Pesticides and insecticides are two important classes of compounds that are mainly used for agricultural purposes. Organophosphates are one of the main chemical classes that make pesticides and insecticides and often exhibit toxicity towards living organisms. Nerve agents, a subset of organophosphorus substances, have been developed and employed in warfare as well as in terrorist threats and; consequently, their use is banned in multiple countries. Many methods were developed and still many are being developed. Recent development of nanomaterials has led to the development of new sensing techniques and devices for spontaneous detection of organophosphates. The present chapter discusses the nanomaterials and their properties used in organophosphate. Electrochemical and optical properties were discussed with different strategies. The uniqueness of different materials has been highlighted with respect to an application. Along with this, sensing mechanisms with different nanomaterials have been highlighted.
Quantum dots (QDs) are potential agents for solar energy conversion due to their size-dependent optoelectronic properties. QD-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are potential candidates to meet the growing demand for clean energy due to facile and low-cost fabrication techniques. High performance is expected in this type of solar cell architecture due to multiple exciton production and energy bandgap tuning in QDs. Various types of QDs have been explored, such as CdS/CdSe, CuInS2, PbS, Zn-Cu-In-Se and perovskite QDs (PQDs). Among all QDs, Cd chalcogenide-based sensitizers, especially CdS and CdSe (CdTe) are the preferred choices for solar cell devices due to easy fabrication, low cost, and performance. This chapter focuses on advances in QDSSCs like cosensitization of CdS/CdSe, introduction of passivation layer (ZnS), annealing temperature, counter electrode modification (Cu2S, CoS, and composites of Cu2S/rGO), polysulfide electrolyte modification, doping of QDs (e.g., Mn), and use of a wide bandgap semiconductor (TiO2/ZnO) to enhance the photon conversion efficiency (PCE). Additionally, PQDs and silicon tandem solar cells exhibit potential characteristics such as low production cost, high PCE (29.5%), and suitable architecture for large-scale production. Here, QDs sensitized solar cells, mechanism, working principle, unique properties, Cd chalcogenide-based, perovskite-based, and other QDs-based solar cells and recent modifications to enhance the PCE are reported.
This study presented a novel liquid-cooled heat sink based on constructal theory. An experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of boundary conditions, such as the mass flow rate (ṁ), on heat transfer rate (Qin) and pressure drop. Five cylinder heater cartridges were used in the experiment for 11 different mass flow rates (0.008292 < ṁ (kg/s) < 0.03307). Through numerical simulation, the effects of changing the number of clusters on heat transfer and pressure drop were studied. The results showed that the optimal combination of pressure drop and Nusselt number occurs in four clusters. According to the results, increasing the number of clusters can increase the Nusselt number by up to 11.98% and 13.62% for the highest (ṁ = 0.03307 kg/s) and lowest (ṁ = 0.008292 kg/s) mass flow rates, respectively. This work may lay the foundation for creating the next generation of thermal management systems for compact heat sources, such as the CPU in a self-driving car, robots and high-performance computers (HPC).
Concrete breakout failures with acutely damaged concrete are one of the main problems caused by expansion anchors under tensile loading. In this study, the prevention of concrete breakout is investigated by post-installed reinforcement (PRs). Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to look into the effect of the PRs on the expansion anchors subjected to tensile loads. The 3D Rigid Body Spring Model (RBSM), which is based on discrete analysis at the mesoscale, was used as supporting numerical research. On pullout capacity, displacement, failure mechanism, and concrete breakout geometry, both experimental and numerical analyses were undertaken. The numerical analysis also looked at internal stress, strain, and concrete cracking. In general, the anchors with the PRs had steady displacement (ductile) and less brittle failure compared to the anchors without the PRs. The significant finding was in the failure mode, where severe concrete damage and concrete breakout failures were prevented by the PRs. The internal tensile stress of concrete was concentrated around the wedges of the anchors (interlocked area). The contribution of the PRs was shown by high strain values at around their mid-length. Additionally, due to the PRs, concrete cracking was less, mostly generated in the region between an anchor and its PRs. The utilization of PRs could be a method to protect concrete from breakout failure.
We have investigated chemical desulfurization of subbituminous coals to prepare ultra-low sulfur coal for the converter process in the steel industry. Herein, we report the oxidative desulfurization of thiophene contained in two subbituminous coals using two peroxides, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure analysis was carried out to follow the change in sulfur form during oxidation. Sulfur form distribution was determined quantitatively by deconvolution of the pyrite, thiophene, sulfoxide, sulfone, and sulfate peaks in the Sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of the raw and oxidized samples using the least-squares method. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide, oxidation was promoted only at 60 °C. Furthermore, an oxidation treatment was carried out at 20 °C using peracetic acid generated by mixing hydrogen peroxide and acetic anhydride, which selectively reacted with the sulfur atoms. Treatment with peracetic acid promoted the oxidation of thiophene and improved the desulfurization extent with low carbon loss. Sulfone-type sulfur formed by the oxidation of thiophene could be completely volatilized by heat treatment at 400 °C under a N2 gas stream. By combining pre-oxidation with peracetic acid treatment and pyrolysis, 74 % of total sulfur and 72 % of thiophene could be removed while recovering approximately 90 % of total carbon as char.
Biochar application to agricultural crop fields could mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases, especially methane (CH4). However, the mitigation mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanistic effects of biochar on CH4 production and oxidation in incubated rice paddy soils collected from multiple sites in Thailand (Ratcha Buri at Chom Bueng [CB] and Damnoen Saduak [DS] and Prachin Buri at Ban Sang [BS]). Prior to incubation, CB and BS soils were mixed with and without 2 % (w/w) biochar, while DS soil was mixed with and without 2 % and 4 % (w/w) biochar. Soils were incubated for 40 days with no oxygen to examine anaerobic CH4 production and with oxygen to examine aerobic CH4 oxidation. Addition of 2 % biochar to CB, DS, and BS soils decreased total CH4 production by 21 %, 15 %, and 9 % respectively, compared to soils without biochar. This reduction was resulted from the changes in soils including enhanced abundances of electron acceptors (nitrate [NO3⁻], ferric iron [Fe³⁺], and sulfate [SO4²⁻]) and electron donors (organic acids). With active reduction of these oxidants, methanogenesis was reduced. Under oxic condition, biochar stimulated CH4 oxidation, particularly during the early period of incubation. CH4 oxidation activity during the first 11–day of incubation was enhanced by an average of 15 % relative to soil with no biochar. Therefore, we conclude that the mechanism by which biochar in paddy soils mitigates CH4 emissions is by reducing CH4 production and increasing CH4 oxidation.
Thermoplastic starch (TPS) based on the mixture of cassava starch and glycerol was prepared and blended with the natural rubber (NR) and epoxidized NR (ENR). The resulting blend was further filled with fertilizer grade 16–16–16. The effects of fertilizer concentration on the properties of the blends and the growthability of maize seedling were investigated and characterized. In case of the specific properties of the blends, it was found that the blends based on NR and ENR matrices exhibited a reduction in tensile properties upon increasing the fertilizer concentration, while the solubility, water absorption and biodegrability were improved. In particular, the blends of TPS/ENR with fertilizer showed better properties than that of the blend with NR due to the physical interaction of hydrogen bonding among the polymer molecules as confirmed from ATR-FTIR. Although both the blends were found to be decomposed within a period of two weeks, the releasing efficiencies significantly affected the growth of maize seedlings. According to the growthability based on count and greenness of leaves, shoot and root biomasses and phytotoxicity of fertilizers, the TPS/ENR with 80 phr of fertilizer represented the suitable one for growing the seedlings with proper release ability of fertilizer, especially the N, P and K elements during planting. Relating the water swelling of 180 %, it was found that the approximately 90 % of N, 70 % of P and 95 % of K were released before the complete decomposition degradation. This newly controlled release fertilizer (CRF) system can be applied for several plants by knowing the fertilizer concentration and ease of shape designing.
Recently, fillers from renewable resources or agricultural wastes have been considered as the alternative fillers to reduce the environmental problems. Therefore, utilization of the fly ashes (FA) collected from the electric power plants as the reinforcing filler in natural rubber (NR) composites was carried out and compared these high (HCaO) and low (LCaO) calcium oxides with carbon black (CB). The FA concentration was varied up to an optimum loading of 1000 parts per hundred rubber (phr) by using melt mixing technique. Particle size and chemical composition of HCaO and LCaO were reported and the properties of NR composites in terms of cure characteristics, Payne effect, mechanical and dynamical properties together with morphologies were examined. It was found that the addition of HCaO significantly reduced the vulcanization time of the NR composites, while the one with LCaO provided higher degree of reinforcement efficiency to the NR matrix. It clearly supports the relation of storage modulus as a function of strain sweep and their morphologies, which are the major requirements in case of composites. Upon increasing of FA loading, NR has changed its role from rubber matrix to an adhesive binder and therefore the Young’s modulus was found to be strongly changed. FA can be used to replace CB in NR composites with the composition ratios starting from 1:2–1:6 phr. Although, CB exhibited a slightly better reinforcing effect than FA, based on the lowered glass transition temperature (Tg), Tan delta (Tan δ) exhibited the same elasticity and CB can be replaced in case of several CB-based composites, particularly, the artificial wood, car stopper and tire industries to produce rubber belt and bead.
Multi-objective topology optimization (TO) has been adopted recently in the thermal-fluidic problem, resulting in cooling devices with non-intuitive and complex flow paths, yet revealing a significant improvement in the thermal performance. Although previous works utilized the multi-objective TO to design a cooling plate for the Battery Thermal Management Systems (BTMS), the effect of the heat loads from different charge/discharge rates on the optimized flow paths has not been fully assessed. Therefore, the present study implemented the two-step numerical framework coupling battery heat generation model with the multi-objective TO. We found that the lumped battery model could provide a reasonable estimation of the heat generation, especially at the C-rates between 1C and 3C, where the maximum deviation between numerical prediction and experiment was <2 %. In addition, the optimized cooling plate was affected greatly by the choices of heat loads and weighted objective functions. A higher heat load led to a more complex channel and narrower flow paths. In addition, by comparing with the benchmark model of the straight channels, the optimized model could reduce the pressure drop by 20–40 %. Furthermore, the hot spots in the system became more alleviated thanks to the optimized flow channels. The maximum temperature in the optimized model could be lower than that of the benchmark by up to 14 K at the charge rate of 3C. Additionally, by performing a cross-verification, the optimized plate under a high C-rate could reduce the maximum temperature to be lower than the allowable temperature of 323.15 K even when it was used under other charge rate conditions. Thus, the optimized plate under a high charge rate was found to be suitable for other C-rates as well. In summary, the present work established and validated the effective numerical framework which could be used to design a high-performance BTMS.
Utilizing an effective corrugation shape in plate heat exchanger (PHE) results in a substantial increase in thermal performance and a more compact design for these devices. This article presents, for the first time in the literature, an innovative PHE design that employs symmetric airfoil profile corrugation (airfoil corrugated PHE). As a consequence of the airfoil corrugation, unique flow channel is formed inside the PHE, which results in lower pressure drop while maintaining the equivalent heat transfer rate as the commonly used commercial sinusoidal PHE. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of the performance of airfoil corrugated PHE, essential parameters such as corrugated angle, corrugated pitch, mirror arrangement, and airfoil profile were examined over Reynolds number ranges of 4,600–8,400. Compared to sinusoidal corrugation, the innovative PHE has roughly 17% reduced pressure drop while keeping the same amount of heat transfer, as determined by a computational analysis of thermal and hydraulic parameters. 60° was the optimal corrugated angle, demonstrating a 10% increase in overall heat transfer coefficient (OHTC) compared to both 30° and 90°. In addition, the NACA 0030 airfoil profile obtained the highest thermal performance, with an OHTC that was roughly 12% greater than that of the NACA 0020 and NACA 0025 profiles. Nonetheless, as one of the geometrical parameters changes, the pressure drop is proportionate to the increase in heat transfer. NACA 0030 saw a pressure drop increase of around 33.7%, the greatest of any case. The geometrical parametric study indicates that the ideal configuration of the innovative PHE consists of NACA 0030 airfoil profile, chevron angle of 60° degrees, single mirror arrangement, and corrugated pitch of 3.14 mm, as shown by the maximum performance of evaluation criterion (PEC) value of 1.08.
The air-side performance of a novel alternating cross-section flattened (ACF) tube heat exchanger was experimentally investigated. Three heat exchangers with an in-line tube arrangement and two tube rows were used as the test sections. The tube configuration is the highlight of the research work. ACF tubes with hydraulic diameters of 4.16, 4.75, and 5.20 mm were assembled as the heat exchanger. The experimental results showed that the ACF tube heat exchangers exhibited a prominent heat transfer characteristic with a reasonable pressure loss penalty. Performance evaluation criteria, as a nondimensional parameter, were employed to assess the heat exchanger performance. Finally, the j and f of the ACF tube heat exchanger were compared with those obtained from various shapes of noncircular tube and fin tube heat exchangers. All the details are examined and discussed in this study.
This paper provides iterative construction of a common solution associated with a class of equilibrium problems and split convex feasibility problems. In particular, we are interested in the equilibrium problems defined with respect to the pseudomonotone and Lipschitz-type continuous equilibrium problem together with the generalized split null point problems in real Hilbert spaces. We propose an iterative algorithm that combines the hybrid extragradient method with the inertial acceleration method. The analysis of the proposed algorithm comprises theoretical results concerning strong convergence under suitable set of constraints and numerical results concerning the viability of the proposed algorithm with respect to various real-world applications.
In the context of evolving a circular economy for the palm-oil industry, this article presents a study of oil-palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) conversion and utilization within a palm-oil mill. Pilot-scale hydrothermal carbonization (HTC), washing and gasification processes, as well as anaerobic digestion of the HTC liquid product were investigated. Results showed that the fuel properties of hydrochars had improved. In terms of air gasification, char and tar products accounted for 22.7–33.8 % and 17.3–28.8 %, respectively while CO2/O2 gasification resulted in 31.3–36.6 % for char and 8.5–30.8 % for tar. In general, hydrochar (HT-EFB) gave the lower tar content compared to washed hydrochar (HTW-EFB) due to the catalytic effects of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Major tar components from HT-EFB and HTW-EFB were aliphatic and monoaromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. Syngas products from air gasification of hydrochars were 39.9–56.5 %, 11.4–21.4 %, and 9.0–14.4 % for CO, H2 and CH4, respectively while CO2/O2 gasification products yielded 45.1–56.6 %, 11.6–24.3 %, and 9.4–14.0 % for CO, H2 and CH4, respectively. The lower heating value of syngas was in the range of 4.7–6.6 MJ/Nm³ and cold gas efficiency was approximately 39.1–55.1 %. The cumulative methane from the liquid products amounted to 213.8 and 154.5 L/kg COD for food/microorganism ratios of 1:2 and 1:3, respectively. The mass and energy balance showed that the whole process is promising for future commercialization.
Thailand Tokamak-1 (TT-1) will be a small research tokamak being operated by the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) in Nakhonnayok province, Thailand. The device partly uses the infrastructure of the former HT-6M alongside new hardware. Auxiliary heating sources, such as ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRH) and/or neutral beam injection (NBI), maybe also included in subsequent operations. This study aims to investigate the characteristics and behavior of fast ions produced by NBI heating in various operation scenarios. This work employs the collisionless Lorentz-orbit (LORBIT) code for simulating the motion of ions in the TT-1. When a hydrogen ion (H+) with an energy of 20 keV travels in the plasma with the plasma current of 100 kA, the toroidal magnetic field of 1.0 T, the average Larmor radius is found to approximately be 0.48 cm for a passing transit particle and 2.17 cm for a trapped particle. The Larmor radius reduces as the plasma current is increased or a stronger magnetic field is used. Furthermore, when the ion has pitch angles in the range of 85∘−100∘, the ion orbit clearly demonstrates a banana shape with a width and height of 7.0 and 18.8 cm, respectively. The size of the banana orbit shows an inverse correlation with the plasma current. In the last part of this work, we investigate the motion of ions that had initial positions along the paths of a co-current and counter-current NBI. It is shown that the number of lost ions can be reduced if the initial radial positions of the ions are in the range of 0.64–0.68 m.
Reusing the waste materials generated from demolishing existing infrastructures can play a vital role in minimizing their detrimental environmental impacts. A substantial portion of the total construction waste comprises brick wastes (B-waste). It has already been established that recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) fabricated using recycled clay brick aggregates (CBA) lacks adequate compressive strength and corresponding strain. This limits the application of RAC-CBA to mainly non-load-bearing works. External strengthening of RAC using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets has been found beneficial in terms of the improvement in ultimate compressive strength and ultimate strain. With massive costs associated with synthetic FRP sheets, this study proposes the use of Fiberglass Chopped Strand Mat (FCSM) sheets as a low-cost alternative to synthetic FRP sheets to improve compressive strength and behavior of RAC-CBA. To accomplish this, RAC was constructed with three different waste brick aggregates, mainly hollow-clay, solid-clay, and hydraulic cement-clay interlocking bricks. Typical cylinders of size 150 mm in diameter × 300 mm in height were cast and strengthened using 2, 4, and 6 layers of FCSM sheets. It was found that FCSM sheets successfully enhanced the ultimate compressive strength and strain of RAC-CBA irrespective of the type of constituting brick aggregates. Further, a correlation in the improvement of axial compressive behavior was found with the number of external FCSM sheets. The accuracy of existing ultimate strength-strain models was assessed in predicting the experimental ultimate stress and strain. In general, none of the existing models exhibited a consistent trend in predicting the axial behavior of RAC-CBA. Hence, the ultimate stress–strain models were proposed.
To improve the process efficiency for lactic acid production, catalytic conversion of raw cane sugar and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) to lactic acid under subcritical water condition over Lanthanide catalysts was investigated. The effect of different types of Lanthanide (III) ion catalyst namely YbCl3, ErCl3, and CeCl3 on enhancement of lactic acid (LA) yield, selectivity, turnover number [TON] and turnover frequency [TOF] was studied in the aqueous solution. The results were compared with conventional catalytic reaction for lactic acid production in strongly alkaline solution. For raw sugar-to-lactic acid conversion, ErCl3 catalyst exhibited greatest performance at 240 °C for 15 min and achieve the highest TOF and TON with 91.8% LA yield (91.79%theoretical yield) and 90.5% selectivity. In case of SCB conversion, aqueous ammonia solution (LHWAA) was the best pretreatment to eliminate lignin and hemicellulose and attain cellulose-rich fraction. The LHWAA pretreated SCB conversion to lactic acid over YbCl3 at 240 °C for 15 min achieved supreme performance for highest TOF and TON and accomplished 98.7% LA yield (88.81% theoretical yield) and 94.2% selectivity with trace amount of formic acid, acetic acid and levulinic acid as side products. The findings provided crucial information for a combined cellulose hydrolysis step with catalytic conversion of mono- and polysaccharides to lactic acid in a very shorter time relative to conventional catalytic process and biotechnological fermentation process. Lanthanide catalysts, especially ErCl3 and YbCl3, were found as promising alternative environmentally friendly catalysts providing a potential cost-efficient process of lactic acid from bioresources in a larger scale production.
Gibbons (Hylobatidae) are species highly adapted to tree-top living. Thus, their movement can be compromised due to the negative impact roads have on canopy habitats. In this study, we built two single-rope artificial canopy bridges and a ladder bridge at two out of five locations where a group of white-handed gibbons ( Hylobates lar ) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand were known to cross a main park road. We compared road crossing frequencies, home-range characteristics, and other ad libitum observations during the periods before and after bridge installation. After bridge construction was complete, the group took 10 weeks to use the single rope bridges to navigate over the road. During 442 group follow observation hours and 539 bridge observation hours, 131 crosses over the road were observed. The adult female usually crossed the road first, and the group showed a clear preference for the single-rope bridges over the ladder bridge (92 crossings versus 5). Gibbons crossed the road approximately once a day and crossed mostly at the bridge locations both before and after bridge construction. There were not significant changes in crossing rates from before (crossing between the tree branches and on the ground) to after bridge installation at both the places where bridges were installed (crossing using the bridges). Nonetheless, with more crossings being in the bridges than on the ground after bridge installation, crossings were presumably safer. These findings suggest that gibbons will cross a road on the ground, risking predation, encountering people, or being hit by a vehicle, but artificial canopy bridges provided a safer crossing option since gibbons no longer crossed on the road or jumped across wide gaps at the two locations where bridges were constructed. Maintaining canopy connectivity over roads using artificial bridges logically improves home range connectivity, potentially gene flow, and safety of canopy dwellers. However, connecting areas which were not previously connected should be considered carefully. The new connection could disrupt group dynamics, particularly for species that defend territories, such as gibbons.
Direct ethanol fuel cells are promising technologies for zero-carbon energy production. Operating the cell properly both at the anode and cathode is a critical step in achieving high cell performance. In this research, the significance of the anode operating parameters compared to that of the cathode on the cell performance and fuel crossover was investigated by using a full factorial design of experiment. The factors considered were cell temperature, ethanol flow rate and concentration, and oxygen flow rate and concentration. The analysis of variance showed that the anode operating parameters had contributed more to the direct ethanol fuel cell’s performance and the ethanol crossover than did the cathode operating parameters. The three most influential parameters, enhancing both the power density and the ethanol crossover, were the cell temperature, ethanol concentration, and their interaction. The increases in the oxygen flow rate and concentration alleviated the negative effect on the ethanol crossover.
Nets are used across a wide variety of food production landscapes to control avian pests typically resulting in deaths of entangled birds. However, the impact of nets on bird populations is a human-wildlife conflict that remains mostly unquantified. Here, we examined the scale of netting in the central plains of Thailand, a region dominated by ricefields, among which aquaculture ponds are increasingly interspersed. Nets/exclusion types, number of individual birds and species caught were recorded on 1312 road-survey transects (2-km length x 0.4-km width). We also interviewed 104 local farmers. The transect sampling took place in late-September 2020, and from December 2020 to April 2021. Each survey transect was visited only once. We found 1881 nets and barriers of parallel cords on 196 (15%) of the transects. Counts of nets and barriers were~13 times higher than expected in aquaculture ponds based on their areal proportion, and vertical nets were the most commonly observed type (n = 1299). We documented 735 individuals of at least 45 bird species caught in the nets and parallel cords, including many species not regarded as pests. Approximately 20% of individuals caught in ricefields and 95% at aquaculture ponds were non-target bycatch. Our interviews suggested that 55% of respondents thought nets were ineffective while only 6% thought they were effective. We suggest imposing a ban on netting, considering other mitigation strategies to reduce conflicts such as promoting the use of parallel cords, and prioritizing conservation actions with community participation. Further studies should investigate the efficacy of less deleterious deterrents.
People with physical impairments can help solve energy problems by participating in diverse energy-saving behaviors, such as switching off lights or turning off an air conditioner when not in use; however, they may struggle to participate in some behaviors due to mobility impairments. This study aims to examine factors that impact the energy-saving behaviors of high school students with physical impairments. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was used to test whether attitudes towards energy-saving behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control could affect intentions, which then leads to performance of energy-saving behaviors. The participants were 330 high school students with physical impairments in Thailand. A questionnaire was employed to measure energy-saving behaviors and TPB constructs. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to validate all study variables; structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to test causal relationships among TPB constructs and energy-saving behaviors. The results showed that the TPB could be used to explain the energy-saving behaviors of students with physical impairments, that subjective norms were the most significant predictor of behavioral intentions, and that intentions significantly impacted energy-saving behaviors. While perceived behavioral control did not have a direct effect on behaviors, it had a significant effect on intentions. Under the TPB construct, of the studied variables, attitude had the lowest power to predict students’ intentions to perform the concerned behaviors; however, the impact of attitude was still statistically significant. The results suggest that all TPB variables can predict energy-saving behaviors of high school students with physical impairments, but their power to predict the behaviors is different. To promote student participation in energy-saving behaviors, it is important to create subjective norms and eliminate obstacles that students with physical impairments might face when performing energy-saving behaviors.
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