution under various operational parameters. The kinetics and isotherm statistical theories showed that the sorption of CV dye onto MPBC was governed by pseudo-second-order, and Langmuir models, respectively. The quantitative assessment of sorption capacity clarifies that the produced MPBC exhibited an admirable ability of 256.41 mg g-1. Meanwhile, the recyclability of 92.4% of MPBC was demonstrated after 5 adsorption/desorption cycles. Findings from this study will inspire more sustainable and cost-effective production of magnetic sorbents, including those derived from combined plastic and biomass waste streams.
Phytoremediation of lead (Pb) contaminated soil is a green technology to reduce Pb exposure and root exudates-derived organic acids play a vital role in this treatment process. In this study, Pb hyperaccumulator Pelargonium hortorum was chosen to investigate root-induced organic acid secretions and their subsequent role in Pb phytoextraction. In the first step, root exudation of P. hortorum was investigated in hydroponic experiments (0.2X Hoagland solution) under control and Pb stress conditions. Possible chemical interactions between Pb and the observed root exudates were then analyzed using Visual MINTEQ modeling. In the next step, the effects of the exogenous application of organic acids on Pb phytoextraction and soil enzymatic activities were studied in a pot experimental setup. Results indicated significant exudation of malic acid > citric acid > oxalic acid > tartaric acid in root exudates of P. hortorum under 50 mg L−1 Pb. Visual MINTEQ modeling results revealed that organic acids directly affect Pb dissolution in the nutrient solution by modulation of solution pH. Experimental results revealed that malic acid and citric acid significantly increased available Pb contents (7.2– and 6.7–folds) in the soil with 1500 mg kg−1 Pb contamination. Whereas, in shoot and root, the highest increase in Pb concentration was observed with citric acid (2.01–fold) and malic (3.75–fold) supplements, respectively. Overall, Pb uptake was notably higher when malic acid was applied (2.8–fold) compared to other organic acids, followed by citric acid (2.7–fold). In the case of soil enzymatic activities, oxalic acid significantly improved dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and microbial biomass by 1.6–, 1.4– and 1.3–folds, respectively. The organic acids were successful in reviving enzyme activity in Pb-contaminated soil, and might thus be used for long-term soil regeneration.
The economic production of cellulase enzymes for various industrial applications is one of the major research areas. A number of broad industrial applications, for example, in cellulosic biomass hydrolysis for simple sugars such as glucose and subsequent biofuel production, make these enzyme systems the third most demanding enzymes. Nevertheless, due to their production on commercial substrates, cellulases fall into the category of costly enzymes. Therefore, the goal of the present work is to evaluate the enhancement of cellulase production and its utilization in the enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass using low-cost cellulosic substrate, which is abundant and widely available. In this context, waste biomasses of water hyacinth (WH), including leaves and stems, have been used as feedstock to produce cellulases via solid-state fermentation (SSF) in the current study, which improves its production as well as activity. Furthermore, the impact of process parameters like temperature and pH has been investigated for improved cellulase production. At optimum concentration using 10 g of feedstock, 22 IU/gds of FP, 92 IU/gds of BGL, and 111 IU/gds of EG have been noticed in day 5 of SSF. Herein, 40 °C has been identified as the optimum temperature for cellulase production, whereas 50-55 °C has been recorded as the optimum reaction temperature for cellulase enzyme activity. Additionally, pH 5.5 has been identified as the optimum pH for cellulase enzyme production, whereas this enzyme was thermally stable (55 °C) at pH 5.0 up to 3.5 h. Further, the cellulosic biomass hydrolysis of WH leaves via an optimized crude enzyme has been performed, and this could release 24.34 g/L of glucose in 24 h of the reaction. The current findings may have potential for developing cellulases for mass-scale production using WH-based waste bioresources for numerous biorefinery applications.
This study aimed to investigate the characterization of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) produced from Cucurbita pepo L. (pumpkin seeds) and their selective cytotoxic effectiveness on human colon cancer cells (HCT 116) and African Green Monkey Kidney, Vero cells. The study also investigated the antioxidant activity of ZnONPs. The study also examined ZnONPs' antioxidant properties. This was motivated by the limited research on the comparative cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on normal and HCT116 cells. The ZnO NPs were characterized using Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Transmission Electron Microscope/Selected Area Electron Diffraction (TEM/SAED), and Scanning Electron Microscope‐Energy Dispersive X‐ray (SEM–EDX) for determination of chemical fingerprinting, heat stability, size, and morphology of the elements, respectively. Based on the results, ZnO NPs from pumpkins were found to be less than 5 μm and agglomerates in nature. Furthermore, the ZnO NPs fingerprinting and SEM–EDX element analysis were similar to previous literature, suggesting the sample was proven as ZnO NPs. The ZnO NPs also stable at a temperature of 380°C indicating that the green material is quite robust at 60–400°C. The cell viability of Vero cells and HCT 116 cell line were measured at two different time points (24 and 48 h) to assess the cytotoxicity effects of ZnO NP on these cells using AlamarBlue assay. Cytotoxic results have shown that ZnO NPs did not inhibit Vero cells but were slightly toxic to cancer cells, with a dose–response curve IC50 = ~409.7 μg/mL. This green synthesis of ZnO NPs was found to be non‐toxic to normal cells but has a slight cytotoxicity effect on HCT 116 cells. A theoretical study used molecular docking to investigate nanoparticle interaction with cyclin‐dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), exploring its mechanism in inhibiting CDK2's role in cancer. Further study should be carried out to determine suitable concentrations for cytotoxicity studies. Additionally, DPPH has a significant antioxidant capacity, with an IC50 of 142.857 μg/mL. Research Highlights Pumpkin seed extracts facilitated a rapid, high‐yielding, and environmentally friendly synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. Spectrophotometric analysis was used to investigate the optical properties, scalability, size, shape, dispersity, and stability of ZnO NPs. The cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs on Vero and HCT 116 cells was assessed, showing no inhibition of Vero cells and cytotoxicity of cancer cells. The DPPH assay was also used to investigate the antioxidant potential of biogenic nanoparticles. A molecular docking study was performed to investigate the interaction of ZnO NPs with CDK2 and to explore the mechanism by which they inhibit CDK2's role in cancer.
The mono- and binuclear azido terpyridine square-planar complexes of ionic formulas, [Pd2(N3)2L]²⁺ and [Pt(N3)L]⁺ (L = 1,4-bis(2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridin-4′yl)benzene), underwent the catalyst-free [3 + 2] cycloaddition coupling with 4,4,4-trifluoro-2-butynoic acid at ambient temperature affording the corresponding triazolate complexes. A mixture of triazolate isomers was generated by these inorganic click reactions. An increase in the solubility of the compounds was achieved by replacing the azido ligand with a triazolato ligand. By calculating the vibrational modes and comparing the total electronic and zero-point energy values, the local minimum structures of the complexes and the nature of the predominant triazolate isomer were verified. The theoretical work was complemented with natural bond analysis to get an insight into the natural charge and electronic arrangement of the metal ion, the hybridization of M–L bonds and strength of M–N bonds.
Objective The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic necessitated alternative methods to ensure the continuity of medical education. Our study explores the efficacy and acceptability of a digital continuous medical education initiative for medical residents during this challenging period. Methods From September to December 2020, 47 out of 60 enrolled trainee doctors participated in this innovative digital Continuous Medical Education (CME) approach. We utilized the Script Concordance Test to bolster clinical reasoning skills. Three simulation scenarios, namely Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), Advanced Life Support (ALS), and European Paediatric Life Support (EPLS), were transformed into interactive online sessions via Zoom™. Participant feedback was also collected through a survey. Results Consistent Script Concordance Testing (SCT) scores among participants indicated the effectiveness of the online training module. Feedback suggested a broad acceptance of this novel training approach. However, discrepancies observed between formative SCT scores, and summative Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQ) assessments highlighted areas for potential refinement. Conclusions Our findings showcase the resilience and adaptability of medical education amidst challenges like the global pandemic. The success of methodologies such as SCT, endorsed by prestigious bodies like the European Resuscitation Council and the American Heart Association, suggests their potential in preparing health care professionals for emergent situations. This research offers valuable insights for shaping future online CME strategies.
Instead of going for complicated and toxic materials (mercury electrodes), we have chosen riboflavin (RF), graphite, and graphene nanoplatelets (15 mg) because these are eco-friendly and efficient materials for the fabrication of electrochemical sensors. The electrochemically prepared poly(riboflavin)/NaOH/graphene-nanoplatelets modified graphite paste electrode (PRFGMGPE) and graphite paste electrode (GPE) properties before and after modification are confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). PRFGMGPE produces upsurge electrochemical reactions with quasi reversibility, but graphene-nanoplatelets modified graphite paste electrode (GMGPE), poly(riboflavin)/NaOH modified graphite paste electrode (PRFMGPE), riboflavin/NaOH/adsorbed/graphene-nanoplatelets modified graphite paste electrode (RFAGMGPE) and GPE shows the low binding capability and current response for rutin (RU). Under calibrated circumstances, PRFGMGPE detects RU in the range from 0.1 to 1.4 µM with an impressive lower detection limit (LOD) of 4.84 × 10⁻⁹ M using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The performance of PRFGMGPE towards RU recognition demonstrates fine binding selectivity and anti-interference features in presence of different organic molecules and metal ions. The real-time RU testing is performed in green tea and blood serum samples with agreeable recoveries by reducing the matrix effect. Moreover, simultaneous interference was also performed with co-existing molecule hydroquinone (HQ) using the DPV technique. Graphical abstract
The detection of fabric defects (FD) has become crucial in the fabric industry; however, it has some limitations due to the complex shapes and various types of FDs. The standard approach is to identify defects using human vision that can support workers to repair minor defects directly. However, the performance of manual detection is decreased slowly with increases in working hours. Consequently, there is a need to develop an automatic inspection system for FDs to improve fabric quality and decrease human work costs and errors. Recently, deep learning (DL) and computer vision (CV) approaches become popular for automated classification and recognition of FDs. Therefore, this study presents a Deer Hunting Optimization with a Deep Learning-Driven Automated Fabric Defect Detection and Classification (DHODL-AFDDC) method. The study aims to design and develop a hyperparameter-tuned DL approach for the automated recognition and classification of FDs. To achieve this, the DHODL-AFDDC method exploits an augmented MobileNetv3 approach for the feature extraction process. Furthermore, the efficiency of the improved MobileNetv3 approach can be boosted by the utilization of a DHO-based hyperparameter tuning process. Moreover, the recognition and classification of FDs take place by employing the bidirectional long-short-term memory (BiLSTM) technique. An extensive set of experiments were conducted to demonstrate the enhanced outcome of the DHODL-AFDDC technique. The stimulation outcomes highlighted the improved performance of the DHODL-AFDDC method compared to recent approaches.
We report the rate of electron transfer reaction of complexes, cis -[M(ED) 2 (DOD) 2 ] ³⁺ (1), cis -[M(DP) 2 (DOD) 2 ] ³⁺ (2), cis -[M(TRE)(DOD) 2 ] ³⁺ (3), cis -[M(bpy) 2 (DOD) 2 ] ³⁺ (4) and cis -[M(PA) 2 (DOD) 2 ] ³⁺ (5) (M:Co, ED: ethylenediamine, TRE: triethylenetetramine, DP: diaminopropane, PA: phenanthroline, C 12 H 25 NH 2 : dodecylamine (DOD) and bpy: bipyridine) and hexacyanoferrate ion in surface active ionic liquids (BMIM)Br were studied at 298–323 K by electronic absorption spectroscopy. Surfactant complexes 4 and 5, which have a higher ETR than complexes 1–3 based on the results obtained, have been explained based on the states of aggregation and hydrophobic transformations between the hydrocarbon portion of the surfactant compounds and (BMIM)Br. As a result, surface-active agent micelles in (BMIM)Br and increase ETR in between the system. The investigation of kinetic statistics outcomes suggest that reduction reaction between surface-active agent Co(III) complexes and hexacyanoferrate occurs via 2 nd order and the ET is proposed as outer sphere. The remarkable increase in the rate for the ETR in (BMIM)Br with increase in the concentration of Co(III) complexes from 1–5. This can be attributing due to the fact those reactants with opposite charges and the amphipilicity of the ligand. The OSET of kinetics have been confirmed by the enthalpy and entropy (Δ S # and Δ H # ) factors, and the isokinetic plots (Δ S # versus Δ H # ) have shown that the reaction’s mechanism does not alter during the (BMIM)Br medium.
Purpose Ticks infestation has a negative impact against human and animal health through blood sucking, transmission of blood-borne diseases and also caused economic losses. Methods In the present study the adulticidal, ovicidal and larvicidal activity of d-limonene nanoemulsion (DLN) were evaluated against two tick species; Rhipicephalus annulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Nanoemulsion form of d-limonene was prepared, and its characteristics were evaluated using a UV spectrophotometer and zeta droplet size measurement. Acetylcholinesterase activity was determined. Results The results revealed signifcant adulticidal efect with low LC50 and LC90 for d-limonene pure form (DL) against both adult tick spp. (R. annulatus and R. sanguineus) ((0.958 and 1.559%) and (2.26 and 3.51%), respectively). DLN LC50 and LC90 values were ((1.277 and 2.396) and (3.97 and 7.28), respectively) against R. annulatus and R. sanguineus, respectively. DL and DLN showed signifcant ovicidal efect against R. sanguineus at high concentrations (10 and 5%). In larval packet test, LC50 and LC90 values of DL were ((1.53 and 2.22%) and (6.81 and 12.07%), respectively) against R. annulatus and R. sanguineus, respectively, while LC50 and LC90 values of DLN were ((6.48 and 11.26%) and (7.82 and 13.59%), respectively) against R. annulatus and R. sanguineus, respectively. Signifcant acetylcholinesterase inhibition percentage was detected for both ticks spp. which treated by DL and DLN. Conclusion Pure DL is more efective than DLN form against R. annulatus and R. sanguineus.
Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease-causing widespread economic loss among farm and domestic animals. Currently, several drugs are available for the control of this disease but resistance has been confirmed for all of them. There is an urgent need, therefore, for the identification of new sources as alternative treatments to control coccidiosis. The present work aimed to study the effect of the Persea americana extract (PAE) as an anti-coccidial, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic modulator during murine intestinal Eimeria papillata infection. A total of 25 male mice were divided into five groups, as follows: Group1: Non-infected-non-treated (negative control), Group2: Non-infected-treated group with PAE (500 mg/kg b.w). Group3: Infected-non-treated (positive control), Group4: Infected-treated group with PAE (500 mg/kg b.w.), and Group5: Infected-treated group with Amprolium (120 mg/kg b.w.). Groups (3–5) were orally inoculated with 1 × 103 sporulated E. papillata oocysts. After 60 min of infection, groups (4 and 5) were treated for 5 consecutive days with the recommended doses of PAE and amprolium. The fact that PAE has an anti-coccidial efficacy against intestinal E. papillata infection in mice has been clarified by the reduction of fecal oocyst output on the 5th day post-infection by about 85.41%. Moreover, there is a significant reduction in the size of each parasite stage in the jejunal tissues of the infected-treated group with PAE. PAE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (TCA). E. papillata infection also induced an increase in the apoptotic cells expressed by caspase-3 which modulated after PAE treatment. Moreover, the mRNA expression of the goblet cell response gene, mucin (MUC2), was upregulated from 0.50 to 1.20-fold after treatment with PAE. Based on our results, PAE is a promising medicinal plant with anti-coccidial, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities and could be used as a food additive.
Background Mass casualty incidents (MCI) pose significant challenges to existing resources, entailing multiagency collaboration. Triage is a critical component in the management of MCIs, but the lack of a universally accepted triage system can hinder collaboration and lead to preventable loss of life. This multinational study uses validated patient cards (cases) based on real MCIs to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a novel Translational Triage Tool (TTT) in primary triage assessment of mass casualty victims. Methods Using established triage systems versus TTT, 163 participants (1575 times) triaged five patient cases. The outcomes were statistically compared. Results TTT demonstrated similar sensitivity to the Sieve primary triage method and higher sensitivity than the START primary triage system. However, the TTT algorithm had a lower specificity compared to Sieve and higher over-triage rates. Nevertheless, the TTT algorithm demonstrated several advantages due to its straightforward design, such as rapid assessment, without the need for additional instrumental interventions, enabling the engagement of non-medical personnel. Conclusions The TTT algorithm is a promising and feasible primary triage tool for MCIs. The high number of over-triages potentially impacts resource allocation, but the absence of under-triages eliminates preventable deaths and enables the use of other personal resources. Further research involving larger participant samples, time efficiency assessments, and real-world scenarios is needed to fully assess the TTT algorithm's practicality and effectiveness in diverse multiagency and multinational contexts.
The effects of carbohydrate-fatty acid interactions on food's functional properties have been studied for decades. However, under high-temperature cooking conditions, these materials can undergo unwanted reactions, forming numerous unwanted molecules and particulates that may be toxic to cells. The biological impact of carbohydrate-fatty acid complex-based materials is unclear. In this present investigation, we developed the fatty acid-starch complex using pan-frying. From the complex, nanostructures were obtained through a sequential process, including liquid-liquid extraction and sonication. Ethyl acetate was used as a solvent to separate the fraction from the fatty acid-starch complex. The morphological, thermal, and cytotoxic properties of myristic acid-starch complex-derived ethyl acetate fraction-based nanostructure (MS-EAF-Ns) were studied. The fabricated MS-EAF-Ns are spherical and have 10 to 90 nm diameters. According to the cell viability assessment results, MS-EAF-Ns cause cell death by 24% and 62% at 50 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the cells exposed to MS-EAF-Ns have red color-intact nuclei associated with necrotic death. Also, MS-EAF-Ns enormously deplete the mitochondria membrane potential by promoting intracellular ROS generation. MS-EAF-Ns exposed cells had dose-dependent downregulation in ATM, MDM2, and TNFSF10 gene expression levels. The MS-EAF-Ns exposure also upregulates the GSR and GSTA4 genes. In huMCs, exposure to MS-EAF-Ns can lead to harmful effects, including DNA damage, oxidative stress, defective cellular differentiation, and carcinogenesis.
The degradation of organic dye contaminants provides a promising approach for mitigating pollutants and addressing wastewater treatment. Despite the extensive research and development of various photocatalysts with the objective of effectively degrading organic pollutants, the challenge still persists. This paper introduces a facile and sustainable technique for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using kiwi fruit peel, as a bio-waste resource. A comprehensive analysis of the AgNPs was conducted using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. The observation of a color change and measurement of UV–vis absorbance at 435 nm confirmed the development of AgNPs. FE-SEM examination demonstrated that AgNPs have homogeneous distribution of cubic structure with 10 to 70 nm. The AgNPs demonstrated photocatalytic degradation potential of 94.2% for Congo red (CR) under visible light irradiation. Additionally, synthesized AgNPs exhibited concentration depended bactericidal activity. In conclusion, as synthesized AgNPs can efficiently purify wastewater and suppress pathogens due to their strong degrading activity, reusability, and antibacterial actions. Graphical Abstract
Background Evidence from the literature demonstrates that the risk of decreased handgrip strength is associated with various health issues, particularly in older persons. To make judgments regarding their general health condition that are well-informed for longevity, it is crucial to assess the risk level of decreased handgrip strength among community-dwelling older adult Indians. However, no study has examined the relationship between biological aging and the risk of decreased handgrip strength in Indian men and women aged 60 and older. The goal of the current study was to fill this gap in the literature. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we included 31,464 (15,098 men and 16,366 women) community-dwelling older adult Indians aged 60 years and older using data from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI). The LASI is the world’s most extensive and India’s first multidisciplinary, internationally harmonized, longitudinal aging study. It has enrolled 72,250 individuals aged 45 and above across all 28 states and 8 union territories of India. Secondary analysis of biological ageing was performed by stratifying for age groups (60–64, 65–69, 70–74, 75–79, 80–84, and 85 + years) for both genders. The dominant right and nondominant left handgrip strength was assessed using the portable Smedley’s Hand Dynamometer. All individuals had a dominant right hand. The adjusted logistic regression analysis assessed the association between biological ageing and the risk of decreased handgrip strength for both genders. Results Compared to those between the ages of 60–64, those at age 65 and those aged 85 and above had 1-fold and 12-fold odds of decreasing handgrip strength, respectively. Men 85 years or older had a 12-fold higher chance than women in the same age group of having decreased handgrip strength. Conclusions The results indicate that community-dwelling older adult Indians aged 65 years and older are significantly associated with a higher risk of decreased handgrip strength, especially among older men. The results of this study can help assess and implement handgrip strength measurement in medicine for older Indians as part of regular admission assessment, particularly for older men.
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