In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a new variable control chart under the resubmitted sampling scheme. The resubmission of a sample allows retaking a sample to pass through inspection/ analyzing if there is a question on the inspection of the sample at any stage. The proposed control chart includes the X-bar chart as a special case. The performance of the proposed control chart is assessed by determining the in-control and out-of-control average run lengths for the various parametric settings. For illustrative purposes, a real-life example is presented to explain a detailed implementation of the proposed control chart.
There is growing evidence that the spiritual/religious (S/R) beliefs of war veterans change, even years after the war. Researchers need to explore these changes in different cultures and religions. This study therefore identified S/R changes in Iranian war veterans after three decades of war between Iran and Iraq. The participants were veterans (n = 14), their relatives (n = 5: wives  and children ), and service providers and decision and policymakers (n = 12) at the Foundation for Martyrs and Veterans’ Affairs (N = 31) in Iran. We collected data with semistructured interviews and used an inductive approach to carry out thematic content analysis (Graneheim et al. in Nurse Education Today, 56, 29–34 2017). Two key themes emerged, namely, questioning S/R values and finding new S/R beliefs and concepts. Qualitative assessment of S/R status in Iranian war veterans should assist service providers in making referrals, evaluations, and interventions, which could include spiritual and culture-based care.
This study describes the preparation, physicochemical characterization, controlled release, and bioavailability of chitosan nanoparticles (CTSNPs) loaded with salvianolic acid B (SlB) and tanshinone IIA (TnA). It also aimed to assess their antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogen. SlB and TnA were loaded on CTSNPs with ionic gelation method. They were then in vitro characterized via infrared and electron microscopy. SlB/TnA/CTSNPs showed excellent colloidal properties (size 129.3 nm and zeta-potential + 31.8 mV); the encapsulation efficiency (EE) of SlB/CTSNPs and TnA/CTSNPs was 51.43 and 88.36%, respectively. The loading capacity (LC) of SlB/CTSNPs and TnA/CTSNPs was 7.85 and 12.61%, respectively. SlB and Tan II were released in vitro from SlB/TnA/CTSNPs for over 45 h, demonstrating that these NPs are effective at regulating the release of SlB and TnA. SlB/TnA/CTSNPs outperformed chitosan, SlB, and TnA alone in terms of bactericidal efficacy against foodborne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium). S. aureus was more susceptible than S. Typhimurium. After only 10 h of exposure, the scanning microscopic pictures of bacteria treated with SlB/TnA/CTSNPs revealed that cells had completely exploded or lysed. In terms of health and food safety, these eco-friendly nanosystems could be a desirable substitute for synthetic preservatives.
Key Clinical Message Folliculitis decalvans (FD) is a rare neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia of the scalp that manifest with inflammation, pruritus, pustules, and tufted hair. Most dermatologist treat FD with topical or oral antibiotics. We recommend considering treatment with biologics to preserve and stabilize the ongoing inflammatory process in moderate to severe FD.
This paper proposes applying a novel deep‐learning model, TBDLNet, to recognize CT images to classify multidrug‐resistant and drug‐sensitive tuberculosis automatically. The pre‐trained ResNet50 is selected to extract features. Three randomized neural networks are used to alleviate the overfitting problem. The ensemble of three RNNs is applied to boost the robustness via majority voting. The proposed model is evaluated by five‐fold cross‐validation. Five indexes are selected in this paper, which are accuracy, sensitivity, precision, F1‐score, and specificity. The TBDLNet achieves 0.9822 accuracy, 0.9815 specificity, 0.9823 precision, 0.9829 sensitivity, and 0.9826 F1‐score, respectively. The TBDLNet is suitable for classifying multidrug‐resistant tuberculosis and drug‐sensitive tuberculosis. It can detect multidrug‐resistant pulmonary tuberculosis as early as possible, which helps to adjust the treatment plan in time and improve the treatment effect.
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as pivotal regulators of gene expression, contributing significantly to a diverse range of cellular processes, including apoptosis. One such lncRNA is NEAT1, which is elevated in several types of cancer and aid in cancer growth. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that the knockdown of NEAT1 can inhibit cancer cells proliferation, movement, and infiltration while enhancing apoptosis. This article explores the function of lncRNA NEAT1 knockdown in regulating apoptosis across multiple cancer types. We explore the existing understanding of NEAT1's involvement in the progression of malignant conditions, including its structure and functions. Additionally, we investigate the molecular mechanisms by which NEAT1 modulates the cell cycle, cellular proliferation, apoptosis, movement, and infiltration in diverse cancer types, including acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, glioma, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, we review the recent studies investigating the therapeutic potential of NEAT1 knockdown in cancer treatment. Targeting the lncRNA NEAT1 presents a promising therapeutic approach for treating cancer. It has shown the ability to suppress cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion while promoting apoptosis in various cancer types.
A BSTRACT Background Preparatory courses are frequently utilized strategies to assist, simplify, prepare, and give receivers a better understanding of varied knowledge. Nonetheless, data on this topic are rare throughout the Middle East, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Objectives This study aimed to look at the progress of students who took the “Obstetrics and Gynecology (OBGYN) Made Easy” course, a preparatory course for the fifth-year medical students studying OBGYN for the first time, at our institute. Materials and Methods This is a non-experimental study performed in August 2021 among fifth-year medical students who attended the course at our university institute in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. An online questionnaire with 13 questions covering various course contents was used to collect data. Each student completed the identical questionnaire twice with randomized assortment: as a pretest and as a post-test of their knowledge. The qualitative data were described using the mean and standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered significant when used to determine whether the difference in scores was statistically significant. Results This research involved a total of 66 female students. These students’ mean pre-course test score was 7.32 ± 1.807 out of 13. The mean post-course test score was 9.52 ± 2.054. There was a significant difference between the pre- and post-course outcomes when they were compared ( P = 0.01). Conclusion According to this study’s findings, the students who took the course improved their post-course exam performance. The “OBGYN Made Easy” course should be offered for medical students to assist and guide them in preparing for their rotation in OBGYN.
Background Awareness and knowledge about the endocrown technique contribute to the delivery of quality dental care and restorative long-term success. Dentists must be aware and knowledgeable about endocrowns as they offer a conservative approach, aid in maintaining tooth integrity, and have become a promising option in use recently. Aim This study evaluated the current state of knowledge, and the understanding of the endocrown technique as post-endodontic management among senior undergraduate dental students and interns who have studied the theoretical and laboratory procedures of endocrown as part of the curriculum. Materials and methods This cross-sectional investigation was conducted through an online questionnaire consisting of 21 questions in three parts. The first part consisted of demographic information; the second encompassed knowledge and attitude; and the third part evaluated skills regarding endocrown technique. A total of 164 voluntary dental students and dental intern questionnaires were evaluated. Factor analysis was used to identify the domains for knowledge and skill. Results In this study, the knowledge and skills of undergraduate dental students toward endocrowns were assessed. The reliability statistics showed favorable internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha values: 0.513 for knowledge and 0.729 for skill component 1). Significant correlations were noticed between knowledge component 1 and skill component 1 (r = 0.647, p < 0.001), knowledge component 1 and skill component 2 (r = 0.333, p < 0.001), and knowledge component 1 and skill component 3 (r = 0.260, p = 0.001). These findings emphasize the importance of evaluating students’ understanding of endocrown. Significant differences were found among intern participants, fifth- and sixth-year dental students in component 1 of the knowledge (p-value<0.001), and all skills components. Conclusion Dental students have varying levels of knowledge and skills related to endocrown. Gaps in knowledge and skills have been detected, which dictates intervention actions, including curricular changes and training workshops.
The cost and profit efficiency of all Indian life insurance businesses is examined in this article using the data development analysis technique for the years 2017 through 2021. The Tobit regression is also used in this study to look into how well life insurance performs in relation to company factors. Cost efficiency scores were higher than profit efficiency ratings, as shown by the study. According to this, one of the most important inefficiencies for Indian life insurance is revenue inefficiency. In addition, state-owned life insurance firm in India is more profitable and economical than private ones, according to this study. In general, joint life insurers are more cost-effective than domestic life insurance companies, whereas domestic life insurance companies are more profit-efficient than joint venture insurers. The profitability and cost-effectiveness of life insurers are positively impacted by the claims ratio. While there are favorable effects of the distribution ratio and market share, respectively , effects on profit and cost-effectiveness. During the study period, the Indian life insurance businesses were relatively cost and profit efficient, according to empirical evidence. This study is the first to examine the profit and cost efficiencies of all Indian life insurance businesses. Decision-makers, top management, regulators, and other industry stakeholders will all gain from the research.
In this study, the simultaneous determination of bilastine and montelukast, two recently approved co‐formulated antihistaminic medications, was accomplished using a quick, sensitive, environmentally friendly, and reasonably priced synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic approach for the first time. Enhancement of the method's sensitivity down to nanogram levels was achieved by the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (1.0% w/v) as a micellar system. According to the results, bilastine and montelukast's fluorescence was measured at 255.3 and 355.3 nm, respectively, using Δλ of 40.0 nm and distilled water as a green diluting solvent. With respect to the concentration ranges of bilastine (5.0–300.0 ng/ml) and montelukast (50.0–1000.0 ng/ml), the method showed excellent linearity ( r ≥ 0.9998). The results showed that the suggested method is highly sensitive, with detection limits of 1.42 and 13.74 ng/ml for bilastine and montelukast, respectively. Within‐run precisions (intra‐ and interday) per cent relative standard deviations (RSD) for both analytes were <0.59%. With high percentage recoveries and low percentage RSD values, the designed approach was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of the cited medications in their dosage form and human plasma samples. To evaluate the green profile of the suggested method, an analytical GREENNESS metric approach (AGREE) and green analytical procedure index (GAPI) metric tools were used. These two methods for evaluating greenness confirmed that the developed method met the highest number of green requirements, recommending its use as a green substitute for the routine analysis of the studied drugs. The proposed approach was validated according to ICHQ2 (R1) guidelines.
This work aims to develop a size-dependent mathematical model to analyze the nonclassical size-dependent vibration response of viscoelastic perforated higher-order nanobeams (VEPHONBs) embedded in an elastic foundation and subjected to dynamic moving loads. The nonclassical strain gradient theory is adopted to capture the microstructure as well as the size length-scales effects. The Kelvin–Voigt viscoelastic material model is utilized to simulate the internal material damping. Regular square perforation pattern is considered. Shear deformation effect due to cutouts is incorporated by adopting the higher-order shear deformation beam theory. The moving load is portrayed by point load and harmonic type. The Hamilton approach is applied to derive the dynamic equations of motion considering viscoelasticity as well as size dependency effects. Based on the Navier and Newmark techniques, a mixed analytical–numerical solution is developed and verified by comparing the obtained results with the available results in the literature. Parametric studies are conducted to show the influence of the different design parameters on the transient vibration behavior of viscoelastic perforated higher-order nanobeams under moving load. The proposed procedure is supportive in the analysis and design of perforated viscoelastic NEMS structures under moving load.
Background Migraine is a typical cripple issue of the brain identified with cerebral pain which is an indication of numerous health conditions. About 18% of women (27 million) and 6% of men (10 million) are afflicted by migraine in the United States. Based on a case-control study, to explore the different risk factors, causing migraine in females and examine the association between risk factors and migraine. Methods A sample of 1055 individuals were selected in different areas of Lahore from September 2019 to March 2020. The information was obtained by using the direct interview method and questionnaire method. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were carried out in data analysis. Results Among 1055 individuals 740 cases and 315 controls were included. In a binary logistic regression model, physical activities, stress, summer season, menstruation and morning were the risk factors that cause migraine and these were found to be positively significant with the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval of odds ratios (1.399; 1.122–1.746), (1.510; 1.187–1.922), (1.595; 1.374–1.851), (1.513; 1.247–1.836) and (1.309; 1.028–1.665) respectively. Nausea, isolation and back head pain were caused by migraine and these were found positively significant with the odds ratios and 95% confidence interval of odds ratios(1.290; 1.122–1.484), (1.882; 1.617–2.190) and (1.285; 1.123–1.471) respectively. Conclusions Stress, physical Activities and Menstruation increase the risk of migraine but weight loss, Breakfast, lunch, thirst, injury and Second trimester during pregnancy reduce the risk of migraine.
Leveraging the Conservation of Resources theory and Job Demands-Resources model, this study explores how Environmental Transformational Leadership (ETL) affects Workplace Well-Being (WWB) through the mediating influence of Work Meaningfulness (WM). Additionally, it examines the moderation effects of Leader–Follower Value Congruence (LFVC) and Person-Group Fit (PGF). Data from 271 US industrial employees spanning multiple management levels reveal ETL’s indirect effects on WWB via WM. LFVC serves as a moderating factor, regulating ETL’s indirect influence on WWB. Similarly, PGF moderates the relationship between WM and WWB. Strategies that appoint environmentally conscious leaders can enhance WWB through an uplift in WM. Moreover, strengthening LFVC and PGF yields positive results as they augment leadership and reinforce the beneficial ETL-WM-WWB dynamic. The paper concludes with insights for future research, alongside discussions on study limitations and implications.
Near-surface velocity variations are the main cause of seismic scattering in exploration seismology. Many studies create the near-surface heterogeneity as velocity models that have random velocity distribution, random objects, or irregular subsurface topography to study and mitigate the resultant scattering effects of the near-surface layer. Von Kármán (self-similar) method is a known method in the literatures for modeling heterogeneous earth in a statistical way. This research modifies the self-similar method, and throughout the work, it has proven that the self-similar provides a robust method for generating realistic near-surface velocity models with different spatial velocity distributions. This study creates four-velocity models with simple subsurface layering and structure, three of which include a near-surface layer in three different degrees of velocity heterogeneity. Synthetic acoustic seismic reflections are produced for the four-velocity models to investigate the resultant scattering effects of the near-surface velocity heterogeneity on the quality of seismic waveform coherency. Spectacular negative observations are witnessed of the near-surface layer involvement to the quality of seismic reflection coherency that increases as velocity dramatically varies. Subtracting the scattering noise, which is modeled using an exact heterogeneous model, enhances seismic reflection coherency for the subsurface layers, but waveforms that are affected by scattering must be reconstructed for true amplitude and seismic waveform analysis.
The study of nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids is gaining conceivable importance due to their characteristics of being so useful in various daily life applications. This study deals with the motion of an electro conductive, incompressible magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) hybrid nanofluid across a stretched surface of variable thickness. The objective of this study is motivated by a number of manufacturing and machine-building applications. However, no attempt has been made to establish MHD flow of hybrid nanofluid along a stretching sheet (a sheet with variable thickness) while keeping an eye on the impact of Hall current. In real-life situations, variable-thickness sheets are crucial in the creation of flexible containers and, additionally, in the layout and production of aerospace wings and auto body components. This study extends our fundamental knowledge of fluid dynamics and heat transmission in intricate systems. Recognizing how magnetic effects, nanofluid traits and heat conduction interplay can help researchers make valuable developments and breakthroughs in the areas of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. Hall effects are vital for applications including conductive fluids or plasma as they provide a more precise understanding of the movement of charged nanoparticles in the presence of a magnetic field. For hybrid nanofluid, we mixed the nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and copper (TiO 2 –Cu) into the water. Due to the low noxiousness and chemical strength of titanium dioxide-based nanoparticles, they have great uses in research. We also consider the effects of Cattaneo–Christov heat flux to analyze the heat transfer of nanoparticles and Hall current effects, which make the flow three-dimensional. For both fundamental research and real-world applications, it is of the utmost importance to take into account the Hall effects and Cattaneo–Christov heat flux in the MHD flow analysis of hybrid nanofluid over stretched surface. It makes it possible to describe the phenomenon more precisely and can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of numerous technical procedures. By using appropriate transformations, the equations that govern the flow are transformed into a system of non-dimensional ordinary differential equations. The non-dimensional system of equations has been solved numerically by using the ND Solve command in Mathematica Software, which is based on a multistep predictor-corrector method. For velocity and temperature profiles, the interplay of numerous developing parameters on flow is depicted graphically. The Hall parameter enhances the axial velocity but reduces the transverse velocity, while the magnetic field has the opposite effects. The temperature increases with the volume fraction of nanoparticles but decreases with the thermal relaxation parameter.
Classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are two major fields of physics that describe reality through the structure of matter. Classical mechanics describes reality as deterministic, while quantum mechanics describes it as probabilistic. Since both describe reality by separate unrelated laws of physics, there is no theory fits both fields into a single framework that makes the two mathematically compatible in the context of the standard model of physics. During the advancement in both fields, a dimensionless number that has been incredibly mysterious and unbelievably important starts to appear everywhere in quantum physics. This number is called the fine structure constant. Here we show how the human heart plays an important physiological role in generating the numeric value of this mysterious number which turns out to be a port of entry to a new undiscovered dimension of time differs from the cosmological time. This finding led us to discover a mechanism in the universe that mirrors the physiological process of the heart to generate similar hidden dimension of time for the universe, which turns out to be the key that connects both classical mechanic & quantum mechanics in single framework
This paper proposes a maiden intelligent controller design that consists of a Fuzzy Proportional–Integral–Derivative–Double Derivative (FPIDD²) controller whose parameters are fine-tuned using the Gradient-Based Optimization algorithm (GBO). The proposed FPIDD² regulator is employed as a secondary regulator for stabilizing the combined voltage and frequency loops in a two-area interconnected power system. It has been shown that the GBO optimization algorithm outperforms other optimization strategies such as the Chimp Optimization Algorithm (ChOA), the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), and the Gorilla Troops Optimization algorithm (GTO). The proposed FPIDD² controller is tested in a conventional two-area power system. Then, the investigation is expanded to a two-area hybrid system, with each area comprising a mix of traditional (thermal, gas, and hydraulic power plants) and renewable generation units (wind and solar power). Additionally, the proposed controller takes into account system nonlinearities (such as generation rate limitations, governor deadband, and communication time delays), system uncertainties, and load/renewables fluctuations. In the two tested systems, the dynamic responses of each system demonstrate that FPIDD² has a superior ability to attenuate the deviations in voltage and frequency in both areas of the system. In the studied conventional system, the proposed FPIDD² controller is compared with a PID controller tuned by the Multi-Objective Non-Linear Threshold Accepting Algorithm (MONLTA), which has been presented in the literature, and a Fuzzy PID (FPID) controller tuned by GBO. In the investigated hybrid system, the suggested FPIDD² regulator is compared to a GBO-tuned Integral Derivative-Tilted (ID-T) controller and FPID controller. As a fitness function (FF) for the GBO, the criteria of minimizing the integral time absolute error (ITAE) are applied. The results are presented in the form of MATLAB/SIMULINK time-domain simulations.
Low bone mass, degeneration of bone tissue, and disruption of bone microarchitecture are all symptoms of the disease osteoporosis, which can decrease bone strength and increase the risk of fractures. The main objective of the current study was to use a phospholipid-based phase separation in-situ gel (PPSG) in combination with an alendronate sodium nanoemulsion (ALS-NE) to help prevent bone resorption in rats. The effect of factors such as concentrations of the ALS aqueous solution, surfactant Plurol Oleique CC 497, and Maisine CC oil on nanoemulsion characteristics such as stability index and globular size was investigated using an l-optimal coordinate exchange statistical design. Injectable PPSG with the best nanoemulsion formulation was tested for viscosity, gel strength, water absorption, and in-vitro ALS release. ALS retention in the rats’ muscles was measured after 30 days. The droplet size and stability index of the optimal nanoemulsion were 90 ± 2.0 nm and 85 ± 1.9%, respectively. When mixed with water, the optimal ALS-NE–loaded PPSG became viscous and achieved 36 seconds of gel strength, which was adequate for an injectable in-situ formulation. In comparison with the ALS solution–loaded in-situ gel, the newly created optimal ALS-NE–loaded PPSG produced the sustained and regulated release of ALS; hence, a higher percentage of ALS remained in rats’ muscles after 30 days. PPSG that has been loaded with an ALS-NE may therefore be a more auspicious, productive, and effective platform for osteoporosis treatment than conventional oral forms.
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